• Title/Summary/Keyword: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition

Search Result 114, Processing Time 0.114 seconds

Membrane Proteins Involved in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Tumor Invasion: Studies on TMPRSS4 and TM4SF5

  • Kim, Semi;Lee, Jung Weon
    • Genomics & Informatics
    • /
    • v.12 no.1
    • /
    • pp.12-20
    • /
    • 2014
  • The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one mechanism by which cells with mesenchymal features can be generated and is a fundamental event in morphogenesis. Recently, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells from the primary tumor are now thought to be initiated by the developmental process termed the EMT, whereby epithelial cells lose cell polarity and cell-cell interactions, and gain mesenchymal phenotypes with increased migratory and invasive properties. The EMT is believed to be an important step in metastasis and is implicated in cancer progression, although the influence of the EMT in clinical specimens has been debated. This review presents the recent results of two cell surface proteins, the functions and underlying mechanisms of which have recently begun to be demonstrated, as novel regulators of the molecular networks that induce the EMT and cancer progression.

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induces CAP2 Expression Promoting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Liver Cancer Cells

  • Yoon, Sarah;Shin, Boram;Woo, Hyun Goo
    • Molecules and Cells
    • /
    • v.44 no.8
    • /
    • pp.569-579
    • /
    • 2021
  • Cyclase-associated protein 2 (CAP2) has been addressed as a candidate biomarker in various cancer types. Previously, we have shown that CAP2 is expressed during multi-step hepatocarcinogenesis; however, its underlying mechanisms in liver cancer cells are not fully elucidated yet. Here, we demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced CAP2 expression, and which promoted migration and invasion of liver cancer cells. We also found that the ER stress-induced CAP2 expression is mediated through activation of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) and the promotor binding of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2). In addition, we further demonstrated that CAP2 expression promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through activation of Rac1 and ERK. In conclusion, we suggest that ER stress induces CAP2 expression promoting EMT in liver cancer cells. Our results shed light on the novel functions of CAP2 in the metastatic process of liver cancer cells.

Honokiol Suppresses Renal Cancer Cells' Metastasis via Dual-Blocking Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem Cell Properties through Modulating miR-141/ZEB2 Signaling

  • Li, Weidong;Wang, Qian;Su, Qiaozhen;Ma, Dandan;An, Chang;Ma, Lei;Liang, Hongfeng
    • Molecules and Cells
    • /
    • v.37 no.5
    • /
    • pp.383-388
    • /
    • 2014
  • Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is associated with a high frequency of metastasis and only few therapies substantially prolong survival. Honokiol, isolated from Magnolia spp. bark, has been shown to exhibit pleiotropic anticancer effects in many cancer types. However, whether honokiol could suppress RCC metastasis has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we found that honokiol suppressed renal cancer cells' metastasis via dual-blocking epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. In addition, honokiol inhibited tumor growth in vivo. It was found that honokiol could upregulate miR-141, which targeted ZEB2 and modulated ZEB2 expression. Honokiol reversed EMT and suppressed CSC properties partly through the miR-141/ZEB2 axis. Our study suggested that honokiol may be a suitable therapeutic strategy for RCC treatment.

Phosphorylation and Reorganization of Keratin Networks: Implications for Carcinogenesis and Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition

  • Kim, Hyun Ji;Choi, Won Jun;Lee, Chang Hoon
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
    • /
    • v.23 no.4
    • /
    • pp.301-312
    • /
    • 2015
  • Metastasis is one of hallmarks of cancer and a major cause of cancer death. Combatting metastasis is highly challenging. To overcome these difficulties, researchers have focused on physical properties of metastatic cancer cells. Metastatic cancer cells from patients are softer than benign cancer or normal cells. Changes of viscoelasticity of cancer cells are related to the keratin network. Unexpectedly, keratin network is dynamic and regulation of keratin network is important to the metastasis of cancer. Keratin is composed of heteropolymer of type I and II. Keratin connects from the plasma membrane to nucleus. Several proteins including kinases, and protein phosphatases bind to keratin intermediate filaments. Several endogenous compounds or toxic compounds induce phosphorylation and reorganization of keratin network in cancer cells, leading to increased migration. Continuous phosphorylation of keratin results in loss of keratin, which is one of the features of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Therefore, several proteins involved in phosphorylation and reorganization of keratin also have a role in EMT. It is likely that compounds controlling phosphorylation and reorganization of keratin are potential candidates for combating EMT and metastasis.

Autophagy inhibition by cudraxanthone D regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition in SCC25 cells

  • Yu, Su-Bin;Bang, Tae-Hyun;Kang, Hae-Mi;Park, Bong-Soo;Kim, In-Ryoung
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
    • /
    • v.46 no.1
    • /
    • pp.30-38
    • /
    • 2021
  • Cudraxanthone D (CD) is a natural xanthone compound derived from the root barks of Cudrania tricuspidata. However, the biological functions of CD in human metabolism have been rarely reported until now. Autophagy is the self-degradation process related to cancer cell metastasis. Here, we elucidated the effects of CD on human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells' metastatic ability. We confirmed that CD effectively decreased the proliferation and viability of SCC25 human OSCC cells in time- and dose-dependent manners. Also, the metastasis phenotype of the SCC25 cell (migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition [EMT]) was inhibited by CD. To further investigate the mechanism by which CD inhibited the metastatic capacity, we detected the relationship between EMT and autophagy in the SCC25 cells. The results revealed that CD inhibited the metastasis of the SCC25 cells by attenuating autophagy. Thus, our findings produced a potential novel agent for the treatment of human OSCC metastasis.

High-mobility Group Box 1 Induces the Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition, Glycolytic Switch, and Mitochondrial Repression via Snail Activation (HMGB1/Snail cascade에 의한 epithelial-mesenchymal transition 및 glycolytic switch, mitochondrial repression 유도)

  • Lee, Su Yeon;Ju, Min Kyung;Jeon, Hyun Min;Kim, Cho Hee;Park, Hye Gyeong;Kang, Ho Sung
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.29 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1179-1191
    • /
    • 2019
  • Cancer cells undergo the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and show unique oncogenic metabolic phenotypes such as the glycolytic switch (Warburg effect) which are important for tumor development and progression. The EMT is a critical process for tumor invasion and metastasis. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a chromatin-associated nuclear protein, but it acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule when released from dying cells and immune cells. HMGB1 induces the EMT, as well as invasion and metastasis, thereby contributing to tumor progression. Here, we show that HMGB1 induced the EMT by activating Snail. In addition, the HMGB1/Snail cascade was found induce a glycolytic switch. HMGB1 also suppressed mitochondrial respiration and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity by a Snail-dependent reduction in the expression of the COX subunits COXVIIa and COXVIIc. HMGB1 also upregulated the expression of several key glycolytic enzymes, including hexokinase 2 (HK2), phosphofructokinase-2/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 2 (PFKFB2), and phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1), in a Snail-dependent manner. However, HMGB1 was found to regulate some other glycolytic enzymes including lactate dehydrogenases A and B (LDHA and LDHB), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4 (MCT1 and 4) in a Snail-independent manner. Transfection with short hairpin RNAs against HK2, PFKFB2, and PGAM1 prevented the HMGB1-induced EMT, indicating that glycolysis is associated with HMGB1-induced EMT. These findings demonstrate that HMGB1 signaling induces the EMT, glycolytic switch, and mitochondrial repression via Snail activation.

Anti-metastatic mechanism of mountain cultivated wild ginseng in human cancer cell line

  • Jang, S.B.;Lim, C.S.;Jang, J.H.;Kwon, K.R.
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
    • /
    • v.13 no.1
    • /
    • pp.37-43
    • /
    • 2010
  • Objective : Ginseng is one of most widely used herbal medicine. Ginseng showed anti-metastasis activities. However, its molecular mechanisms of action are unknown. So we want to report the wild ginseng repress which plays key roles in neoplastic epithelial-mesenchymal transition process. Methods : Treatment of the human colorectal carcinoma LOVO cells and human gastric carcinoma SNU601 cells with the increased concentrations of cultivated wild ginseng extracts resulted in a gradual decrease in the AXIN2 gene expression. Results : Metastasis-suppressor genes, maspin and nm23 was not affected by the treatment of ginseng extracts in LOVO cells. Moreover, the mountain cultivated wild ginseng or mountain wild ginseng are similar in their inhibitory effects on the expression of AXIN2 gene, but are substantially stronger than cultivated ginseng. Conclusion : We described the novel mechanism of wild ginseng-induced anti-metastasis activity by repressing the expression of AXIN2 gene that plays key roles in epithelial-mesenchymal transition process.

Autophagy down-regulates NLRP3-dependent inflammatory response of intestinal epithelial cells under nutrient deprivation

  • Yun, Yewon;Baek, Ahruem;Kim, Dong-Eun
    • BMB Reports
    • /
    • v.54 no.5
    • /
    • pp.260-265
    • /
    • 2021
  • Dysregulation of inflammation induced by noninfectious stress conditions, such as nutrient deprivation, causes tissue damage and intestinal permeability, resulting in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases. We studied the effect of autophagy on cytokine secretion related to intestinal permeability under nutrient deprivation. Autophagy removes NLRP3 inflammasomes via ubiquitin-mediated degradation under starvation. When autophagy was inhibited, starvation-induced NLRP3 inflammasomes and their product, IL-1β, were significantly enhanced. A prolonged nutrient deprivation resulted in an increased epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), leading to intestinal permeability. Under nutrient deprivation, IL-17E/25, which is secreted by IL-1β, demolished the intestinal epithelial barrier. Our results suggest that an upregulation of autophagy maintains the intestinal barrier by suppressing the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and the release of their products, including pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-17E/25, under nutrient deprivation.

Silencing of Twist Expression by RNA Interference Suppresses Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition, Invasion, and Metastasis of Ovarian Cancer

  • Wang, Wen-Shuang;Yang, Xing-Sheng;Xia, Min;Jiang, Hai-Yang;Hou, Jian-Qing
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.13 no.9
    • /
    • pp.4435-4439
    • /
    • 2012
  • Purpose: This study aimed to explore the role of the Twist gene in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of ovarian cancer. Methods: An RNA interference plasmid expressing a small interfering RNA (siRNA)-targeting Twist (Twist siRNA vector) was designed, constructed, and transfected into the human ovarian cancer cell line A2780. Transfection efficiency was assessed under a fluorescence microscope. Changes in the expression of Twist mRNA in A2780 after transfection with the pGenesil Twist shRNA plasmid were analyzed through RT-PCR. MTT assays and adhesion experiments were applied to determine changes in proliferation and adhesion ability of A2870 after transfection with the Twist shRNA plasmid. Changes in the expression of the E-cadherin and N-cadherin proteins in A2780 after transfection with the Twist shRNA plasmid were analyzed using Western blotting. Result: The restructuring plasmid pGenesil-Twist shRNA was constructed successfully. After 48 h of culture, 80% of the cells expressed high-intensity GFP fluorescence and stability. The expression of Twist decreased significantly after the transfection of the Twist shRNA plasmid (P<0.05). Proliferation of the transfected Twist shRNA cells showed no difference with that of the A2780-nontransfection or A2780-si-control groups (P>0.05) but the adhesion ability of A2780 decreased dramatically (P<0.05). Expression of the E-cadherin protein increased, whereas that of the N-cadherin protein decreased compared with that in the A2780-nontransfection or A2780-si-control groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Twist is essential for epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion, and metastasis of ovarian cancer.

Lipoteichoic Acid Isolated from Staphylococcus aureus Induces Both Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Wound Healing in HaCaT Cells

  • Kim, Seongjae;Kim, Hyeoung-Eun;Kang, Boyeon;Lee, Youn-Woo;Kim, Hangeun;Chung, Dae Kyun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.27 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1820-1826
    • /
    • 2017
  • Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall component of gram-positive bacteria, is recognized by Toll-like receptor 2, expressed on certain mammalian cell surfaces, initiating signaling cascades that include nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-${\kappa}B$) and mitogen-activated protein kinase. There are many structural and functional varieties of LTA, which vary according to the different species of gram-positive bacteria that produce them. In this study, we examined whether LTA isolated from Staphylococcus aureus (aLTA) affects the expression of junction proteins in keratinocytes. In HaCaT cells, tight junction-related gene expression was not affected by aLTA, whereas adherens junction-related gene expression was modified. High doses of aLTA induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2, which in turn induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HaCaT cells. When cells were given a low dose of aLTA, however, NF-${\kappa}B$ was activated and the total cell population increased. Taken together, our study suggests that LTA from S. aureus infections in the skin may contribute both to the outbreak of EMT-mediated carcinogenesis and to the genesis of wound healing in a dose-dependent manner.