• Title, Summary, Keyword: Expected efficiency

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Relationship between Aboveground Biomass and Measures of Structure and Species Diversity in Quercus mongolica-Dominated Forest, Mt. Jeombong (점봉산 신갈나무군락의 생물종 다양성, 구조 다양성과 지상부 생물량의 관계에 대한 연구)

  • Jeong, Heon Mo;Jang, Inyoung;Hong, Seungbum
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.1022-1031
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    • 2016
  • Relationships of standing biomass with biodiversity and structural diversity were examined in the Quercus mongolica-dominated forest in Mt. Jeombong, Gangwon-do. We examined the standing biomass of the Q. mongolia community ($311.1ton{\cdot}ha^{-1}$) from 2004 to 2013, and the observed major species were Q. mongoilca, Carpinus cordata, Tilia amurensis whose standing biomasses were $206.3ton{\cdot}ha^{-1}$ (66.3%), $36.9ton{\cdot}ha^{-1}$ (11.9%), and $30.6ton{\cdot}ha^{-1}$ (9.8%), respectively. Although the number of Q. mongolica individuals was very small compared with total density, the reason that Q. mongolica showed the most biomass than other species is due to greater average diameter at breast height (DBH) and the higher number of $DBH{\geq}50cm$ individuals. We calculated the range of Shannon index (H') and Shannon evenness (J') in the Q. mongolica community, and they were gradually increased in time, showing 2.015~2.166, 0.673~0.736, respectively. Their H' and J' showed positive linear relationships with their standing biomass. This indicates that the spatial distribution of the standing biomass in Q. mongoilca community becomes more homogeneous with time and this homogenization appears in various species in the community. In addition, we estimated biomass-species index (BS) and abundance-biomass-speciesdiversity (ABS) and they also showed gradual increase in time, ranging from 3.746 to 3.811 and from 4.781 to 5.028, respectively. Their indices showed positive linear relationships with the standing biomass. This can be explained from the observations of variations in standing biomass with tree diameters as the differences in the average standing biomass in the community have reduced gradually in time. Moreover, it is expected that increase in the structure diversity of the Q. mongoilca community enhances the efficiency in carbon sequestration and productivity, so the community can be developed to a more sustainable ecosystem with more abundant resources. Thus, applications of uneven-aged plantations with considerations of local ecological properties can be a very efficient reforestation method to ensure stable support of biodiversity and productivity.

A Study on the Development of Lightweight Seat Cushion Extension Module (경량형 시트 쿠션 익스텐션 모듈 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Hanseul;Choi, Seongkyu;Park, Sang-Chul;Lim, Heon-pil;Oh, Eu-Ddeum
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.200-207
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    • 2016
  • The automotive seat is an important component that moves in sync with the driver and is actively being developed with various new functions. The aim of this work is to develop a lightweight seat cushion extension module using a lightweight material. To this end, a structural strength analysis, vertical strength test, and durability test were conducted. In the structural analysis, the maximum value of deformation under vertical load was 4.98 mm at the front of the upper panel. The maximum stress was approximately 105 MPa, which occurred at the point of contact between the upper and lower panels of the module. The vertical strength test showed a maximum vertical deformation of 5.31 mm under a vertical load, which differed from the analysis results by approximately 6.45%. The structural safety of the product was verified by the fact that it showed no harmful deformation or damage during operation after the vertical strength test and a durability test for 20,000 cycles. Furthermore, the use of engineering plastics made it possible to reduce the weight by approximately 30% compared to existing products. The lack of damage after tests verified the passenger safety, strength, and rigidity of the product. The results are expected to be applied for improving environmental and fuel efficiency regulations and preventing accidents due to driver fatigue. The applications of this module could be expanded various types of vehicles, as well as other industries in which eco-friendly and lightweight materials are used.

A Study on the UIC(University & Industry Collaboration) Model for Global New Business (글로벌 사업 진출을 위한 산학협력 협업촉진모델: 경남 G대학 GTEP 사업 실험사례연구)

  • Baek, Jong-ok;Park, Sang-hyeok;Seol, Byung-moon
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.69-80
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    • 2015
  • This can be promoted collaboration environment for the system and the system is very important for competitiveness, it is equipped. If so, could work in collaboration with members of the organization to promote collaboration what factors? Organizational collaboration and cooperation of many people working, or worth pursuing common goals by sharing information and processes to improve labor productivity, defined as collaboration. Factors that promote collaboration are shared visions, the organization's principles and rules that reflect the visions, on-line system developments, and communication methods. First, it embodies the vision shared by the more sympathetic members are active and voluntary participation in the activities of the organization can be achieved. Second, the members are aware of all the rules and principles of a united whole is accepted and leads to good performance. In addition, the ability to share sensitive business activities for self-development and also lead to work to make this a regular activity to create a team that can collaborate to help the environment and the atmosphere. Third, a systematic construction of the online collaboration system is made efficient and rapid task. According to Student team and A corporation we knew that Cloud services and social media, low-cost, high-efficiency services could achieve. The introduction of the latest information technology changes, the members of the organization's systems and active participation can take advantage of continuing education must be made. Fourth, the company to inform people both inside and outside of the organization to communicate actively to change the image of the company activities, the creation of corporate performance is very important to figure. Reflects the latest trend to actively use social media to communicate the effort is needed. For development of systematic collaboration promoting model steps to meet the organizational role. First, the Chief Executive Officer to make a firm and clear vision of the organization members to propagate the faith, empathy gives a sense of belonging should be able to have. Second, middle managers, CEO's vision is to systematically propagate the organizers rules and principles to establish a system would create. Third, general operatives internalize the vision of the company stating that the role of outside companies must adhere. The purpose of this study was well done in collaboration organizations promoting factors for strategic alignment model based on the golden circle and collaboration to understand and reflect the latest trends in information technology tools to take advantage of smart work and business know how student teams through case analysis will derive the success factors. This is the foundation for future empirical studies are expected to be present.

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Development and Utility Evaluation of Portable Respiration Training Device for Image-guided Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) (영상유도 체부정위방사선 치료시 호흡동조를 위한 휴대형 호흡연습장치의 개발 및 유용성 평가)

  • Hwang, Seon Bung;Park, Mun Kyu;Park, Seung Woo;Cho, Yu Ra;Lee, Dong Han;Jung, Hai Jo;Ji, Young Hoon;Kwon, Soo-Il
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.264-270
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    • 2014
  • This study developed a portable respiratory training device to improve breathing stability, which is an important element in using the CyberKnife Synchrony respiratory tracking device, one of the typical Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SRT) devices. It produced an interface for users to be able to select one of two displays, a graph type and a bar type, supported an auditory system that helps them expect next respiration by improving a sense of rhythm of their respiratory period, and provided comfortable respiratory inducement. By targeting 5 applicants and applying individual respiratory period detected through a self-developed program, it acquired signal data of 'guide respiration' that induces breathing through signal data gained from 'free respiration' and an auditory system, and evaluated the usability by comparing deviation average values of respiratory period and respiratory amplitude. It could be identified that respiratory period decreased $55.74{\pm}0.14%$ compared to free respiration, and respiratory amplitude decreased $28.12{\pm}0.10%$ compared to free respiration, which confirmed the consistency and stability of respiratory. SBRT, developed based on these results, using the portable respiratory training device, for liver cancer or lung cancer, is evaluated to be able to help reduce delayed treatment time due to respiratory instability and improve treatment accuracy, and if it could be applied to developing respiratory training applications targeting an android-based portable device in the future, even use convenience and economic efficiency are expected.

Sewage Treatment Using a Double Media Reed Constructed Wetland (복층여재 갈대 인공습지에 의한 생활하수 처리)

  • Seo, Jeoung-Yoon
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.379-388
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    • 2014
  • A sewage was treated using a serially combined vertical(VFCW) and horizontal flow double media (sand and zeolite for VFCW and sand and waste oyster-shell for HFCW) reed constructed wetland(HFCW) with intermittent feeding (see Fig. 1). The sewage was fed into the reed constructed wetland for 10 minutes every 6 hours at the hydraulic load of $314L/m^2{\cdot}day$. The summarized results were as follows: pH values in the effluent depended very heavily on oyster-shell height filled in the HFCW. They were maintained at less than pH 6.24 when the height of the oyster-shell layer was 200 mm. Influent DO(oxygen demand) values(average 0.19 mg/L) were increased in the VFCW(average 7.65 mg/L) and decreased again in the HFCW(average 6.49 mg/L). They were higher in the winter than in the summer. The OTR(oxygen transfer rate) was $57.15g\;O_2/m^2{\cdot}day$ in the VFCW and $5.65g\;O_2/m^2{\cdot}day$ in the HFCW. The removal efficiency of $NH_4{^+}$-N was 80.17%(6.01 $NH_4{^+}$-N mg/L in the effluent). It was lower than that in the case where only zeolite was filled in the reed constructed wetland. But it was expected that treated sewage effluent using a double media reed constructed wetland with 300 mm zeolite layer could stably meet the Korean treated sewage effluent standard(20 mg T-N/L). Average removal efficiencies were SS 88.09%, BOD 88.12%, $COD_{Cr}$ 83.11%, $COD_{Mn}$ 85.58%, T-N 57.21%, $NH_4{^+}$-N 80.17%, T-P 86.73%. Nearly, The concentration of $NO_3{^-}$-N in the effluent of the VFCW was decreased in that of the HFCW. More than half of T-N in the effluent was $NO_3{^-}$-N(7.92 mg/L) but the concentration of $NO_2{^-}$-N in the effluent was average 0.90 mg/L. The removal efficiencies of T-P were 93.24%, 86.30% and 55.44% at the height of the oyster-shell-filled constructed wetland of 800 mm, 500 mm and 200 mm, respectively and therefore, they were proportional to oyster-shell height filled in the HFCW.

Changes in Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Tetradium daniellii (Benn.) T. G. Hartley Container Seedlings by Shading Treatment (차광처리에 따른 쉬나무 용기묘의 생장 및 생리적 특성 변화)

  • Choi, Kyu Seong;Sung, Hwan In;Kim, Jong Jin;Song, Ki Seon
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.130-140
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted in order to closely examine about optimum shading for superior seedling production a container seedling of Tetradium daniellii, which is being increased the demand for a seedling due to being used for alternative energy, ecological restoration and honey plant. The experiment of investigating the optimum shading on T. daniellii was carried out by using plastic container types (350 ml/cavity) for the forestry facility cultivation. The shading level was treated with full sunlight and with 35%, 55%, 75% of the full sunlight. As a result of having surveyed height and root collar diameter growth of a containerized seedling in T. daniellii, a case of the shading experiment showed a noticeably high value was indicated in the full sunlight. It was surveyed that the stronger shading level leads to the lower growth value. Root development was most active in full sunlight. Dry matter production, it was investigated to be the highest in full sunlight. It was surveyed to be the similar tendency to the outcome of height and root collar diameter growth. QI, which is index of showing the quality of a seedling, stood at 0.98 in full sunlight, thereby having been investigated to be the highest. As for the chlorophyll content in a seedling, the highest chlorophyll content was indicated in the 75% shading treatment with the relatively highest shading level. The photosynthetic rate and the water use efficiency were surveyed to be the highest in full sunlight with 8.48 μmolCO2·m-2s-1, 1.40 μmolCO2·mmolm-1H2O, respectively. As a result of surveying the whole experiment, optimum shading level for superior seedling production a container seedling of T. daniellii is determined in full sunlight (0%). It is expected that this will be used as a basic data for mass production.

Simulation Approach for the Tracing the Marine Pollution Using Multi-Remote Sensing Data (다중 원격탐사 자료를 활용한 해양 오염 추적 모의 실험 방안에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Keunyong;Kim, Euihyun;Choi, Jun Myoung;Shin, Jisun;Kim, Wonkook;Lee, Kwang-Jae;Son, Young Baek;Ryu, Joo-Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.36 no.2_2
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    • pp.249-261
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    • 2020
  • Coastal monitoring using multiple platforms/sensors is a very important tools for accurately understanding the changes in offshore marine environment and disaster with high temporal and spatial resolutions. However, integrated observation studies using multiple platforms and sensors are insufficient, and none of them have been evaluated for efficiency and limitation of convergence. In this study, we aimed to suggest an integrated observation method with multi-remote sensing platform and sensors, and to diagnose the utility and limitation. Integrated in situ surveys were conducted using Rhodamine WT fluorescent dye to simulate various marine disasters. In September 2019, the distribution and movement of RWT dye patches were detected using satellite (Kompsat-2/3/3A, Landsat-8 OLI, Sentinel-3 OLCI and GOCI), unmanned aircraft (Mavic 2 pro and Inspire 2), and manned aircraft platforms after injecting fluorescent dye into the waters of the South Sea-Yeosu Sea. The initial patch size of the RWT dye was 2,600 ㎡ and spread to 62,000 ㎡ about 138 minutes later. The RWT patches gradually moved southwestward from the point where they were first released,similar to the pattern of tidal current flowing southwest as the tides gradually decreased. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) image showed highest resolution in terms of spatial and time resolution, but the coverage area was the narrowest. In the case of satellite images, the coverage area was wide, but there were some limitations compared to other platforms in terms of operability due to the long cycle of revisiting. For Sentinel-3 OLCI and GOCI, the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were the highest, but small fluorescent dye detection was limited in terms of spatial resolution. In the case of hyperspectral sensor mounted on manned aircraft, the spectral resolution was the highest, but this was also somewhat limited in terms of operability. From this simulation approach, multi-platform integrated observation was able to confirm that time,space and spectral resolution could be significantly improved. In the future, if this study results are linked to coastal numerical models, it will be possible to predict the transport and diffusion of contaminants, and it is expected that it can contribute to improving model accuracy by using them as input and verification data of the numerical models.

A Study on changes in Hitting-pressing forms of flat plate in Gyeongju area -Short beating, Medium beating plate, long beating plate and Stamped-roof tile- (경주지역 평기와의 타날형태 변화에 대한 검토 -단판·중판·인장 그리고 장판으로-)

  • Cha, Soon-chul
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.40
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    • pp.73-104
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    • 2007
  • Centering around ruins recognized of being relatively early stage related to flat tile and brick, excavated in Silla capital area, the study attempted elementary approach to seek the appearance time of every remain through comparing them from the excavated cases and production methods of Short beating, Medium beating plate, Long beating plate and Stamped-roof tile. Gyeongju began to use the short beating plate made of tile-less plates or tile plate and increased its quantity. That is deemed to be due to efficiency of beating plate making methods, and moreover to be limited only for use in the palace castle and offices. That is, making short beating plates is presumed to be made merely under some definite objectives. Medium beating plate has been spread to the whole country since Silla and Baekje united. Differently from Koguryo and Baekje, Silla had its unique Beating-plates making technology available for mass-production, which was spread to the whole country and resulted in disappearing of Koguryo and Baekje technology. Long beating plate was not nearly founded in Gyeongju area, but flat tile and common tile excavated in Sachunwang Temple site and Samrang Temple 3rd remains are known. In the outskirts of Gyeongju, long beating plate appeared between the latter half of 8C and the beginning of 9C. Until now, different views have raised to appearance of long beating plate of Unified Silla, which is expected to be clarified under the situation excavated by position relations. Stamped-roof title in Gyeongju is estimated as used after the datum point year 679. While in Baekje area, five stems and branches were involved, in Silla area, code or sign was shown much. The difference between two areas would be due to each other factory, and especially the marked contents werenot letters, which means it had been changed from Baekje s existing-methods. That is, it says the production environment changed owing to Silla's merging. And stamped-roof tile was temporarily used in Gyeongju but soon disappeared, which was because Silla beating plates made under cylinder-shaped tile barrel(圓筒瓦桶) and hitting-pressing of Medium beating plate had beenspread to the whole country, so the production technology of Koguryo and Baekje was naturally dismissed. In consequence, the mergence by Silla brought about unification of each nation's special technology.

A Study on the Stability and Sludge Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Torrefied Wood Flour Natural Material Based Coagulant (반탄화목분 천연재료 혼합응집제의 안정성 및 슬러지 에너지화 가능성 평가에 관한 연구)

  • PARK, Hae Keum;KANG, Seog Goo
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.271-282
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    • 2020
  • Sewage treatment plants are social infrastructure of cities. The sewage distribution rate in Korea is reaching 94% based on the sewage statistics based in the year of 2017. In Korean sewage treatment plants, use of PAC (Poly Aluminum Chloride) accounts for 58%. It contains a large amount of impurities (heavy metal) according to the quality standards, however, there have been insufficient efforts to reinforce the standards or technically improve the quality, which resulted in secondary pollution problems from injecting excessive coagulant. Also, the increase in the use of chemicals is leading to the increases in the annual amount of sewage sludge generated in 2017 and the need to reuse sludge. As such, this study aims to verify the possibility of reusing sludge by evaluating the stability of heavy metals based on the injection of coagulant mixture during water treatment which uses the torrefield wood powder and natural materials, and evaluating the sedimentation and heating value of sewage sludge. As a result of analyzing heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, As, Pb, and Ni) from the coagulant mixture and PAC (10%), Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Hg were not detected. As for Zn, while its concentration notified in the quality standards for drinking water is 3 mg/L, only a small amount of 0.007 mg/L was detected in the coagulant mixture. Maximum amounts of over double amounts of Fe, Cu, and As were found with PAC (10%) compared to the coagulant mixture. Also, an analysis of sludge sedimentation found that the coagulant mixture showed a better performance of up to double the speed of the conventional coagulant, PAC (10%). The dry-basis lower heating value of sewage sludge produced by injecting the coagulant mixture was 3,378 kcal/kg, while that of sewage sludge generated due to PAC (10%) was 3,171 kcal/kg; although both coagulants met the requirements to be used as auxiliary fuel at thermal power plants, the coagulant mixture developed in this study could secure heating values 200 kal/kg higher than the counterpart. Therefore, utilization of the coagulant mixture for water treatment rather than PAC (10%) is expected to be more environmentally stable and effective, as it helps generating sludge with better stability against heavy metals, having a faster sludge sedimentation, and higher heating value.

A Study on Intelligent Value Chain Network System based on Firms' Information (기업정보 기반 지능형 밸류체인 네트워크 시스템에 관한 연구)

  • Sung, Tae-Eung;Kim, Kang-Hoe;Moon, Young-Su;Lee, Ho-Shin
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.67-88
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    • 2018
  • Until recently, as we recognize the significance of sustainable growth and competitiveness of small-and-medium sized enterprises (SMEs), governmental support for tangible resources such as R&D, manpower, funds, etc. has been mainly provided. However, it is also true that the inefficiency of support systems such as underestimated or redundant support has been raised because there exist conflicting policies in terms of appropriateness, effectiveness and efficiency of business support. From the perspective of the government or a company, we believe that due to limited resources of SMEs technology development and capacity enhancement through collaboration with external sources is the basis for creating competitive advantage for companies, and also emphasize value creation activities for it. This is why value chain network analysis is necessary in order to analyze inter-company deal relationships from a series of value chains and visualize results through establishing knowledge ecosystems at the corporate level. There exist Technology Opportunity Discovery (TOD) system that provides information on relevant products or technology status of companies with patents through retrievals over patent, product, or company name, CRETOP and KISLINE which both allow to view company (financial) information and credit information, but there exists no online system that provides a list of similar (competitive) companies based on the analysis of value chain network or information on potential clients or demanders that can have business deals in future. Therefore, we focus on the "Value Chain Network System (VCNS)", a support partner for planning the corporate business strategy developed and managed by KISTI, and investigate the types of embedded network-based analysis modules, databases (D/Bs) to support them, and how to utilize the system efficiently. Further we explore the function of network visualization in intelligent value chain analysis system which becomes the core information to understand industrial structure ystem and to develop a company's new product development. In order for a company to have the competitive superiority over other companies, it is necessary to identify who are the competitors with patents or products currently being produced, and searching for similar companies or competitors by each type of industry is the key to securing competitiveness in the commercialization of the target company. In addition, transaction information, which becomes business activity between companies, plays an important role in providing information regarding potential customers when both parties enter similar fields together. Identifying a competitor at the enterprise or industry level by using a network map based on such inter-company sales information can be implemented as a core module of value chain analysis. The Value Chain Network System (VCNS) combines the concepts of value chain and industrial structure analysis with corporate information simply collected to date, so that it can grasp not only the market competition situation of individual companies but also the value chain relationship of a specific industry. Especially, it can be useful as an information analysis tool at the corporate level such as identification of industry structure, identification of competitor trends, analysis of competitors, locating suppliers (sellers) and demanders (buyers), industry trends by item, finding promising items, finding new entrants, finding core companies and items by value chain, and recognizing the patents with corresponding companies, etc. In addition, based on the objectivity and reliability of the analysis results from transaction deals information and financial data, it is expected that value chain network system will be utilized for various purposes such as information support for business evaluation, R&D decision support and mid-term or short-term demand forecasting, in particular to more than 15,000 member companies in Korea, employees in R&D service sectors government-funded research institutes and public organizations. In order to strengthen business competitiveness of companies, technology, patent and market information have been provided so far mainly by government agencies and private research-and-development service companies. This service has been presented in frames of patent analysis (mainly for rating, quantitative analysis) or market analysis (for market prediction and demand forecasting based on market reports). However, there was a limitation to solving the lack of information, which is one of the difficulties that firms in Korea often face in the stage of commercialization. In particular, it is much more difficult to obtain information about competitors and potential candidates. In this study, the real-time value chain analysis and visualization service module based on the proposed network map and the data in hands is compared with the expected market share, estimated sales volume, contact information (which implies potential suppliers for raw material / parts, and potential demanders for complete products / modules). In future research, we intend to carry out the in-depth research for further investigating the indices of competitive factors through participation of research subjects and newly developing competitive indices for competitors or substitute items, and to additively promoting with data mining techniques and algorithms for improving the performance of VCNS.