• Title/Summary/Keyword: Experimental Infection

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Experimental human infection with Asian Taenia saginata metacestodes obtained from naturally infected Korean domestic pigs (돼지 간에 자연감염된 Asian Taenia Saginata 낭미충의 인체감염 실험)

  • 엄기선;임한종
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.21-24
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    • 1992
  • The infectivity of metacestodes of Asian Taenia saginata, now tentatively called Taenia saginata taiwanensis, in human host was confirmed. The metacestodes used in experimental infection were collected from the livers of naturally infected domestic pigs at an abattoir in Cheongju City, Korea. The first gravid proglottid was spontaneously discharged 76 days after infection. Two worms were recovered two years later by chemotherapy. The scolex was unarmed. The number of main uterine branches, varying from 16 to 21, was similar to that of classical Taenia saginata. The liver of pigs was confirmed to be an infection source of Asian T. saginata in Korea.

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Effects of Cyclophosphamide on Susceptibility to Experimental Infection of Mice and Rabbits with Pasteurella multocida (Cyclophosphamide가 마우스 및 가토(家兎)의 pasteurella multocida 인공감염(人工感染)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Jun, Moo Hyung;Chung, Un Ik
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.45-51
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    • 1980
  • Cyclophosphamide(CY)가 마우스 및 가토(家兎)의 P. multocida 야외분리균주(野外分離菌株)의 호흡기관내(呼吸器管內) 인공감염(人工感染)에 대한 감수성(感受性)에 미치는 영향(影響)을 연구(硏究)하였다. 체중(體重) Kg당(當) 300mg CY를 주입(注入)한 마우스와 150mg CY를 처리(處理)한 가토(家兎)는 P. multocida의 호흡기관내(呼吸器管內) 인공감염(人工感染)에 대해서 높은 감수성(感受性)을 보였다. 또한 CY 처리(處理)는 일시적(一時的)으로 말초혈액(末梢血液) 중에 있는 총백혈구수(總白血球數)와 단핵백혈구수(單核白血球數)의 감소(減少)를 야기(惹起)했고, 비장(脾臟)의 백수(白髓)와 적수(赤髓)에 있는 임파구(淋巴球)의 소실(消失)을 초래(招來)했다. CY 주사(注射)된 가토(家兎)는 접종(接種)된 균주(菌株)에 대한 항체형성능력(抗體形成能力)의 저하(低下)를 나타냈다. 얻어진 결과(結果)는 가토(家兎)에 있어서 면역기능(免疫機能)의 저하(低下)와 호흡기질병(呼吸器疾病) 발생(發生) 간(間)의 상호관계(相互關係)에 대해 고찰(考察)하였다.

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Elder ages decreases the susceptibility for Helicobacter pylori infection in an animal model (Helicobacter pylori의 감수성과 숙주 연령과의 상관성 연구)

  • Lee, Jin-Uk;Kim, Seung-Hee;Park, Tan-Woo;Kim, Okjin
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 2007
  • Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important bacterial pathogen that causes chronic gastritisand is associated with gastroduodenal ulcer disease, adenocarcinoma of the distal stomach, and gastricH. pylori infection associated with host agehave not been well-defined in human. To evaluate the difference in host susceptibility to infection in relationto age of acquisition of H. pylori infection, we designed an experiment involving inoculation of H. pyloriATC 43504 at different ages of Mongolian gerbils. H. pylori was inoculated at 5 weeks and 18 monthsof age, as representatives of early and late infection, respectively. Animals were sacrificed 1 week and 4weeks after challenge, and the stomach was removed from each animal for bacterial culture, histologicalexamination, and polymerase chain reaction test. 5 week-old gerbils revealed infection andmaintained continuously its infection until 4 weeks. However, old gerbils did not maintained H. pyloriinfection. These data suggest the insusceptibility of H. pylori in old Mongolian gerbils and the importanceof animal ages for successful animal experimental infection. Also, the results demonstrated that earlyinfection of H. pylori increases its host susceptibility, as compared to the case with later infection, possiblybecause of differences in host gastric mucosal factors and imunologic responses.

Isolation and identification of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from serum samples collected from swine farms (돼지 농장으로부터 수집한 혈청가검물에서 돼지생식기 호흡기증 바이러스의 분리 및 동정)

  • Kim, Hyun-Soo;Kong, Sin-Koog
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.363-370
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    • 1999
  • Isolation of PRRSV was attempted from 646 swine sera collected from swine farms. The MARC-145 cell, which is highly permissive to PRRSV, was used for virus isolation, propagation, IFA test, and VN test. Total 36 cytopathic viruses to MARC-145 cells were isolated. The virus isolates were identified as a PRRSV by the IFA test and VN test using the reference sera prepared by experimental infection of reference PRRSV CNV-1 into 30 day-old pig. In addition to serological conformation, ORF5 of genomic RNA of 6 selected cytopathic viruses were amplified by the RT-PCR. The resulting PCR products were examined by electrophoresis in 1.2% agarose gel. An appropriate bands of about 680bp including the flanking sequence of total 80bp were seen on agarose gel.

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Demonstration of the second intermediate hosts of Clinostomum complanatum in Korea (새인두흡충 제2중간숙주의 발견)

  • Jeong, Dong-Il;Gong, Hyeon-Hui;Mun, Ju-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.305-312
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    • 1995
  • A species of metacercariae recovered from the fresh-water fish, collected from Kaumji (Pond), Kaechonji (Pond) and Ssanggyechon (River), Uisong-gun, Kyongsangbuk-do, Korea, was identified as Clinostomum compzcnatum by morphological observation and experimental infection to chicks. The excysted metacercariae, tongue-shaped and progenetic, were 3.28-4.27 mm in length and 0.94-1.46 mm in width. The adult flukes recovered from the chicks four days after infection were 4.20-4.86 mm long and 1.14-1.49 mm wide. Twelve species of the fresh-water fish were found to be infected with the metacercariae. The infection rate ranged from 1.6% (Zacco temminkii) to 88.9% (Acheilognathus rhombec and Microphwsogobio voluensis) . The intensity was highest in Cnrqssius curatus (13.0/fish infected) and the abundance (relative densityl was highest in A. rhombea (7.8/fish examined). This survey demonstrated for the first time the source of human infection by C. complnnntum in Korea.

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Genotype and Phenotype of Echinococcus granulosus Derived from Wild Sheep (Ovis orientalis) in Iran

  • Eslami, Ali;Meshgi, Behnam;Jalousian, Fatemeh;Rahmani, Shima;Salari, Mohammad Ali
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 2016
  • The aim of the present study is to determine the characteristics of genotype and phenotype of Echinococcus granulosus derived from wild sheep and to compare them with the strains of E. granulosus sensu stricto (sheep-dog) and E. granulosus camel strain (camel-dog) in Iran. In Khojir National Park, near Tehran, Iran, a fertile hydatid cyst was recently found in the liver of a dead wild sheep (Ovis orientalis). The number of protoscolices (n=6,000) proved enough for an experimental infection in a dog. The characteristics of large and small hooks of metacestode were statistically determined as the sensu stricto strain but not the camel strain (P=0.5). To determine E. granulosus genotype, 20 adult worms of this type were collected from the infected dog. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase 1 subunit (COX1) of the mitochondrial DNA were amplified from individual adult worm by PCR. Subsequently, the PCR product was sequenced by Sanger method. The lengths of ITS2 and COX1 sequences were 378 and 857 bp, respectively, for all the sequenced samples. The amplified DNA sequences from both ribosomal and mitochondrial genes were highly similar (99% and 98%, respectively) to that of the ovine strain in the GenBank database. The results of the present study indicate that the morpho-molecular features and characteristics of E. granulosus in the Iranian wild sheep are the same as those of the sheep-dog E. granulosus sensu stricto strain.

Experimental Infection of Different Tomato Genotypes with Tomato mosaic virus Led to a Low Viral Population Heterogeneity in the Capsid Protein Encoding Region

  • Sihelska, Nina;Vozarova, Zuzana;Predajna, Lukas;Soltys, Katarina;Hudcovicova, Martina;Mihalik, Daniel;Kraic, Jan;Mrkvova, Michaela;Kudela, Otakar;Glasa, Miroslav
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.508-513
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    • 2017
  • The complete genome sequence of a Slovak SL-1 isolate of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was determined from the next generation sequencing (NGS) data, further confirming a limited sequence divergence in this tobamovirus species. Tomato genotypes Monalbo, Mobaci and Moperou, respectively carrying the susceptible tm-2 allele or the Tm-1 and Tm-2 resistant alleles, were tested for their susceptibility to ToMV SL-1. Although the three tomato genotypes accumulated ToMV SL-1 to similar amounts as judged by semiquantitative DAS-ELISA, they showed variations in the rate of infection and symptomatology. Possible differences in the intra-isolate variability and polymorphism between viral populations propagating in these tomato genotypes were evaluated by analysis of the capsid protein (CP) encoding region. Irrespective of genotype infected, the intra-isolate haplotype structure showed the presence of the same highly dominant CP sequence and the low level of population diversity (0.08-0.19%). Our results suggest that ToMV CP encoding sequence is relatively stable in the viral population during its replication in vivo and provides further demonstration that RNA viruses may show high sequence stability, probably as a result of purifying selection.

Experimental infection of Anopheles sinensis with Korean isolates of Plasmodium vivax

  • Lee, Hyeong-Woo;Cho, Shin-Hyeong;Shin, E-Hyun;Lee, Jong-Soo;Lee, Joon-Sang;Chai, Jong-Yil;Lee, Soon-Hyung;Kim, Tong-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.177-183
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    • 2001
  • The objectives of the present study were to (1) determine the susceptibility of Anopheles sinensis to Korean isolates of Plasmodium vivax, (2) establish a method to collect large quantities of P. vivax sporozoites for use as antigen in seroepidemiological studies, and (3) investigate the characteristics of Korean isolates of P. vivax sporozoites. Females of Anopheles sinensis were collected at non-epidemic area, Seokwha-ri, Cheongwon-gun and Chungcheongbuk-do using tent-trap methods coupled with dry ice. The females were artificially infected with gameiocytes of P. vivax using blood obtained from P vivax malaria patients. Individual mosquitoes were infected using either a parafilm-covered glass feeding apparatus or were allowed to feed on naturally infected volunteers. Mosquitoes were sacrificed between 16 and 18 days post-feeding and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect sporozoites. Four (33.4%) of 12 mosquitoes, which were fed on naturally infected volunteers directly, were positive for sporozoites. In cases, the mosquitoes allowed to feed on whole blood which were extract from three different patients with heparin treated vacuutainers using a parafilm-covered glass apparatus. Two of 55 (3.6%) were positive which blood sample was maintained at room temperature for 8 hours, 1 of 68 (1.5%) was positive which blood was maintained at $4^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours and 1 of 47 (2.3%) was positive at 4$^{\circ}C$ for 48 hours. The mean number of sporozoites was estimated about 818 (n=8; range of 648-1,056) based on optical density values of ELISA.

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A review of Gymnophalloides seoi (Digenea: Gymnophallidae) and human infections in the Republic of Korea

  • Lee, Soon-Hyung;Chai, Jong-Yil
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.85-118
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    • 2001
  • Studies on Gymnophalloides seoi (Digenea: Gymnophallidae) and human infections are briefly reviewed. This minute intestinal fluke was first discovered from a Korean woman suffering from acute pancreatitis and gastrointestinal troubles. It was described as a new species by Lee, Chai and Hong in 1993. The southwestern coastal village where the patient resided was found to be a highly endemic area, and additional endemic areas have been identified. The parasite is very small, 0.33-0.50 mm long and 0.23-0.33 mm wide. and characterized by the presence of a ventral pit. The first intermediate host remains unknown, but the second intermediate host has been found to be the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Man and the Palearctic oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus have been shown to be natural definitive hosts , and wading birds including the Dentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus are highly susceptible to experimental infection. Gerbils, hamsters, cats, and several strains of mice were also susceptible laboratory hosts. In experimentally infected mice, the parasites inhabit the small intestine, pinching and sucking the root of villi with their large oral suckers, but they did not invade beyond the mucosa in immunocompetent mice. However, they were found to invade the submucosa in immunosuppressed mice. Human G. seoi infections have been found in at least 25 localities; 23 islands on the Yellow Sea or the South Sea, and 2 western coastal villages. The highest Prevalence was found in a village on Aphaedo. Shinan-fun (49% e99 Positive rate) : other areas showed 0.8-25.3% prevalence. Infected people complained of variable degrees of gastrointestinal troubles and indigestion. The infection can be diagnosed by recovery of eggs in the feces; however, an expert is needed to identify the eggs. Praziquantel, 10mg/kg in single dose, is effective for treatment of human infections. Eating raw oysters in endemic areas should be avoided.

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Surface ultrastructure of Pygidiopsis summa (Digenea: Heterophyidae) adult flukes

  • Chai, Jong-Yil;Sohn, Woon-Mok;Choi, Sung-Yil;Lee, Soon-Hyung
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.107-112
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    • 2002
  • A scanning electron microscopic study was performed on the surface ultrastructure of Pygidiopsis summa (Digenea: Heterophyidae) adults. Metacercariae were collected from gills and muscles of mullets (Mugil cephalus) caught in a known endemic area, and adult flukes were harvested from dogs after 8 weeks of experimental infection. The worm was calabash form with its posterior part broader than the anterior part. Tegumental spines were densely distributed over the body surface, except on the suckers and genital apparatus, and around the excretory pore. Well differentiated spines were observed on the anterior half of the body, with 14-16 tips ventrally, and 19-20 tips dorsally. On the oral sucker. three pairs of type I sensory papillae (uni-ciliated knob-like swellings) and one pair of type II sensory papillae (aciliated round-swellings) were observed on the anterior and posterior parts of the lip, respectively. On the lip of the ventral sucker, one pair of type II sensory papillae was distributed only on its posterior part. Sperms were seen emerging from or entering into the genital apparatus. The results showed that the surface ultrastructure of P. summa was unique among the heterophyid trematodes, especially in digitation of tegumental spines and in distribution of sensory papillae on oral and ventral suckers.