• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Exposure assessment

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The Adoption of Risk Assessment Methodology in Exposure Assessment (근로자 노출평가제도 내 위험성평가 방법론의 적용)

  • Kim, Seung Won;Choi, Sangjun;Phee, Young Gyu;Kim, Kab Bae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.482-492
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: Exposure Assessment for workplace hazards where the exposure level is below occupational exposure limits(OELs) has been performed without considering either the degrees of risk or exposure levels and has failed to lead to intervention in many cases. The objective of this study was to suggest and test an application framework for risk assessment methodology under the current exposure assessment system in Korea. Materials: First, we investigated the exposure assessment systems in Korea and other countries. To adopt some risk assessment techniques, we also analyzed risk assessment systems and compared them to exposure assessment systems. A few suggestions were made. We held a public hearing during an industrial hygiene conference and took surveys using a questionnaire. Results: The first suggestion was to implement the risk assessment and exposure assessment through a "one-stop" system. In that case, one expected question would be who has been doing the jobs so far. In most cases, industrial hygiene consulting services or laboratories have been performing exposure assessment for business owners. Business owners are required to perform risk assessment. As two different groups of people will be required to implement two things in a one-stop system, they need to share information. As an information vehicle to share information, commonly filed survey checklists were suggested. The second suggestion was to categorize exposure level into four groups instead of the current binary divisions based on OELs. In the risk assessment system, exposure level is divided into four groups utilizing the cut-points of 10%, 50%, and 100% of OELs. The same schema can be adopted in the exposure assessment system and different levels of requirements can be assigned for each group. The third suggestion was regarding the regulation system. To provide the suggestions some thrust toward being implemented in the field, changes should be made in the legal system. Two different types of new exposure assessment result reporting forms were suggested. Some investigations such as an ergonomic survey are officially accepted as risk assessment under the current legal system. A few items were suggested to be included in the exposure assessment result reporting to be accepted as risk assessment. A pilot study in two small factories was performed and pointed out the strengths and weakness of our suggestions. Conclusions: Discussions and studies on the improvement of the exposure assessment system have been held for decades and no tangible changes have yet been made. We hope this result can help realize healthy lives for workers in Korea.

Challenges and Perspectives of Nanoparticle Exposure Assessment

  • Lee, Ji-Hyun;Moon, Min-Chaul;Lee, Joon-Yeob;Yu, Il-Je
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.95-100
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    • 2010
  • Nanoparticle exposure assessment presents a unique challenge in the field of occupational and environmental health. With the commercialization of nanotechnology, exposure usually starts from the workplace and then spreads to environment and consumer exposure. This report discusses the current trends of nanoparticle exposure assessment, including the definition of nanotechnology relevant terms, essential physicochemical properties for nanomaterial characterization, current international activities related nanomaterial safety, and exposure assessment standard development for nanotechnology. Further this report describes challenges of nanoparticle exposure assessment such as background measurement, metrics of nanoparticle exposure assessment and personal sampling.

Individual Exposure Characteristics to Humidifier Disinfectant according to Exposure Classification Groups - Focusing on 4-1 and 4-2 Applicants - (가습기살균제 환경노출 판정등급에 따른 개인 노출 특성 분포 - 4-1차와 4-2차 신청자를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Seula;Yoon, Jeonggyo;Ock, Jeongwon;Jo, Eun-Kyung;Ryu, Hyeonsu;Yang, Wonho;Choi, Yoon-Hyeong
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.370-380
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This study was performed to investigate the distribution of individual exposure characteristics according to an exposure assessment classification for humidifier disinfectant and to identify the factors that influence assessment classification. Methods: We examined the exposure characteristics of 4,482 subjects who applied for the 4-1 and 4-2 assessments of environmental exposure to humidifier disinfectant conducted by the Korea Environmental Industry & Technology Institute (KEITI). Environmental exposure assessment classification was assessed using the following seven criteria: 1) Distance from humidifier to face; 2) Spray direction; 3) Time used, daytime 4) Time used, during sleep; 5) Time used, cumulative; 6) Exposure intensity; and 7) Cumulative exposure level. Each criteria was then classified as 'high' or low'. When participants answered for more than four criteria, exposure assessment was determined as 'definite,' 'probable,' or 'possible' depending on the ratio of 'high' responses. If participants' responses were inconsistent, exposure assessment was listed as 'unlikely.' If participants answered for less than four criteria, exposure assessment was considered 'indeterminate.' Results: For the exposure assessment classes, definite was assigned to 38.5% (1,725 subjects), probable assigned to 32.9% (1,474 subjects), 25.0% (1,122 subjects) were assigned to as possible, unlikely assigned to 0.1% (3 subjects), and indeterminate assigned to 3.5% (158 subjects). Overall, participants who used 'Oxy Ssakssak New Gaseupgi Dangbun,' 'Aekyung Gaseupgi Mate,' 'Homeplus Gaseupgi Chungjungje,' and 'E-Mart Gaseupgi Salgyunje' totaled 2,996, 557, 176, and 162 subjects, respectively. There was a statistical difference in the type of humidifier disinfectant products between high-exposed and low-exposed participants. Based on the assessment criteria of humidifier disinfectant exposure, subjects were likely to be in the highly exposed classes (definite and probable) when the subjects were exposed 1) for more than ten hours per day and 2) for more than four hours at night 3) when the total cumulative exposure time was higher than the average, 4) when the direction of humidifier spray was toward the face, 5) when the respiratory position was less than 1 meter of distance from the humidifier, 6) when the concentration of indoor contaminants (ug/m3) was higher than the average exposure intensity, and 7) when overall exposure level ($ug/m3^*hr$) was higher than the average exposure level. Conclusion: This study suggests that each exposure assessment criteria was able to appropriately estimate cumulative exposure levels.

Review for Retrospective Exposure Assessment Methods Used in Epidemiologic Cancer Risk Studies of Semiconductor Workers: Limitations and Recommendations

  • Park, Donguk
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.249-256
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    • 2018
  • This article aims to provide a systematic review of the exposure assessment methods used to assign wafer fabrication (fab) workers in epidemiologic cohort studies of mortality from all causes and various cancers. Epidemiologic and exposure-assessment studies of silicon wafer fab operations in the semiconductor industry were collected through an extensive literature review of articles reported until 2017. The studies found various outcomes possibly linked to fab operations, but a clear association with the chemicals in the process was not found, possibly because of exposure assessment methodology. No study used a tiered assessment approach to identify similar exposure groups that incorporated manufacturing era, facility, fab environment, operation, job and level of exposure to individual hazardous agents. Further epidemiologic studies of fab workers are warranted with more refined exposure assessment methods incorporating both operation and job title and hazardous agents to examine the associations with cancer risk or mortality.

Application of Biomarkers for the Assessment of Carcinogen Exposure and Cancer Risk (발암물질 노출량 산출 및 암 위해성 평가에 있어서 Biomcrker의 활용)

  • 이병무
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 1999
  • Risk Assessment is an important area in toxicology and the methodology for risk assessment has been developed. Mathematical models used for risk assessment include one-hit multi-hit, two-stage, probit logistic, multistage, and linearized multistage models. For the assessment of exposure dose, environmental monitoring has been applied, but it has limitation to accurately assess exposure level because the levels in the air, water, foods, and soil may vary depending on time of sampling. In addition, humans can be exposed to various sources of exposure and thus it will be impossible to estimate the total level of exposure in humans by environmental monitoring. To eliminate the limitation of environmental monitoring, a direct measurement of toxic materials or modified biomolecules (called biomarkers) associated with the exposure of toxic materials is needed. Here, scientific basis of biomarkers and future direction have been considered for the assessment of carcinogen exposure and cancer risk in humans.

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Risk Assessment of Human Exposure to Methidathion during Harvest of Cucumber in Green House

  • Byoun Ji-Youn;Choi Hoon;Moon Joon-Kwan;Park Hee-Won;Liu Kwang-Hyeon;Ihm Yang-Bin;Park Byeoung-Soo;Kim Jeong-Han
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.297-301
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    • 2005
  • Farmers are generally expressed to pesticides through mixing loding, application activity and harvesting of crop after application of pesticides. The present work investigated the exposure and risk of furathiocarb to workers when harvesting of cucumber was carried out in green house after application of furathiocarb EC. Glove was used for the hand exposure assessment, socks for foot and dermal patches for the other parts of body. Personal air monitor equipped with a XAD-2 resin was used for the respiratory exposure assessment. During the harvest of cucumber in green house, the initial rate of potential dermal exposure (Day 1) for methidathion was 1.3 mg/hr. The major exposure parts were hand $(78\~83\%),\;thigh\;(5\~7\%)$ and arms $(6\~9\%)$ during 3 days' harvest. No exposure was detected from the respiratory monitoring. For risk assessment, the potential dermal exposure (PDE), the absorbable quantity of exposure (AQE) and the margin of safety (MOS) and margin of exposure (MOE) were calculated. In risk assessment of harvester exposure for 7days, all MOS was > 1 and MOE was > 100 indicating that possibility of risk was little.

Occupational Exposure Assessment for Benzene Using Exposure Models (ECETOC TRA and Stoffenmanager) and Applicability Evaluation of Exposure Models in K-REACH (노출 모델의 화평법 적용성: ECETOC TRA와 Stoffenmanager Tier 1 노출 모델을 활용한 벤젠의 작업자 노출 평가)

  • Moon, Joonsik;Ock, Jeongwon;Jung, Uk-Hyun;Ra, Jin-Sung;Kim, Ki-Tae
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.460-467
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: The objectives of this study are to estimate the inhalation exposure level of benzene for workers using Tier 1 exposure models ECETOC TRA (European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Target Risk Assessment) and Stoffenmanager, and to investigate their reliability for exposure assessment in K-REACH. Methods: Two exposure scenarios, 'manufacture of benzene' and 'use as solvents,' were developed for assessment of workers' exposure to benzene. The Process Category (PROC) for ECETOC TRA was collected from the European Chemical Agency (ECHA) registration dossier, and the Activity for Stoffenmanager was converted from PROC using translation of exposure models (TREXMO). The information related to exposure, such as working duration, Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE), Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV), and Risk Management Measure (RMM) were classified into high, medium, and low exposure conditions. The risk was determined by the ratio of the estimated exposure and occupational exposure limits of benzene. Results: Under high exposure conditions, the worker exposure level calculated from all PROCs and Activities exceeded the risk level, with the exception of PROC 1 and Activity 1. In the medium exposure condition, PROC 8a, 8b, and 9 and Activity 3, 7, and 8 all exceeded the risk, whereas in the low condition, all PROCs and Activities were determined to be safe. As a result, action corresponding with the low exposure condition is required to reduce the risk of exposure among workers in workplaces where benzene is manufactured or used as a solvent. In addition, the predicted exposure levels derived from the exposure models were lower than measured levels. The exposure levels estimated from Stoffenmanager were more conservative than those from ECETOC TRA. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of exposure models for exposure assessment through the example of occupational inhalation exposure assessment for benzene. For more active utilization of exposure models in K-REACH, the exact application of collected information and accurate interpretation of obtained results are necessary.

Risk Assessment of Soil through Earthworm Toxicity Test of Nonylphenol and Bisphenol A (Nonylphenol과 Bisphenol A의 지렁이 독성시험 및 토양 중 생태 위해성평가)

  • Lee Chul Woo;Park Soo Young;Yun Jun Heon;Choi Kyung Hee;Chung Young Hee;Kim Hyun Mi
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 2005
  • Earthworm (Eisenia fetida) acute toxicity test was carried out and ecological risk assessment in soil was performed with national monitoring data. 14 day - $LC_{50}$ of nonylphenol and bisphenol A were 288.1 mg/kg and 90.1 mg/kg, respectively. And NOECs of nonylphenol and bisphenol A were 250 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, respectively. Significant weight decrement was appeared at 70 mg/kg of bisphenol A, however, nonylphenol at concentrations tested did not severe adverse effect on the weight decrement. The environmental monitoring has been carrying out by NIER since 1999. Exposure levels of nonylphenol in soil were ND$\sim$10.55 $\mu$g/kg and those of bisphenol A were ND$\sim$15.50$\mu$g/kg in National Monitoring data which had been performed from 2000 to 2004. The measured soil exposure level was applied to evaluate the environmental risk assessment. The values of PNEC for bisphenol A and nonylphenol were determined as 0.5 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively using the safety factors which were suggested in EU and OECD. The values of HQ (PEC/PNEC) were determined to be below I for bisphenol A and nonylphenol when the maximum exposure levels for bispheol A (15.50$\mu$g/kg) and nonylphenol (10.55$\mu$g/kg) were applied. Conclusively, the environmental risk assessment of bisphenol A and nonylphenol was not critical in soil.

Retrospective Exposure Assessment of Wafer Fabrication Workers in the Semiconductor Industry (반도체 웨이퍼 가공 공정 역학 조사에서 과거 노출 평가 방법 고찰)

  • Park, Dong-Uk
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.12-21
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study is to review retrospective exposure assessment methods used in wafer fabrication operations to determine whether adverse health effects including mortality or cancer incidence are related to employment in particular work activities and to recommend an appropriate approach for retrospective exposure assessment methods for epidemiological study. The goal of retrospective exposure assessment for such studies is to assign each study subject to a workgroup in such a way that differences in exposure within the workgroups are minimized, as well as to maximize the contrasts in exposure between workgroups. To reduce the misclassification of exposure and to determine if adverse health effects including mortality or cancer incidence are related to particular work activities of wafer fabrication workers, a minimum requirement of work history information on the wafer manufacturing eras, job and department at which they were exposed should be assessed. Retrospective assessment of the task that semiconductor workers performed should be conducted to determine not only the effect of a particular job on the development of adverse health effects including mortality or cancer incidence, but also to adjust for the healthy worker effect. In order to identify specific hazardous agents that may cause adverse health effects, past exposure to a specific agent or agent matrices should also be assessed.

Review of Exposure Assessment to Obtain Exposure Factors of Consumer Products (소비 생활용품의 노출계수 조사 방법의 고찰)

  • Park, Ji Young;Lee, Kiyoung;Shin, Ho-Sang;Yang, Wonho
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.532-540
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    • 2013
  • Background: Exposure factors for consumer products have been developed since the 1980s. Such exposure factors are important in risk assessment. Since the exposure/use patterns of consumer products in a country may reflect its respective cultural, meteorological, and socio-economic circumstances, unique Korean exposure factors for consumer products are needed. Such exposure factors are required for newly-enacted chemical regulations in Korea. For this review, published papers and survey reports on exposure factors of consumer products were examined for their assessment methodologies. Results: Investigation into exposure factors for consumer products used a variety of methods: home visit, online, telephone, and mail surveys using questionnaires; face to face interviews; modeling using a constructed database; and direct measurement. To collect more accurate exposure information or to check the reliability of the sampling method, some studies were repeated using the same questionnaire, in-home observation, direct measurement of usage, and videotaping. In Korea, nationwide exposure surveys were conducted five times over five years to obtain Korean exposure factors. However, with the exception of the $5^{th}$-year study, the surveys were online questionnaires and only the $5^{th}$-year study validated the accuracy of exposure information by re-visits and direct measurement. Conclusion: Accurate exposure factors are an essential part of risk assessment to assure safe use of consumer products. For better and safer management of consumer products, accurate exposure factors in Korea should be assessed for various exposure pathways.