• Title, Summary, Keyword: Extraterrestrial Radiation

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The Spectral Sharpness Angle of Gamma-ray Bursts

  • Yu, Hoi-Fung;van Eerten, Hendrik J.;Greiner, Jochen;Sari, Re'em;Bhat, P. Narayana;Kienlin, Andreas von;Paciesas, William S.;Preece, Robert D.
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.109-117
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    • 2016
  • We explain the results of Yu et al. (2015b) of the novel sharpness angle measurement to a large number of spectra obtained from the Fermi gamma-ray burst monitor. The sharpness angle is compared to the values obtained from various representative emission models: blackbody, single-electron synchrotron, synchrotron emission from a Maxwellian or power-law electron distribution. It is found that more than 91% of the high temporally and spectrally resolved spectra are inconsistent with any kind of optically thin synchrotron emission model alone. It is also found that the limiting case, a single temperature Maxwellian synchrotron function, can only contribute up to 58+23−18% of the peak flux. These results show that even the sharpest but non-realistic case, the single-electron synchrotron function, cannot explain a large fraction of the observed spectra. Since any combination of physically possible synchrotron spectra added together will always further broaden the spectrum, emission mechanisms other than optically thin synchrotron radiation are likely required in a full explanation of the spectral peaks or breaks of the GRB prompt emission phase.

Comparison of incoming solar radiation equations for evaporation estimation (증발량 산정을 위한 입사태양복사식 비교)

  • Rim, Chang-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.129-143
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    • 2011
  • In this study, to select the incoming solar radiation equation which is most suitable for the estimation of Penman evaporation, 12 incoming solar radiation equations were selected. The Penman evaporation rates were estimated using 12 selected incoming solar radiation equations, and the estimated Penman evaporation rates were compared with measured pan evaporation rates. The monthly average daily meteorological data measured from 17 meteorological stations (춘천, 강능, 서울, 인천, 수원, 서산, 청주, 대전, 추풍령, 포항, 대구, 전주, 광주, 부산, 목포, 제주, 진주) were used for this study. To evaluate the reliability of estimated evaporation rates, mean absolute bias error(MABE), root mean square error(RMSE), mean percentage error(MPE) and Nash-Sutcliffe equation were applied. The study results indicate that to estimate pan evaporation using Penman evaporation equation, incoming solar radiation equation using meteorological data such as precipitation, minimum air temperature, sunshine duration, possible duration of sunshine, and extraterrestrial radiation are most suitable for 11 study stations out of 17 study stations.

A Study on the Analysis of Solar Radiation Characteristics on a High Elevated Area (고지대 일사량 특성분석에 관한 연구)

  • Jo, Dok-Ki;Kang, Young-Heack;Auh, Chung-Moo
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study is to procure basic data to be used for solar power plant and concentrating collector designs. Site elevation is one of the major factors which influences the incoming insolation to the earth surface. Because the nonpermanent gases such as ozone, water vapor are unmixed components of the atmosphere and their concentrations are the function of height, the site elevation effects the relative proportion of the atmospheric constituents. We have measured solar radiation on Jiri Mt. (1,400m) and in Gurye area(115m) at the near same latitude. These values were then compared to obtain their characteristics and to investigate the potential for the solar utilization for both high and low elevated areas. From the experimental results, we concluded that 1) Daily mean horizontal global radiation and normal beam radiation on Mt. Jiri are 9.5%, and 35.3% higher than Gurye area respectively for a clear day. 2) A significant difference in atmospheric clearness index is observed between Mt. Jiri and Gurye areas.

Characteristic analysis of solar radiation and atmospheric transmissivity at Chupungryeong (추풍령의 일사량과 대기투과율의 특성 분석)

  • Park, Jin Ki;Kim, Bong Seop;Park, Jong Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.149-155
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    • 2014
  • The surface solar radiation is an important indicators for climate and agricultural research over the Earth system. For the climate and agricultural research, long-term meteorological data and accurate measured data are needed. The daily solar radiation from Jan. 2001 to Dec. 2010 have been employed in this study analyze atmospheric transmissivity for Chupungryeong. The corresponding daily value of atmospheric transmissivity is calculated for Chupungryeong meteorological data. In this paper, relationship analysis of daily solar radiation and atmospheric transmissivity is presented. It shows that atmospheric transmissivity over late December peaked in the 2000s, substantially decreased from the early-January, and changed little after that in summer. Reduction of solar radiation caused a reduction of more than 0.3 in atmospheric transmissivity during July to August. It was concluded that the atmospheric transmissivity could be very useful for evaluating solar radiation. Atmospheric transmissivity approach is suitable for daily-term simulation studies and useful for computing solar radiation.

A Study on the Optimal Installation of Solar Photovoltaic System in Korea (국내 태양광발전시스템의 최적 설치에 관한 연구)

  • Jo, Dok-Ki;Kang, Yong-Heack;Lee, Euy-Joon;Auh, Chung-Moo
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 2004
  • The measured solar radiation incident on tilted surfaces by all directions has been widely used as important solar radiation data in installing photovoltaic modules. To maximize the incident beam radiation, the slope, which is the angle between the plane of the surface in question and the horizontal, an4 the solar azimuth angles are needed for these solar photovoltaic systems. This is because the performance of the solar photovoltaic systems is much affected by angle and direction of incident rays. Recognizing those factors mentioned above are of importance, actual experiment has been performed in this research to obtain the an91e of inclination with which the maximum incident rays can be absorbed. The results obtained in this research could be used in installing optimal photovoltaic modules.

An Effective Algorithm for Transmitted Solar Radiation Calculation through Window Glazing on a Clear Day

  • Oh, John Kie-Whan
    • KIEAE Journal
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.35-45
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    • 2014
  • The main objective of this study is to provide an effective algorithm of the transmitted solar radiation calculation through window glazing on a clear day. This algorithm would be used in developing a computer program for fenestration system analysis and shading device design. Various simulation methods have been evaluated to figure out the most accurate and effective procedure in estimation of transmitted solar radiation on a tilted surface on a clear day. Characteristics of simulated results of each step have been scrutinized by comparing them with measured results of the site as well as results from other simulation programs. Generally, the Duffie & Beckman's solar calculation method introducing the HDKR anisotropic model provided the most reliable simulation results. The DOE-2 program usually provided over-estimated simulation results. The estimation of extraterrestrial solar radiation and beam normal radiation were conducted pretty accurately. However, the solar radiation either on horizontal surface or on tilted surface involves complicated factors in estimation. Even though the estimation results were close to the real measured data during summer when solar intensity is getting higher, the estimation provided more error when solar intensities were getting weaker. The convex polygon clipping algorithm with homogeneous coordinates was fastest model in calculation of sunlight to shaded area ratio. It could not be applied because of its shape limitation.

Surface Energy Balance at Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica (남극 세종기지의 에너지 평형)

  • Kim, Jhoon;Cho, Hi Ku;Jung, Yeon Jin;Lee, Yun Gon;Lee, Bang Yong
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.111-124
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    • 2006
  • This study examines seasonal variability of the surface energy balance at the King Sejong Station, Antarctica, using measurements and estimates of the components related to the balance for the period of 1996 to 2004. Annual average of downward shortwave radiation at the surface is 81 $Wm^{-2}$ which is 37% of the extraterrestrial value, with the monthly maximum of 188 $Wm^{-2}$ in December and the minimum of 8 $Wm^{-2}$ in June. These values are relatively smaller than those at other stations in Antarctica, which can be attributed to higher cloudy weather conditions in Antarctic front zone. Surface albedo varies between ~0.3 in the austral summer season and ~0.6 in the winter season. As a result, the net shortwave radiation ranges from 117 $Wm^{-2}$ down to 3 $Wm^{-2}$ with annual averages of 43 $Wm^{-2}$. Annual average of the downward longwave radiation shows 278 $Wm^{-2}$, ranging from 263 $Wm^{-2}$ in August to 298 $Wm^{-2}$ in January. The downward longwave radiation is verified to be dependent strongly on the air temperature and specific humidity, accounting for 74% and 79% of the total variance in the longwave radiation, respectively. The net longwave radiation varies between 25 $Wm^{-2}$ and 40 $Wm^{-2}$ with the annual averages of 30 $Wm^{-2}$. Accordingly, the annual average energy balance is dominated by radiative warming of a positive net all-wave radiation from September to next March and radiative cooling of a negative net all-wave radiation from April to August. The net all-wave radiative energy gain and loss at the surface is mostly balanced by turbulent flux of sensible and latent heat. The soil heat flux is of negligible importance in the surface energy balance.

Comparison Analysis of Estimation Models of Hourly Horizontal Global Solar Radiation for Busan, Korea (부산지역에 적합한 시간당 수평면 전일사량 산출모델의 비교분석)

  • Kim, Kee Han;Oh, Kie-Whan
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 2013
  • Hourly horizontal global solar radiation has been used as one of significant parameters in a weather file for building energy simulations, which determines the quality of building thermal performance. However, as about twenty two weather stations in Korea have actually measured the horizontal global sola radiation, the weather files collected in other stations requires solar data simulation from the other meteorological parameters. Thus, finding the reliable complicated method that can be used in various weather conditions in Korea is critically important. In this paper, three solar simulation models were selected and evaluated through the reliability test with the simulated hourly horizontal global solar radiation against the actually measured solar data to find the most suitable model for the south east area of Korea. Three selected simulation models were CRM, ZHM, and MRM. The first two models are regression type models using site-fitted coefficients which are derived from the correlation between measured solar data and local meteorological parameters from the previous years, and the last model is a mechanistic type model using the meteorological data to calculate conditions of atmospheric constituents that cause absorption and scattering of the extraterrestrial radiation on the way to the surface on the Earth. The evaluation results show that ZHM is the most reliable model in this area, yet a complicated hybrid simulation methods applying the advantages of each simulation method with the monthly-based weather data is needed.

The Future of Planetary Entry Technology

  • Park, Chul
    • International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.211-224
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    • 2011
  • This is a written version of an hour-long lecture delivered by the author on June 30, 2011, as Plasmadynamics and Lasers Award Lecture at the AIAA 2011 summer conference in Honolulu, Hawaii. The author proposes that two areas of planetary entry physics be pursued in the future: outer planet aero-capturing and study of aerodynamics of meteoroid entries, both for the purpose of advancing the understanding of the possible extraterrestrial seeding of building blocks of life. For outer planet aero-capturing, the author proposes to develop new shock tube facilities that will produce up to 30 km/s of shock speed without causing photo-ionization of the driven gas by the radiation from the hot driver gas. Regarding meteors, the author proposes to carry out laboratory testing of the Tunguska event and of the seeding of amino acid molecules using a ballistic range which shoots a snowball laden with amino acid molecules toward a water surface.

A study on solar irradiance forecasting with weather variables (기상변수를 활용한 일사량 예측 연구)

  • Kim, Sahm
    • The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.1005-1013
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    • 2017
  • In this paper, we investigate the performances of time series models to forecast irradiance that consider weather variables such as temperature, humidity, cloud cover and Global Horizontal Irradiance. We first introduce the time series models and show that regression ARIMAX has the best performance with other models such as ARIMA and multiple regression models.