• Title, Summary, Keyword: Extreme cold region

Search Result 20, Processing Time 0.042 seconds

Near Future Projection of Extreme Temperature over CORDEX-East Asia Phase 2 Region Using the WRF Model Based on RCP Scenarios (RCP 시나리오 기반 WRF를 이용한 CORDEX-동아시아 2단계 지역의 가까운 미래 극한기온 변화 전망)

  • Seo, Ga-Yeong;Choi, Yeon-Woo;Ahn, Joong-Bae
    • Atmosphere
    • /
    • v.29 no.5
    • /
    • pp.585-597
    • /
    • 2019
  • This study evaluates the performance of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in simulating temperature over the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment-East Asia (CORDEX-EA) Phase 2 domain for the reference period (1981~2005), and assesses the changes in temperature and its extremes in the mid-21st century (2026~2050) under global warming based on Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. MPI-ESM-LR forced by two RCP scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5) is used as initial and lateral boundary conditions. Overall, WRF can capture the observed features of temperature distribution reflecting local topographic characteristic, despite some disagreement between the observed and simulated patterns. Basically, WRF shows a systematic cold bias in daily mean, minimum and maximum temperature over the entire domain. According to the future projections, summer and winter mean temperatures over East Asia will significantly increase in the mid-21st century. The mean temperature rise is expected to be greater in winter than in summer. In accordance with these results, summer (winter) is projected to begin earlier (later) in the future compared to the historical period. Furthermore, a rise in extreme temperatures shows a tendency to be greater in the future. The averages of daily minimum and maximum temperatures above 90 percentiles are likely to be intensified in the high-latitude, while hot days and hot nights tend to be more frequent in the low-latitude in the mid-21st century. Especially, East Asia would be suffered from strong increases in nocturnal temperature under future global warming.

Experimental Study on Developing of Double Facade System dealing with the various climatic Conditions (다양한 기후조건에 대응하는 이중외피시스템 개발에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Lee, Keon-ho;Kim, Hyeon-soo;Jang, Dae-hee;Moon, Soo-young
    • KIEAE Journal
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.19-26
    • /
    • 2005
  • Every site has a different given geometrical and climatic condition, which influenced not only the lifestyle of the humanbeings but also the regional architecture. For example, on a cold region, the reduction of the energy loss is necessary, like an igloo, which has a littlest energy loss at hemisphere. Or on a warm region, the house must be protected thermally from the overheating at the sunshining. like a huge shading. An architectural interpretation in the (extreme) moderate climate, like Korea, has always tried to satisfy the both opposite demands simultaneously. A facade, which divides out- and inside, has an ideal position to lead the regulated regional climatic conditions into the room. The Double Facade System(DFS) is well known as an innovative solution in the european countries, like Germany. It provides an reasonable alternative, which can achieve these goals at the same time. A Double Facade System provides an effective sunshade, which means a cooling energy reduction at the warm season. In addition, it enables a natural ventilation at the cold season with the preheating at the system as well as spring and autumn. An ordinary Single Facade System with a inside or outside sun blind provides a solution just for a specified season, like a summer or winter. But the Double Facade System can deal with the various climatic conditions in the moderate climate.

Climate Change Impacts in Natural Resources and Livestock in Mongolia Climate

  • Batima, P.;Natsagdorj, L.;Bayarbaatar, L..;Bolortsetseg, B.;Natsagsuren, N.;Erdenetsetseg, B.
    • The Korean Journal of Quaternary Research
    • /
    • v.18 no.2
    • /
    • pp.103-104
    • /
    • 2004
  • This paper discuss some results of observed changes of meteorological elements as temperature, precipitation and some extreme indexes in Mongolia. Mongolia is one of the largest landlocked countries in the world. The climate is characterized by a long lasting cold winter, dry and hot summer, low precipitation, high temperature fluctuation and relatively high number of sunny days per year. During last 60 years the annual mean air temperature has risen $1.66^{\circ}C$. Intensive warming of > $2^{\circ}C$ was observed at higher altitudes of high mountains when warming of < $1^{\circ}C$ was observed the Domod steppe and the Gobi Desert. Heat Wave Duration have statistically significant risen trend with increaded number of days by 8-18 at significance level of 95-99.9% depending on geography and Cold Wave Duration have shortened by 13.3 days significance level of 95-99%. In general, by the amount of precipitation, Mongolia falls in semi-arid and arid region. It is 300-350 mm in the high mountain regions while it is only 50-150 mm in Gobi Desert regions. The changes of annual precipitation have very localized character i.e.decreasing at one site and increasing at a sit nearby. Annual precipitation decreased by 30-90 mm in the northern-central region and increased by 2-60 mm in the western and eastern region. The magnitude of alteration changes in precipitation regardless increasing or decreasing is 5-25%. A trends, significant at the level of 90%, found where changes are more than 40 mm or more than 15% of annual mean value. Moreover, the soil moisture resources was decreased in the last 40 years. Specially, moisture contents of the top soil have decreased 2 times(N. Natsagsuren, 2002). Months of June and July in Mongolia is the year that moisture is not inhibiting vegetation growth. Unfortunately, its also found that moisture in this time tends to decrease. Increased temperature, decreased precipitation and soil moisture are most likely resulted in occurences of more intense drought spells that have taken place during the recent years. Intimately, these changes have considerable impact on livestock in Mongolia.

  • PDF

An Analysis of Low-level Stability in the Heavy Snowfall Event Observed in the Yeongdong Region (영동지역 대설 사례의 대기 하층 안정도 분석)

  • Lee, Jin-Hwa;Eun, Seung-Hee;Kim, Byung-Gon;Han, Sang-Ok
    • Atmosphere
    • /
    • v.22 no.2
    • /
    • pp.209-219
    • /
    • 2012
  • Extreme heavy snowfall episodes have been investigated in case of accumulated snowfall amount larger than 50 cm during the past ten years, in order to understand the association of low-level stability with heavy snowfall in the Yeongdong region. In general, the selected 4 events have similar synoptic setting such as the Siberian High extended to East Sea along with the Low passing by the southern Korean Peninsula, eventually inducing easterly in the Yeongdong region. Specifically moist-adiabatically neutral layer has been observed during the heavy snowfall period, which was easily identified using vertical profiles of equivalent potential temperature observed at Sokcho, whereas convective unstable layer has been formed over the East sea due to relatively warm sea surface temperature (SST) about $8{\sim}10^{\circ}C$ and lower temperature around 1~2 km above the surface, obtained from RDAPS. Difference of equivalent potential temperature between 850 hPa and surface as well as difference between air and sea temperatures altogether gradually increased before the snowfall period. Instability-induced moisture supply to the atmosphere from the East sea, being cooled and saturated by the upper cold surge, would make low-level ice cloud, and eventually move inland by the easterly flow. Heavy snowfall will be enhanced in association with low-level convergence by surface friction and upslope wind against Taebaek mountains. This study emphasizes the importance of low level stability in the Yeongdong region using the radiosonde sounding and RDAPS data, which should quantitatively be examined through numerical model as well as heat and moisture supply from the ocean.

Studies on Changes and Future Projections of Subtropical Climate Zones and Extreme Temperature Events over South Korea Using High Resolution Climate Change Scenario Based on PRIDE Model (남한 상세 기후변화 시나리오를 이용한 아열대 기후대 및 극한기온사상의 변화에 대한 연구)

  • Park, Chang Yong;Choi, Young Eun;Kwon, Young A;Kwon, Jae Il;Lee, Han Su
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
    • /
    • v.19 no.4
    • /
    • pp.600-614
    • /
    • 2013
  • This study aims to examine spatially-detailed changes and projection of subtropical climate zones based on the modified K$\ddot{o}$ppen-Trewartha's climate classification and extreme temperature indices using $1km{\times}1km$ high resolution RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 climate change scenarios based on PRIDE model over the Republic of Korea. Subtropical climate zones currently located along the southern coastal region. Future subtropical climate zones would be pushed northwards expanding to the western and the eastern coastal regions as well as some metropolitan areas. For both scenarios, the frequency of cold-related extreme temperatures projects to be reduced while the frequency of hot-related ones projects to be increased. Especially, hot days with $33^{\circ}C$ or higher temperature projects to occur more than 30 days over the most of regions except for some mountain areas with high altitudes during the period of 2070~2100. This study might provide essential information to make climate change adaptation processes be enhanced.

  • PDF

Performance of the Pigs Maintained in a Highland and Coastal Area of Minahasa Region, North Sulawesi

  • Umboh, J.F.;Tulung, B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.14 no.7
    • /
    • pp.1014-1018
    • /
    • 2001
  • Pigs respond to extreme temperature (very cold or hot) by physiological and nutritional adjustments. Yet little is known about the effects of different environmental temperature (thermoneutral in the highland area, and hot temperature in the coastal area) where pigs are maintained on the performance of the pigs. Ten pigs each (10 pairs of littermates) were assigned to two treatments (2 locations): highland area (control=CA) or coastal area (hot/heat stress=HS). Experimental design was Paired 't' test. HS pigs had higher average daily water intake (p<0.05) compared to CA pigs (6,05 vs 3.89 kg/d), CA pigs had higher feed intake compared to HS pigs (2.9 vs 1.95 kg/d, p<0,05). CA pigs had higher daily gain compared to HS pigs (0.72 vs 0.58 kg/d, p<0.05). Feed conversion was not significantly different between CA pigs and HS pigs. The digestibility of dry matter, N, Na, K, Mg, CI, Ca and P was not significantly affected by the treatments. High environmental temperature in the coastal area (heat stress) increased water intake, decreased voluntary feed intake and daily gain of the pigs. The results demonstrate that different environmental temperature in the coastal area (heat stress) and highland area (control) had no pronounced effect on digestibility of nutrients.

Heating Performance Evaluation of the VRF Heat Pump System with Refrigerant Heating Cycle for the Extreme Cold Region (냉매 가열식 대용량 VRF 히트펌프 사이클 설계를 통한 극한랭지 난방 성능 평가)

  • Lee, Sang-Hun;Choi, Song;Kim, Byeng-Soon;Lee, Jae-Keun;Lee, Kang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
    • /
    • v.23 no.8
    • /
    • pp.571-579
    • /
    • 2011
  • Heat pump systems for commercial building with variable refrigerant flow(VRF) are expanding a market due to high energy efficiency, lower maintenance cost and easy installation comparing with the conventional heat pump with the constant refrigerant flow. In general, heat pump systems degrade the energy efficiency in the extremely low temperature regions. In this study, VRF heat pump system with refrigerant heating is experimentally investigated to overcome the low heating performance in the extremely low temperature regions. VRF heat pump system with refrigerant heating is found out the sufficient heating performance in the -25 degree temperature condition comparing with the conventional heat pump system and is obtained more than 2,500 kPa high pressure in the evaporator at low temperature.

Analysis on the Dynamics of Distribution and Eradication of Nutria on Nakdong River Area (낙동강 생태계에서의 외래종 뉴트리아 확산과 근절의 동태성 분석)

  • Kwon, Soon-Min;Kim, Sun-Tae;Choi, Nam-Hee
    • Korean System Dynamics Review
    • /
    • v.16 no.2
    • /
    • pp.53-74
    • /
    • 2015
  • Nutria(Myocastor coypus) is one of the most notorious invasive species in many countries. The Nutria's original range was South America like Brazil, Chile and Argentina. But it has been introduced to North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia including Korea, by fur ranchers. Like most invasive and disturbing species, nutria not only destroys habitats but also impacts many native species throughout most of its range with destructive feeding behavior. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamics of survival mechanism, population increase and spatial distribution, and eradication effect of Nutria on Nakdong River Area with the systems thinking. The result of this study revealed that Nutria can survive during winter with the behavior that the colder the winter was, the more deeply it burrowed. Further, the study uncovered the dynamics that nutria has survived more and more strongly during the extreme cold winter in almost every region and their population has increased dramatically as a result of the uncontrolled reproduction. Finally, the result showed that the action delay in eradicating Nutria, which was originated from the information delay of perception of nutria's survival and reproduction structure, reinforced the spread of Nutria across the nation.

A Study of Structure Monitoring Applicability of ZigBee Module through Oil Sand Plant Temperature around Canada (캐나다 오일샌드 플랜트 온도 조건을 고려한 구조물 모니터링 통신 모듈 적용성에 관한 연구)

  • Yang, Heekwon;Lee, Chankil;Lee, Bang Yong;Park, Keunbo
    • The KSFM Journal of Fluid Machinery
    • /
    • v.19 no.3
    • /
    • pp.37-42
    • /
    • 2016
  • The demand for wireless technology in plant structure has recently been increasing due to several advantages such as installation cost reduction, easy placement, easy extension and aesthetic benefits. Among the many wireless technologies, ZigBee is one of the most useful for plant structure; a wireless plant networking system can be configured using ZigBee alone. This research proposes a ZigBee to use for extreme cold region and thereby enable integration of wired and wireless plant monitoring systems. In this study, in order to assess the performance of ZigBee measured data by thermocouple were examined based on the results from laboratory tests between existing ZigBee and developed ZigBee. From the experiment results, performance of developed ZigBee in harsh environment can be increased well.

Present Status and Future Prospect on Fishing Industry in North Korea (북한수산업(北韓水產業)의 현황(現況)과 전망(展望))

  • Lee, Byoung-Gee;Kim, Jin-Kun;Choe, Jong-Hwa
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
    • /
    • v.3 no.2
    • /
    • pp.73-82
    • /
    • 1991
  • In recent years, the communication and the trade between the Republic of Korea(South Korea) and the Communist bloc has been activated. The simultaneous entrance of South Korea and North Korea to the United Nations will accelerate the political dialogue and also the trade which is indirectly carried out through a third country at present will be turned into direct way. Fisheries products are also treated as one of the important trade goods and there is a hopeful prospect that the amount of trade will be steeply increased in the near future. Furthermore, there is a great possibility of development up to the joint utilization of fishing grounds or the joint investment in fisheries projects. Concerning such points, since it is very much important to understand the present status of fisheries in North Korea, the author made a study on this field as requested by the Board of Unification, and report a part of the study here. The prominent character of North Korea's ruling sea area is that the sea is completely separated into two regions-the East Sea Region and the West Sea Region-and no continuity exists between them. The East Sea Region locates in the fringe of the biggest fishing ground of the world-the North Pacific Ocean-and very rich in resources not only warm water fishes but also cold water fishes. Especially alaska pollack, Theragra chalcogramma, is caught abundantly in this region. Contrary to that, fishing activity in the West Sea Region seems to be interrupted in winter. Even though some valuable warm water fishes-yellow corvenia, Pseudosciaena manchurica, and hair tail, Trichiurus lepturus, and so forth-come to this region from spring to summer along the coast line of this region for spawning, and vigorous fishing activity is carried out. But the most of them migrate southward to the neighboring waters of Cheju Island for wintering from autumn to winter, and so the fishing activity in this region seems to be interrupted greatly during winter. The total number of fishing boats in North Korea is estimated at 36 thousand and the rate of mechnization at about 70% compared with 99 thousand and 78% in South Korea. North Korea proclaimed an exclusive economic zone of 200 nautical miles in 1977. Specific character of this zone is setting of military boundary zone, up to 50 miles from the base line in the East Sea Region and also it covers whole region of the economic zone in the West Sea Region. Especially in the East Sea Region she set up a straight base line which can not be permissible by the international law. North Korea's statistics on fisheries product has not been announced officially on account of her unique isolationism, but it can be estimated through several data procured. At the first, the amount of fisheries products in the North Korea is reported as about 1.7 million ${\frac{M}{T}}$ by Fisheries Statistics which issued by the FAO in 1987, but a North Korea's trade organization announced the amount as 3.5 million ${\frac{M}{T}}$ in 1988. The former seems to be underestimated and the latter must be an exaggeration. According to Chikuni, who is a Japanese worker for FAO, prepared the unofficial statistics based on the evidence which he collected through the fineries development plan of the FAO/UNDP, and estimated the mean amount between 1982 and 1984 was 2.4 million ${\frac{M}{T}}$ or so. The Board of Unification estimated on the basis of various factors that the amount was 2.2 million ${\frac{M}{T}}$ or so in 1987 and in 1988. This seems to be the most reasonable. To solve the chronic lack of foreign currency, North Korea makes effort on the development of fisheries, and has even aimed fisheries product at 11 million ${\frac{M}{T}}$ by 1993, but this target looks unrealistic under the present circumstances. Somehow, we can exploit her extreme policy which has gone so far as to establish such an excessive and impractical target. Nevertheless this will be helpful to promote the joint development of the fishery activity between South Korea and North Korea.

  • PDF