• Title, Summary, Keyword: FSC

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FSI-IDEALS AND FSC-IDEALS OF BCI-ALGEBRAS

  • Liu, Yong-Lin;Liu, San-Yang;Meng, Jie
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.167-179
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    • 2004
  • The notions of FSI-ideals and FSC-ideals in BCI-algebras are introduced. The characterization properties of FSI-ideals and FSC-ideals are obtained. We investigate the relations between FSI-ideals (resp. FSC-ideals) and other fuzzy ideals, between FSI-ideals (resp. FSC-ideals) and BCI-algebras, and show that a fuzzy subset of a BCI-algebra is an FSI-ideal if and only if it is both an FSC-ideal and a fuzzy BCI-positive implicative ideal.

An Analysis of Business Management in the Farming Service Company (위탁영농회사의 사업실태 및 경영성과 분석)

  • Kang, C.Y.;Wui, Y.S.;Park, H.T.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.318-328
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    • 1994
  • This study was carried out to find out the possibility of continuity of the Farming Service Company (FSC), which has been founding since 1991 by the public administration to obtain the scale economy in the rice production, through the only financial analysis of the FSC. The results obtained were as follows. 1. The FSC's business is forward to the off-farm business rather than farm business. Based on the profit ratio, the profit ratio of off-farm business is more than that of farm business. It may cause the difficulty of policy to obtain the scale economy in the farming through the FSC. 2. Without subsidies the average net profit of the FSC was negative, which may provide the motives to the FSC to seek out the way to survive through the off-farm business, unless the FSC's could break up. 3. After all, the possibility of continuity of the FSC through the only financial analysis seems to be very little. Therefore the public administration should reconsider the present policy which is to found the more FSC continuously. If government wants to support the FSC continuously, government should focus on the conglomeration of farm land to increase the productivity of farming and on the subsidy of off-farm business to increase the profit ratio of the FSC.

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Effect of Byproducts Supplementation by Partically Replacing Soybean Meal to a Total Mixed Ration on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics In Vitro (대두박 대체 부산물 위주의 TMR 사료가 반추위 내 미생물의 In Vitro 발효특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae, Gui Seck;Kim, Eun Joong;Song, Tae Ho;Song, Tae Hwa;Park, Tae Il;Choi, Nag Jin;Kwon, Chan Ho;Chang, Moon Baek
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.129-140
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    • 2014
  • This study was performed to evaluate the effects of replacing basic total mixed ration (TMR) with fermented soybean curd, Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal, and spent coffee grounds by-product on rumen microbial fermentation in vitro. Soybean in the basic TMR diet (control) was replaced by the following 9 treatments (3 replicates): maximum amounts of soybean curd (SC); fermented SC (FSC); 3, 5, and 10% FSC + fermented A. princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal (1:1, DM basis, FSCS); and 3, 5, 10% FSC + fermented coffee meal (1:1, DM basis, FSCC) of soybean. FSC, FSCS, and FSCC were fermented using Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 496, Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 1493, Lactobacillus plantarum KCTC 1048, and Lactobacillus casei IFO 3533. Replacing dairy cow TMR with FSC treatment led to a pH value of 6 after 8 h of incubation-the lowest value measured (p<0.05), and FSCS and FSCC treatments were higher than SC and FSC treatment after 6 h (p<0.05). Gas production was higher in response to 3% FSC and FSCC treatments than the control after 4-10 h. Dry matter digestibility was increased 0-12 h after FSC treatment (p<0.05) and was the highest after 24 h of 10% FSCS treatment. $NH_3-N$ concentration was the lowest after 24 h of FSC treatment (p<0.05). Microbial protein content increased in response to treatments that had been fermented by the Lactobacillus spp. compared to control and SC treatments (p<0.05). The total concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was increased after 6-12 h of FSC treatment (p<0.05), while the highest acetate proportion was observed 24 h after 5% and 10% FSCS treatments. The FSC of propionate proportion was increased for 0-10 h compared with among treatments (p<0.05). The highest acetate in the propionate ration was observed after 12 h of SC treatment and the lowest with FSCS 3% treatment after 24 h. Methane ($CH_4$) emulsion was lower with A. princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal and spent coffee grounds treatments than with the control, SC, and FSC treatments. These experiments were designed to replace the by-products of dairy cow TMR with SC, FSC, FSCS, and FSCC to improve TMR quality. Condensed tannins contained in FSCS and FSCC treatments, which reduced $CH_4$ emulsion in vitro, decreased rumen microbial fermentation during the early incubation time. Therefore, future experiments are required to develop a rumen continuous culture system and an in vivo test to optimize the percentages of FSC, FSCS, and FSCC in the TMR diet of the dairy cows.

Cost-Benefit Analysis and Challenges of Implementing FSC Standards in Rubber Plantations in Southern Thailand

  • KONGMANEE, Chaiya;AHMED, Ferdoushi;LONGPICHAI, Onanong
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.7 no.12
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    • pp.423-431
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    • 2020
  • This study examines the cost and benefit (i.e., income) of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) rubber plantations in Thailand. The study attempts to identify the challenges to the implementation of FSC standards in rubber plantations in the country. A total of 60 rubber farmers in two Southern provinces, namely, Songkhla and Rayong, were interviewed through a standardized questionnaire to gather primary data. The study found that small-, medium- and large-sized FSC rubber plantations were worth investing in. All sizes of rubber plantations had similar values of benefit cost ratio (BCR). It was also found that the values of the discount payback period (DPP) of the three forms of FSC rubber plantations were 9-12 years, while the large rubber plantations had the highest internal rate of return (IRR) (19.0%). It implies that the large-size plantations had the highest values. The rubber farmers in the study area reported that they are facing a number of problems and hardships in implementing FSC standards, lacking knowledge and understanding of FSC, especially for preparing documentation. Therefore, the Thai government should take proper policy initiatives to remove all the problems and barriers in implementing FSC standards for the sustainable rubber production in the country.

Ethanol Fermentation of Fusant between Heterologous Transformant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis in Pilot Scale (Pilot Scale에서의 Fusant의 Ethanol 발효)

  • Seu, Jung-Hwn;Kim, Young-Ho;Lee, Soon-Mo;Bang, Byung-Ho
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.14-18
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    • 1989
  • As the final experiment to assess the possibility of industrial application of FSC14-75, ethanol productivity from liquefied sweet potato starch was examined in a pilot scale of 300 liters. FSC14-75 produced 6.6%(v/v) of ethanol from 13.3% of liquefied sweet potato starch in 8 days, and the residual sugar was 3.15%. The corresponding efficiency was 70% of the theoretical maximum. Since we could isolate unicellular cell and flocculent cell from the fermentation broth, we designated them FSC14-75(S) and FSC14-75(F), respectively. We investigated ethanol productivity of FSC14-75(F) compared with that of FSC14-75(S) from liquefied potato starch in a mini·tar tormentor scale of 2.5 liters. FSC14-75(F) was found more favorable than the counterpart in terms of ethanol productivity, and produced 8.1%(v/v) of ethanol from 15% of liquefied potato starch with an efficiency of 75%. In a pilot scale fermentation with 15% of liquefied sweet potato starch, ethanol productivity of FSC14-75(F) reached maximum level of 7.7%(v/v) after 8 days, and the residual sugar was 1.9%. However, the ethanol productivity was not enhanced by a supplementary addition of Thermamyl to the fermentation broth after sterilization.

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Social and Economic Effects of Forest Management Certification: a Case of Jeju Experimental Forest (산림경영인증의 사회·경제적 효과 분석: 제주시험림의 사례)

  • Lee, Seong Youn;Lee, Ho Sang;Chung, Young Gyo;Joo, Rin Won
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.254-262
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    • 2012
  • The purposes of the research in related to FSC in JuJe experimental forests (JJEFs) is to make pre and post socio-economic comparisons and play an important role of FSC, and recognition change to FSC timbers and to make an analysis to consumers' needs. As the results of onsite survey in 2005, respondents show a high awareness of SFM and FSC in comparisons of 2004, and the JJEFs play a critical role to make SFM and FSC advertisement worldwide, such as consumers' satisfaction to SFM and FSC is high. Hence provision of JJEF information such as job creation and socio-economic impacts to stockholders could make their satisfaction improving. Most of respondents to the FSC of JJEF represent a positive rate while low awareness to FSC timber is represented. Therefore, necessary information about JJEF FSC with forest management, process and consumption pattern of FSC is required into citizens. The final results prove that FSC effects such as 1.3 billion won direct additional benefits in terms of socio-economic aspects including environmental benefits and job creation and economic effects are enough to offset 1.3 billion won additional costs.

Effects of natural nitrite source from Swiss chard on quality characteristics of cured pork loin

  • Kim, Tae-Kyung;Hwang, Ko-Eun;Song, Dong-Heon;Ham, Youn-Kyung;Kim, Young-Boong;Paik, Hyun-Dong;Choi, Yun-Sang
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.12
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    • pp.1933-1941
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate quality characteristics of cured pork loin with natural nitrite source from Swiss chard. Methods: Pork loin was cured in brine and the ratio of water and fermented Swiss chard (FSC) solution in the brine was changed by 4:0 (control), 3:1 (T1), 1:1 (T2), 1:3 (T3), 0:4 (T4), and pickled samples with 0.012% sodium nitrite (PC, positive control) and nitrite free brine (NC, negative control) were considered as the control. Results: The pH values of cured pork loins with FSC were decreased with increasing addition level of FSC. Cooking loss was not significantly different among all treatments. T4 had the lowest value in moisture content and lightness value and the highest value in curing efficiency. The redness value of T4 was not significantly different from that of PC in raw. After cooking, however, it was higher than that of PC. The yellowness value of cured pork loin added with FSC was increased with increasing level of FSC. Volatile basic nitrogen content of cured pork loin added with FSC was higher than PC and NC. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance value of cured pork loin added with FSC was decreased with increasing FSC level. Residual nitrite level and shear force were increased with increasing FSC level. In the sensory evaluation, sensory score for flavor, off-flavor, chewiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability were not significantly different among all treatments. However, sensory score for color was increased when the concentration of FSC added to pork loin was increased. Conclusion: The FSC solution had a positive effect on redness and lipid oxidation. As shown by the results in protein deterioration and sensory, Swiss chard can replace sodium nitrite as natural curing agent.

Comparison of hemostatic efficacy and cytotoxicity of three ferric subsulfate- and chitosan-based styptics in different formulations using a rat tail bleeding model

  • Byun, Jae-Young;Lee, Soojung;Lee, Jeong Ik;Yoon, Hun-Young
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.58 no.3
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    • pp.119-124
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to compare the hemostatic efficacy of three ferric subsulfate- and chitosan-based styptics as a powder and a gel containing ferric subsulfate and chitosan (FSC-PO and FSC-G, respectively) and a soaked pad containing ferric subsulfate and lidocaine (FSL-SP) using a rat tail bleeding model. The cytotoxicity of the styptics against L-929 mouse fibroblasts was also evaluated using a cell counting kit-8 assay. Four groups of 10 rats each were assigned to the three different styptics and a non-treated control groups. Rat tail tips were transected, after which styptics were applied with pressure. The wounds were observed for hemostasis for 3 min, then irrigated with saline to check for recurrent hemorrhage. L-929 mouse fibroblasts were exposed to extracts of the styptics (100 mg/mL) and their dilutions (1:10, 1:100, and 1:1,000). FSC-PO and FSC-G more effectively controlled initial hemorrhage than FSL-SP (p = 0.033). Additionally, FSC-PO and FSC-G more effectively maintained hemostasis than the control group (p = 0.02 and p < 0.01, respectively). However, all styptics showed enhanced cytotoxicity against L-929 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, although FSC-PO and FSC-G would be recommended to control hemorrhage, the benefits of styptics must be balanced against the clinical significance of their cytotoxicity.

Ultra-wideband BSF Using Multi-stage FSCS (다단 FSCS를 이용한 초광대역 특성의 대역저지 필터)

  • Yun, Tae-Soon
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.439-444
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    • 2020
  • In this paper, the analysis of the FSCS (frequency-selected coupling structure) as the coupling coefficient and multi-stage FSCS for enhanced bandstop bandwidth is suggested. The FSCS is composed by the connected coupled-line and open-stub. Basically, the resonance frequency of the FSCS is given by the electrical length of the stub, and the bandwidth is controlled by the coupling coefficient. Multi-stage FSCS is made by addition of another FSCS with the half electrical length. Manufactured bandstop filter using 3 stage FSCS is measured with the stopband of 177.3% and the maximum return loss of 1dB.

Electron Microscopic Observations of Fat-storing Cells on the Liver Of Squirrels (다람쥐 간지방섭취세포(肝脂肪攝取細胞)의 전자현미경적(電子顯微鏡的) 관찰(觀察))

  • Lee, Jae-Hyun;Lee, Joon Sup
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 1981
  • In order to know the morphology and the function of the fat-storing cells (FSC) of the squirrels which were captured at the Pal-Gong mountain near Taegu in December, 1980 (Group A) and May, 1981 (Group B), respectively, the light and electron microscopic observations were conducted on the liver of the squirrels. The results obtained are as follows: 1. Light microscopically, the size of the lipid droplets in the FSC of group A was uniformly larger than those in the cells of group B, and number of the droplets in the FSC of group A was less than those in the cells of group B, The distribution of the FSC of group A was mainly perilobular area while those of group B was centrolobular and midzonal areas. In this point of view, the FSC of the squirrels was similar to those cells of the hamsters. 2. Electron microscopically, general morphology of the sqirrel's FSC was accorded with those of the other mammals. However, the rouph surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in the FSC of group B was more dilated than those in the cells of group A, and more lipid droplets and pinocytopic vesicles were observed in the FSC of group B than those in the cells of group A. 3. From the above evidences, it could be suggested that the metabolic rates in the FSC of the squirrels collected in the spring were higher than those in the cells of the animals collected in the winter.

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