• Title, Summary, Keyword: FTL

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Demand-based FTL Cache Partitioning for Large Capacity SSDs (대용량 SSD를 위한 요구 기반 FTL 캐시 분리 기법)

  • Bae, Jinwook;Kim, Hanbyeol;Im, Junsu;Lee, Sungjin
    • IEMEK Journal of Embedded Systems and Applications
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2019
  • As the capacity of SSDs rapidly increases, the amount of DRAM to keep a mapping table size in SSDs becomes very huge. To address a Demand-based FTL (DFTL) scheme that caches part of mapping entries in DRAM is considered to be a feasible alternative. However, owing to its unpredictable behaviors, DFTL fails to provide consistent I/O response times. In this paper, we a) analyze a root cause that results in fluctuation on read latency and b) propose a new demand-based FTL scheme that ensures guaranteed read response time with low write amplification. By preventing mapping evictions while serving reads, the proposed technique guarantees every host read requests to be done in 2 NAND read operations. Moreover, only with 25% of a cache ratio, the proposed scheme improves random write performance and random mixed performance by 1.65x and 1.15x, respectively, over the traditional DFTL.

Structural Integrity Evaluation of Fuel Test Loop Submerged in Water Subjected to Postulated Pipe Rupture

  • Lee, Choon-Yeol;Kwon, Jae-Do;Lee, Yong-Son;Kim, Kil-Soo;Kim, Jun-Yeun
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.215-225
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    • 2000
  • The structural integrity of the fuel test loop (FTL) in a Korean experimental reactor is evaluated when the FTL, submerged in a water environment, is subjected to a postulated pipe rupture. The analyses are performed under static and dynamic conditions, imposing the thrust force history at each postulated pipe rupture section. Through analysis the following results are found: l) A double ended guillotine can not be expected based on the toughness of the material, 2) the structural integrity of the chimney surrounding the FTL would not impede the structural integrity by the pipe whip. All analyses are performed by finite element methods.

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Flash Memory Wear-Leveling using Regulation Pools (마모 제어 영역을 활용한 플래시 메모리 마모평준화)

  • Park, Jeong-Su;Min, Sang-Lyul
    • Journal of KIISE:Computing Practices and Letters
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.1204-1208
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    • 2010
  • In this paper, we propose a flash memory wear-leveling scheme that makes use of meta-data storage region as a regulation pool. By concentrating program and erase operations on the blocks with lower erase counts in the regulation pool, the proposed scheme achieve an even wear-leveling in a simple and efficient way. Experiments with an implementation of the proposed scheme in RS-FTL showed that the erase count deviation is reduced by around 40% through the erase count regulation.

Design and Implementation of FTL Performance Measurement Tool using Multi Block Erase of Fusion Flash Memory (다중 블록 지우기 기능을 적용한 퓨전 플래시 메모리의 FTL 성능 측정 도구 설계 및 구현)

  • Lee, Dong-Hwan;Cho, Won-Hee;Kim, Deok-Hwan
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.647-648
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    • 2008
  • Traditional FTL and flash file systems based of NAND flash memory may not be adaptively applied to new fusion flash memory which combines the advantages of NAND and NOR flash memory. In this paper, we propose a FTL performance measurement tool using Multi Block Erase function of fusion flash memory. The performance measurement tool shows that multi block erase function can be effectively utilized in performance enhancement of garbage collection for fusion flash memory.

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An Efficient Flash Translation Layer Considering Temporal and Spacial Localities for NAND Flash Memory Storage Systems

  • Kim, Yong-Seok
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.22 no.12
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2017
  • This paper presents an efficient FTL for NAND flash based SSDs. Address translation information of page mapping based FTLs is stored on flash memory pages and address translation cache keeps frequently accessed entries. The proposed FTL of this paper reduces response time by considering both of temporal and spacial localities of page access patterns in translation cache management. The localities of several well-known traces are evaluated and determine the structure of the cache for high hit ratio. A simulation with several well-known traces shows that the presented FTL reduces response time in comparison to previous FTLs and can be used with relatively small size of caches.

Managing the B-Tree Efficiently using Write Pattern Conversion on NAND Flash Memory (낸드 플래시 메모리상에서 쓰기 패턴 변환을 이용한 효율적인 B-트리 관리)

  • Choi, Hae-Gi;Park, Dong-Joo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 2007
  • 플래시 메모리는 하드디스크와 다른 물리적 특성을 가지고 있다. 대표적으로 덮어쓰기가 되지 않고 데이터를 읽고 쓰는 단위와 지우는 단위가 서로 다르다. 이러한 물리적 제약을 소프트웨어적으로 보완해주기 위해서 플래시 메모리를 사용하는 시스템에서는 대부분 Flash Translation Layer (FTL)을 사용한다. 지금까지 FTL 알고리즘의 대부분이 임의 쓰기 패턴보다 순차 쓰기 패턴에 훨씬 더 효율적으로 작용한다. 그러나 B-트리와 같은 자료구조에서는 일반적으로 순차 쓰기 패턴 보다는 임의 쓰기 패턴이 발생된다. 따라서 플래시 메모리상에서 B-트리를 관리할 경우 FTL에 비효율적인 쓰기 패턴을 생성하게 된다. 본 논문에서는 플래시 메모리상에서 B-트리와 같은 자료구조를 효율적으로 저장 관리하기 위한 새로운 방식을 제안한다. 새로운 방식은 B-트리에서 발생되는 임의 쓰기를 플래시 메모리상의 버퍼를 이용하여 FTL에 효율적인 순차 쓰기를 발생시킨다. 실험 결과, 본 논문에서 제안하는 방식은 기존의 방식보다 플래시 메모리에서 발생되는 쓰기 및 블록소거 연산 횟수를 60%이상 감소시킨다.

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Workload-Driven Adaptive Log Block Allocation for Efficient Flash Memory Management (효율적 플래시 메모리 관리를 위한 워크로드 기반의 적응적 로그 블록 할당 기법)

  • Koo, Duck-Hoi;Shin, Dong-Kun
    • Journal of KIISE:Computer Systems and Theory
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.90-102
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    • 2010
  • Flash memory has been widely used as an important storage device for consumer electronics. For the flash memory-based storage systems, FTL (Flash Translation Layer) is used to handle the mapping between a logical page address and a physical page address. Especially, log buffer-based FTLs provide a good performance with small-sized mapping information. In designing the log buffer-based FTL, one important factor is to determine the mapping structure between data blocks and log blocks, called associativity. While previous works use static associativity fixed at the design time, we propose a new log block mapping scheme which adjusts associativity based on the run-time workload. Our proposed scheme improves the I/O performance about 5~16% compared to the static scheme by adjusting the associativity to provide the best performance.

Reconfigurable Integrated Flash Memory Software Architecture with FAT Compatibility (재구성 가능한 FAT 호환 통합 플래시 메모리 소프트웨어 구조)

  • Kim, Yu-Mi;Choi, Yong-Suk;Baek, Seung-Jae;Choi, Jong-Moo
    • Journal of KIISE:Computing Practices and Letters
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.17-22
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    • 2010
  • As deployments of Flash memory are spreading out rapidly from tiny USB storages to large DB servers, interoperability become an indispensable requirement for Flash memory software architecture. For the purpose, many systems make use of the conventional FAT file system and FTL (Flash Translation Layer) software as a de facto standard. However, the tactless combination of the FAT file system and FTL does not satisfy diverse other requirements of a variety of systems. In this paper, we propose a novel reconfigurable integrated Flash memory software architecture, named INFLAWARE (INtegrated FLAsh softWARE) that supports not only interoperability but also reconfigurability and performance enhancement. Real implementation based experimental results have shown that INFLAWARE can achieve improvements of memory footprint up to 27% with an average of 19%, compared with the conventional FAT and FTL combination. Also, by using map_destroy technique, it can reduce response times of various applications up to 21% with an average of 10%.

Design of an Efficient FTL Algorithm for Flash Memory Accesses Using Sector-level Mapping (섹터 매핑 기법을 적용한 효율적인 FTL 알고리듬 설계)

  • Yoon, Tae-Hyun;Kim, Kwang-Soo;Hwang, Sun-Young
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.34 no.12B
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    • pp.1418-1425
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    • 2009
  • This paper proposes a novel FTL (Flash Translation Layer) algorithm based on sector-level mapping to reduce the number of total erase operations in flash memory accesses. The proposed algorithm can reduce the number of erase operations by utilizing the sector-level mapping table when writing data at flash memory. Sector-level mapping technique reduces flash memory access time and extendsthe life time of the flash memory. In the algorithm, wear-leveling is implemented by selecting victim blocks having the minimal number of erase operations, when empty spaces for write are not available. To evaluate the performance of the proposed FTL algorithm, experiments were performed on several applications, such as MP3 players, MPEG players, web browsers and document editors. The proposed algorithm reduces the number of erase operations by 72.4% and 61.9%, when compared with well-known BAST and FAST algorithms, respectively.

The Construction Status of Fuel Test Loop Facility (핵연료 노내조사시험설비의 시공 현황)

  • Park, Kook-Nam;Lee, Chung-Young;Kim, Hark-Rho;Yoo, Hyun-Jae;Yoo, Seong-Yeon
    • Proceedings of the SAREK Conference
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    • pp.305-309
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    • 2007
  • FTL(Fuel Test Loop) is a facility that confirms performance of nuclear fuel at a similar irradiation condition with that of nuclear power plant. FTL construction work began on August, 2006 and ended on March, 2007. During Construction, ensuring the worker's safety was the top priority and installation of the FTL without hampering the integrity of the HANARO was the next one. The installation works were done successfully overcoming the difficulties such as on the limited space, on the radiation hazard inside the reactor pool, and finally on the shortening of the shut down period of the HANARO. The Commissioning of the FTL is to check the function and the performance of the equipment and the overall system as well. The FTL shall start operation with high burn up test fuels in early 2008 if the commissioning and licensing progress on schedule.

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