• Title, Summary, Keyword: Facial Muscles

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THE EFFECTS OF FACIAL DENERVATION ON FACIAL MUSCLES AND BONES IN GROWING RABBITS (안면신경절제가 가토의 안면근육 및 안면골에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Young Guk;Lee, Ki Soo
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.23-45
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    • 1990
  • It is the aim of this study to determine the effects of facial denervation on physiological properties of facial muscles and facial bones in growing rabbits. Experimental animals of fifty two Oryctolagus cuniculus rabbits were employed. Unilateral dissection of facial nerve was carried out on twelve rabbits, bilateral dissection of facial nerve was made on another twelve rabbits and the other twenty rabbits were on unilateral dissection of facial nerve for the histochemical analyses. Six rabbits on the bilateral surgical sham operations and six rabbits of non-intervention served the control groups. EMG records of the orbicularis oris, buccinator and masseter muscles as well as lateral and dorsoventral cephalometric films were taken and analyzed at 0, 1, 2, 5 and 8 weeks respectively. The orbicularis oris, buccinator and masseter muscles of both sides were removed from the animals of the histochemistry group and muscle fibers were classified on the basis of histochemical staining for $\alpha$-GPD, NADH-D and myosin ATPase. EMG activities of orbicularis oris and buccinator muscles were vanished immediately after denervation. Recovery of activities were detected one week after denervation in buccinator and five weeks in orbicularis oris muscles. Histochemical properties of masseter muscles remained as fast glycolytic through the experimental period. Orbicularis oris muscle fibers showed the gradual diminution of size and ratio of the slow oxidative fibers accompanied with atrophy, phagocytosis and vacuolation as well as the augmentation of fast oxidative glycolytic fibers. The buccinator muscle manifested the augmentation of fast oxidative glycolytic fibers at five weeks of experiment. Visual changes in morphology of craniofacial area were not evident, however it variety of subtle changes were apparent from statistical analysis of cephalometric measurements. It is concluded facial nerve regulates the physiological properties of facial muscles and interrelation between the function of the facial muscles and changes of facial bones would be in some degrees.

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A Review of the Anatomy of Face for the Clinical Application of Facial Acupuncture (안면침(顔面鍼) 시술(施術)을 위한 안면(顔面) 근육(筋肉)의 해부학적(解剖學的) 이해(理解) 및 임상적(臨床的) 적용(適用)에 대한 고찰(考察))

  • Kim, Joo-Hee;Kwon, Hyo-Jung;Song, Jeong-Hwa;Choi, Do-Young;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Lee, Jae-Dong
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.221-228
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to understand the anatomical basis of the facial muscles and to apply this knowledge on the clinical practice of facial acupuncture. Methods : We searched both contemporary and the latest literatures on the practical application of facial muscle anatomy on Facial Acupuncture. Conclusions : Facial Acupuncture improves skin tone, texture and wrinkling by assisting the circulation of Ki. It stimulates the facial muscles directly to undo the stagnation of the meridians. To practice Facial Acupuncture, thorough understanding of facial anatomy is required. In this study the muscles of the head and neck, appropriate depth and angle of acupuncture needle, etc. were reviewed. The upper facial muscles including frontalis, procerus, corrugator supercilii and orbicularis oculi, the mid facial muscles including auricularis, nasalis, levator labii superioris, zygomaticus and so on, and the lower facial muscles including orbicularis oris, depressor labii inferioris, depressor anguli oris, mentalis and platysma etc. were reviewed in this study. For safer and more effective use of Facial Acupuncture, further study on the objective outcome of the technique should be done.

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A Clinical Study to Observe Nasolabial Angle on Facial Palsy Sequelae by Disproportional Muscles of Expression (Nasolabial Angle 관찰을 통한 구완와사 후유증의 표정근 불균형에 대한 임상적 고찰)

  • Youn, In-Hwan;Kim, Nam-Kwen
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.131-143
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    • 2008
  • Objectives: Electroacupuncture has the effect of recovering paralytic nerves and muscles. To treat disproportional muscles of expression with electroacupuncture, it is essential that we know the correct point of paralytic muscle. Methods: We investigated 20 cases of patients with facial palsy sequelae. We measured nasolabial angles, checked grade of muscle palsy, and tested ENoG. Results: This study showed significant correlation between nasolabial angles with these muscle groups (zygomatic group I, zygomatic group II, orbicularis oris muscle). Conclusions: Disproportional facesare fixed by muscles of expression observed in facial palsy sequelae. We can treat muscular paralysis of these muscle groups with electroacupuncture for more complete recovery.

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Electrophysiologic Pattern of Facial Muscles in Bell's Palsy (얼굴마비에서 얼굴근육의 전기생리학적 양상)

  • Lee, Sang-Soo;Shin, Dong-Ick
    • Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.75-79
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    • 2004
  • Backgrounds: Electrodiagnostic tests have been developed to estimate the degree of facial nerve injury during the acute phase. Side-to-side amplitude comparison with the affected side expressed as a percentage of the nonaffected side has been one of the most valuable electrophysiologic methods of assessing facial nerve functioning. This study was designed to know whether there is any difference in the side-to-side comparison of amplitudes and terminal latencies of the compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) of the facial muscles in the patients with Bell's palsy. Methods: Electroneurographic recordings with surface electrodes on the frontalis, orbicularis oculi, nasalis, and orbicularis oris muscles were made within 2 weeks post-onset (mean, day 7) in 39 patients. Results: Of the 39 Bell's palsy patients, 38 patients (97.4%) recovered satisfactorily within 6 months. The amplitude of CMAP in all patients was not reduced to 10% or less of that of the contralateral healthy muscle. The correlation of amplitude change between four facial muscles was relatively strong, but the correlation of latency change was weak. When the electroneurographic values were compared in the four muscle groups, the general linear models procedure did not show any significant difference for CMAP amplitude and latency changes (p=0.62-0.63). Conclusions: This study did not show any significant clinical advantage of electroneurographic recordings in more than one facial muscle at the early stage of Bell's palsy.

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Repetitive Nerve Stimulation in MuSK-Antibody-Positive Myasthenia Gravis

  • Kim, Seung Woo;Sunwoo, Mun Kyung;Kim, Seung Min;Shin, Ha Young;Sunwoo, Il Nam
    • Journal of clinical neurology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.287-292
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    • 2017
  • Background and Purpose Responses to repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) in patients with muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibody (Ab)-positive myasthenia gravis (MG) vary depending on the muscles tested. We analyzed the RNS responses of limb and facial muscles in MuSK-Ab-positive and acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-Ab-negative MG (MuSK MG) and MuSK-Ab-negative and AChR-Ab-negative [double-seronegative (DSN)] MG patients. Methods We retrospectively compared RNS responses between 45 MuSK MG and 29 DSN MG. RNS was applied to the abductor digiti minimi, flexor carpi ulnaris, trapezius, orbicularis oculi, and nasalis muscles. Results Abnormal RNS responses in limb muscles were observed in 22.2 and 58.6% of MuSK MG and DSN MG patients, respectively, with abnormal facial responses observed in 77.8 and 65.5%, and abnormal responses observed in any of the five muscles in 86.7 and 72.4%. Abnormal RNS responses in the abductor digiti minimi or flexor carpi ulnaris were less frequent in MuSK MG (8.9 and 15.6%, respectively) than in DSN MG (37.9 and 55.2%), whereas the findings for other muscles were not significantly different between the groups. Abnormal facial responses but normal limb responses were independently associated with MuSK MG (odds ratio=5.224, 95% confidence interval=1.300-20.990). Conclusions Abnormal RNS responses primarily in facial muscles without involvement of limb muscles were more pronounced in MuSK MG than in DSN MG. RNS of both facial and limb muscles in AChR-Ab-negative MG can increase the test sensitivity and aid in early suspicion of MuSK MG.

A Design and Implementation of 3D Facial Expressions Production System based on Muscle Model (근육 모델 기반 3D 얼굴 표정 생성 시스템 설계 및 구현)

  • Lee, Hyae-Jung;Joung, Suck-Tae
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.932-938
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    • 2012
  • Facial expression has its significance in mutual communication. It is the only means to express human's countless inner feelings better than the diverse languages human use. This paper suggests muscle model-based 3D facial expression generation system to produce easy and natural facial expressions. Based on Waters' muscle model, it adds and used necessary muscles to produce natural facial expressions. Also, among the complex elements to produce expressions, it focuses on core, feature elements of a face such as eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth, and cheeks and uses facial muscles and muscle vectors to do the grouping of facial muscles connected anatomically. By simplifying and reconstructing AU, the basic nuit of facial expression changes, it generates easy and natural facial expressions.

Research on Micro-Movement Responses of Facial Muscles by Intimacy, Empathy, Valence (친밀도, 공감도, 긍정도에 따른 얼굴 근육의 미세움직임 반응 차이)

  • Cho, Ji Eun;Park, Sang-In;Won, Myoung Ju;Park, Min Ji;Whang, Min-Cheol
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.439-448
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    • 2017
  • Facial expression is important factor on social interaction. Facial muscle movement provides emotion information to develop social network. However, facial movement has less determined to recognize social emotion. This study is to analyze facial micro-movements and to recognize the social emotion such as intimacy, empathy, and valence. 76 university students were presented to the stimuli for social emotions and was measure their facial expression using camera. As a results, facial micro-movement. showed significant difference of social emotion. After extracting the movement amount of 3 unconscious muscles and 18 conscious muscles, Dominant Frequency band was confirmed. While muscle around the nose and cheek showed significant difference in the intimacy, one around mouth did in the empathy and one around jaw in the valence. The results proposed new facial movement to express social emotion in virtual avatars and to recognize social emotion.

A Study on Cosmetic Acupuncture Through Anatomy and Physiology Interpretation (해부생리학 해석을 통한 미용침의 연구)

  • Kim, Min-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.171-177
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    • 2013
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of Cosmetic Acupuncture through reinterpretation of anatomy and physiology. Methods : The causes of wrinkle increases and rapid aging of facial skin were studied and the theoretical system of Cosmetic Acupuncture treatment was analyzed through anatomy and physiology reinterpretation. Results and Conclusions : An increase in wrinkles and rapid aging of facial skin is caused by xerosis. Skin condition represents the condition of subcutaneous muscle. The reason why skin becomes easily dry is the heat produced by craniofacial part. Craniofacial part always generates lot of physiological fever because of the muscles. This physiological fever is produced from the muscles that are responsible for maintaining skull suture, controlling the movement of temporomandibular joint, maintaining head and neck posture. Controlling this fever is the crux of Cosmetic Acupuncture mechanism. These muscles correspond to Foot Taeyang meridian-muscle, Foot Soyang meridian-muscle and Foot Yangmyung meridian-muscle. Cosmetic Acupuncture is effective for preventing facial skin from aging and wrinkle increase by mechanical stimulus on facial muscles, and for controlling craniofacial part meridian-muscle system producing the heat.

Facial EMG pattern evoked by pleasant and unpleasant odor stimulus

  • Yamada, Hiroshi;Kaneki, Noriaki;Shimada, Koji;Okii, Hironori
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Emotion and Sensibility Conference
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    • pp.11-15
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    • 2002
  • Activities of venter frontalis, corrugator, levator labii superioris and greater zygomatic muscles were measured for five male subjects while they made pleasant, unpleasant and neutral facial expressions, and while they were presented pleasant, disgusting, and neutral odors. Pleasant expression and odor activated zygomatic muscles while unpleasant expression and odor increased corrugator muscle activity.

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ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF THE MASSETER AND ANTERIOR TEMPORALIS MUSCLE AFTER ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY OF PATIENTS WITH FACIAL ASYMMETRY (안모비대칭을 동반한 하악전돌증 환자에서 악교정 수술 전후 교근과 전측두근의 근전도 변화)

  • Son, Seong-Il;Son, Jung-Hee;Jang, Hyun-Jung;Lee, Sang-Han;Cha, Du-Won;Baek, Sang-Heum
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.259-266
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    • 2005
  • The function of the masseter and anterior temporal muscles was assessed by electromyography in 30 patients with mandibular prognathism (20 patients with facial asymmetry and 10 patients without facial asymmetry) before orthognathic surgery and 4weeks afterwards. Electromyogram(EMG) recordings were made during resting, clenching and swallowing. We compared with right-left difference of this recording and asymmetry index before and after orthognathic surgery. The result of this study was as follows. 1. There was no significant right-left difference in muscle activities of masticatory muscles both asymmetric groups and controls and many variable change after orthognathic surgery.(P>0.05) 2. The mean electric activity of the masticatory muscles was found to have decreased during more clenching than resting, but there was no statistically significant difference because of individual difference of measuring values.(P>0.05) 3. The asymmetry index of masticatory muscles in asymmetric groups was significantly greater during clenching compared with controls.(P<0.05) In conclusion, no right-left difference of muscle activities was found in patients with facial asymmetry before orthognathic surgery and 4weeks afterwards. Not only muscular functioning but also many other factors, such as occlusion, temporomandibular joint disorder and trauma, probably affect facial asymmetry and will be analyzed in future studies. And we will need long term follow-up after orthognathic surgery.