• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fascism

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Fascism Expressed in the First Half of the Twentieth Century Fashion (20세기 초반 패션에 나타난 파시즘)

  • Kim, Hae-Kyung;Chu, Mi-Kyung
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.34-40
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    • 2006
  • Fascism is a term that began to be used from the late 1930s, means an idea and a system that the strong power of the state intervenes or control people's life based on the argument that the existential value of individuals is found only in the total. Fascist looks, which resulted from World War I and II, had brought a new pattern in women's fashion inspired by men's military uniforms. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify fascist fashion trends in the first half of the twentieth century and to infer various aesthetic values of fascism expressed in fascist fashion looks. The results of this study indicated that expressions of fascism reflected the current ideology of rebellion and appealed to the original national sentiment of the masses. Fascism occurred in response to the contradiction of capitalism and its general crisis had emerged as an ideology with the highest popularity symbolizing power and government during the first half of the twentieth century. It was expressed in military looks as self-centered nationalism and yearning for minorities. Second, fascist fashion looks were not only for political and sexual temptation with the image of power but also for the display of women's status and roles through the bold expression of sexual attractiveness. Finally, fascist fashion looks expressed medieval images praising the feudal age in imagination that contained heroism and at the same time achieved integration under strict social hierarchical order.

Fascism Expressed in Military Looks: Since the 1990s (밀리터리 룩에 표현된 파시즘 - 1990년대 이후부터 -)

  • 임상임;추미경
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.845-858
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study is to identify the association of military looks with fascist aesthetics and to infer various aesthetic values of fascism expressed in military looks. The research method is documentary studies through the literature and academic papers, and examined masters' and doctors' theses, domestic and overseas books and fashion magazines, photographs and materials collected from the Internet. The facism expressed in military looks is as follows: First, nationalism, reflecting the current ideology of rebellion, appeals to the original national sentiment of the masses. Second, temptation implies that fascism tempts the mass using the nature of charisma rather than by force and, by doing so, accumulates mighty power without military force. Third, mythology is utilizing images and symbols of great appeal to people for absolute power beyond the concept of time. In order to express power for the effusion of emotional energy through the vision for realities and the magical power of images. Fourth, barbarism is always harbored in the conflict and confrontation of interests among ideas, economies, religions and classes on the other side of contemporary civilized society.

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A Study on the Congress Palace in new city(E42) of Rome - Focused on the Adalberto Libera's project(1937-1943) - (로마 신도시(E42) 국제회의장에 관한 연구 - 아달베르토 리베라의 당선작(1937-1943)을 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Dae-Jin
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.81-99
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    • 2009
  • The study is on the analysis of Adalberto Libera's works, which are those of the competition works for international congress hall in 'E42'. I exerted a conclusion from analysis and studies of congress palace as well as informed data about architect Libera and uninformed original sketch of it. 1. Through analysis of original sketch data in possession of archives of paris Centre Pompidue and relevant sketch from the works, Libera adopts the modern architecture of Italy to the formalization process of concept as one of architectural methods. 2.In contrast to the way of elucidation of historicity of classicism architect, Libera's initial sketch is one of the traits from modernist's architectural concept process. Libera completes his architectural style to have developed new architecture vocabulary from 'Floating transparent box' which was result from intuition and imagination. 3 By comparing all the first plan, the second plan and constructed project, we can infer that Libera's plan was influenced by E42's classicism urban environment and masterplanner Piacentini. In addition, through historicity explanation method of modernist, it is adjudicated that the front side of facade with classism and the back side of facade with modern are partially accepted. 4. By analysing architectural concept's formalization process from original sketch of Congress palace, outstanding architect of Italian Fascism architecture, it provided new methods of architectural programming with the concrete examples.

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밀리터리 룩에 표현된 파시즘(Fascism)

  • 임상임;추미경
    • Proceedings of the Costume Culture Conference
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    • pp.63-64
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    • 2003
  • 세계화의 물결은 자본운동의 자유를 극대화시키려는 ‘신자유주의’의 영향을 받아 탈규제화, 유연화, 개방화, 자유화의 특징을 보이고 있다. 신자유주의는 현 시기의 세계자본주의 체제의 가장 중요한 이데올로기적, 정치적 조류를 가리키는 개념으로써 시장적(市場的) 가치만을 절대시 한다. 이는 곧 ‘시민사회 가 활성화되는 속에서 시민사회가 실질적으로 소멸하는 현상’이 생겨남으로써 시민 사회적 전체주의에 이르게 만드는 신자유주의적 파시즘 체제를 일컫는다. (중략)

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A Correlation between Expressionism and Neo Expressionism in 20th Century Modern Painting (20세기 현대미술에서 표현주의와 신표현주의 연관성)

  • Jun, Min-Kyung;Jeong, Kyung-Chul
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.259-267
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    • 2011
  • Although having only become a unified nation in latter 19th century, Germany saw a movement centered on intellectuals to find culture via mental revolution after experiencing much confusion amidst rapid urbanization and materialism. Having expressed as they are such psychological states as anger, sorrow, repression, etc., which arise in reality, by remaining faithful to instinctive sensibility, the form naturally becomes distorted or exaggerated and continues on the tradition of romanticism of a powerful, dark, and introverted atmosphere. Having been discontinued after being branded as 'decadent art' by the Nazis of Fascism, expressionist art has returned in latter 20th century mainly centered on Germany, and this merits our attention. While neo expressionists actively use various objets and media, they metaphorically express hope about Germany's culture and society by again placing on the screen figures, myths, and symbols using rough brush touch, rich colors, etc., which past expressionists enjoyed using to represent the inner world of humans. As such, by examining expressionism, which can be seen as the origin of neo expressionism, we will discover the context in which these people conform to Germany's traditional romanticism and how they inherited and developed it.

A Study on the design method and characteristics of "La casa del fascio" in Italian Como city (이탈리아 꼬모(COMO)에 까자 델 파쇼(CASA DEL FASCIO)의 디자인 전개방법에 관한 연구)

  • 이대진
    • Archives of design research
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.135-142
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    • 2004
  • This study is an analyze for Casa del Fascio, of Giuseppe Terragni, an important architect of fascism period of Italy. Based on the spot reinvestigation of first copies and unpublished data in a archive for a month of 2002. August, Terragni, Como, to compromise with the limit of studies up to the present. General's from early scheme to final constructed scheme, finally offered standard way to understand Terragni's scheme. Result of analyze are to two conclusions. 1) It has direct bearings between physical environment of site which was to build from original scheme and final decided external form. Especially there is direct relation between facade and composition of Duomo Cathedral, in the center of Como. 2) Although the image for scheme by architect represented as a physical form which was impossible to analyze the data as development sequence from archive, it influences on the first image, which had changed many times, exists as important element to final constructed scheme.

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A Critical Study on Ideology and Reality of Silmido (영화 [실미도]의 이데올로기와 리얼리티에 대한 비판적 고찰)

  • Seo, In-Sook
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.8 no.7
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    • pp.161-173
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    • 2008
  • Silmido [실미도 2003] captures the covered historical reality and describes the spectacular training process of the special army stationed at Silmido in vivid detail. As a result, a fictional space is turned into a reality film. The film shows ideological inconsistency of the critical view about the fascism of government authority and at the same time the political aid about government authority. The film creates dramatic and friendly effect through melodramatic and emotional exaggeration called sinpa about historical events to produce the pleasure of assimilation based on the trust of the audience. Here, individual assimilation is subjectivity achieved through the general sympathy coming from the tragic national discourse. Silmido appeals to the imaginary community not in a logical but in an emotional way. The spectacular action and realistic images are supported by national tragedy divided into the South Korea and the North Korea, and integrated sentimentalism to amplify the tragedy. Silmido tries to strengthen the tragic situation caused by the division ideology through this sentimentalism called sinpa. In contrast to the brutality of the relentless military regime, the sacrifice of good-hearted Silmido force members is heroically portrayed.

A study on the Historical Significance of Luciano Baldessari's Pavilion Architecture for Breda (선전과 소통 : 루치아노 발데사리의 브레다 전시관 계획에 관한 고찰 1951-1963)

  • Kim, Il-Hyun
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.67-86
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    • 2008
  • Main theme of this paper is the evaluation of the historical significance of Luciano Baldessari's exhibition works mainly during the Fifties. In order to understand the formal and logical basis of those project, his relationship with the historical Avant-gardes and the consequences expressed in his pavilion projects for the Breda Industrial Company are analyzed. The first part focuses on the influence of Italian Futurism, German Expressionism and Italian Rationalism on the formation and experience of Baldessari during the interwar years. The encounter with these movements determine the interest but also the principles along which Baldessari represents his idea of object, space and place. Specially his professional activities during Fascism would determine his attitude toward political power and the necessity of autonomy in artistic sphere. In the second part, different themes that Baldessari affronted in each project of Breda Pavilions is analyzed. Another important issue regard the historiography of the contemporary architecture. Often, many important works that lies in the threshold of the disciplines such as painting and sculpture and media art were excluded in the history of architecture just because they do not deal with the architectural object. Recently, many elements such as theatrical project and temporary objects are considered as part of urban reality and architecture with acknowledgment of their capacity to create event and situations. Along this thought, not just the reconfiguration on the territory of architecture in present but also the criterion to evaluate the past history of architecture is changing drastically. This study on the pavilions of Baldessari intends to contribute indirectly on the current issue of dominion of architecture, but also to evaluate objectively recent architecture. Consequently, architectural protagonists such as Baldessari and their ephemeral projects would be evaluated compressively in their multiplicity of significance.

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A Study on the Image Communication of Military Style in 20th Century (20세기 밀리터리 스타일의 이미지 커뮤니케이션에 대한 연구)

  • Cho, Jung-Mee;Yoo, Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.32 no.8
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    • pp.1309-1321
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    • 2008
  • Military style is not limited to a single period but represents various image communications related to items, synthetic images and different periodical culture backgrounds. The purpose of this study is to define the communicational function of the military style beginning from the 1st world war up to the modern days, and furthermore explain the characteristics and contents of military styles in different periods by studying the nowadays various symbols of the military style in denotative and connotative aspects. The research method is documentary studies through the literature and academic paper, and examined masters' and doctors' thesis, domestic and overseas books and fashion magazines, photographs and materials collected from the internet. As a result, first, the military style is a significant fashion code in understanding modern fashion by serving as a strong communication function representing people’s ritual through various image items called the 'military look'. Second, the meaning of the image communication through military look changed throughout the different periods. During the 1st and 2nd World war the military look supported Fascism by serving as a media representing extreme patriotism and at the same time social images like functionalism, women liberation, regulation and saving. During the cold war period it was used by young progressives like hippies and punks to send an opposing message towards war and commercialism. Since then up to the 80s it was a medium representing the ‘new role of women’, who possess same social rights and power as the men. However in the 90s the military style had to go through a paradigm transition period. Since this period it got affected by the post modernism and designers, consumers alike adopted military style to create unique beauty It can also be said that it began to be used as a pure fashion code representing intertextuality. It was rather expressed as a metonymy than a metaphor and combined with elegance and feminine factor, which contrasts to the original military concept, it now represents totally new hybrids such as difference, dissemination and varieties.

A Study on Avant-Garde Fine Art during the period of Japanese Colonial Rule of Korea, centering on 'Munjang' (a literary magazine) (일제강점기 '전위미술론'의 전통관 연구 - '문장(文章)' 그룹을 중심으로)

  • Park, Ca-Rey
    • The Journal of Art Theory & Practice
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    • no.4
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    • pp.57-76
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    • 2006
  • From the late 1920s to the 1930s, Korea's fine art community focused on traditional viewpoints as their main topic. The traditional viewpoints were discussed mainly by Korean students studying in Japan, especially oil painters. Such discussions on tradition can be divided into two separate halves, namely the pre- and post-Sino-Japanese War (1937) periods. Before the war, the modernists among Korea's fine art community tried to gain a fuller understanding of contemporary Western modern art, namely, expressionism, futurism, surrealism, and so forth, on the basis of Orientalism, and borrow from these schools' in order to create their own works. Furthermore, proponents of Joseon's avant-garde fine arts and artists of the pro-fine art school triggered debate on the traditional viewpoints. After the Sino-Japanese War, these artists continued to embrace Western modern art on the basis of Orientalism. However, since Western modern fine art was regressing into Oriental fine art during this period, Korean artists did not need to research Western modern fine art, but sought to study Joseon's classics and create Joseon's own avant- garde fine art in a movement led by the Munjang group. This research reviews the traditional view espoused by the Munjang group, which represented the avant-garde fine art movement of the post-war period. Advocating Joseon's own current of avant-garde fine art through the Munjang literary magazine, Gil Jin - seop, Kim Yong-jun and others accepted the Japanese fine art community's methodology for the restoration of classicism, but refused Orientalism as an ideology, and attempted to renew their perception of Joseon tradition. The advocation of the restoration of classicism by Gil Jin-seop and Kim Yong-jun appears to be similar to that of the Yasuda Yojuro-style restoration of classicism. However, Gil Jin-seop and Kim Yong-jun did not seek their sources of classicism from the Three-Kingdoms and Unified Silla periods, which Japan had promoted as a symbol of unity among the Joseon people; instead they sought classicism from the Joseon fine art which the Japanese had criticized as a hotbed of decadence. It was the Joseon period that the Munjang group chose as classicism when Japan was upholding Fascism as a contemporary extremism, and when Hangeul (Korean writing system) was banned from schools. The group highly evaluated literature written in the style of women, especially women's writings on the royal court, as represented by Hanjungnok (A Story of Sorrowful Days). In the area of fine art, the group renewed the evaluation of not only literary paintings, but also of the authentic landscape paintings refused by, and the values of the Chusa school criticized as decadent by, the colonial bureaucratic artists, there by making great progress in promoting the traditional viewpoint. Kim Yong-jun embraced a painting philosophy based on the painting techniques of Sasaeng (sketching), because he paid keen attention to the tradition of literary paintings, authentic landscape paintings and genre paintings. The literary painting theory of the 20th century, which was highly developed, could naturally shed both the colonial historical viewpoint which regarded Joseon fine art as heteronomical, and the traditional viewpoint which regarded Joseon fine art as decadent. As such, the Munjang group was able to embrace the Joseon period as the source of classicism amid the prevalent colonial historical viewpoint, presumably as it had accumulated first-hand experience in appreciating curios of paintings and calligraphic works, instead of taking a logical approach. Kim Yong-jun, in his fine art theory, defined artistic forms as the expression of mind, and noted that such an artistic mind could be attained by the appreciation of nature and life. This is because, for the Munjang group, the experience of appreciating nature and life begins with the appreciation of curios of paintings and calligraphic works. Furthermore, for the members of the Munjang group, who were purists who valued artistic style, the concept of individuality presumably was an engine that protected them from falling into the then totalitarian world view represented by the Nishita philosophy. Such a 20th century literary painting theory espoused by the Munjang group concurred with the contemporary traditional viewpoint spearheaded by Oh Se-chang in the 1910s. This theory had a great influence on South and North Korea's fine art theories and circles through the Fine Art College of Seoul National University and Pyongyang Fine Art School in the wake of Korea's liberation. In this sense, the significance of the theory should be re-evaluated.

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