• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fatigue factor

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Fatigue Strength Improvement and Fatigue Characteristics by TIG-Dressing on Weld Bead Toes (용접지단부 TIG처리에 의한 피로강도향상 및 피로특성)

  • Jung, Young Hwa;Kim, Ik Gyeom;Nam, Wang Hyone;Chang, Dong Huy
    • Journal of Industrial Technology
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    • v.20 no.A
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    • pp.169-178
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    • 2000
  • The 4-point bending tests have been performed In order to estimate the effect of TIG-dressing on fatigue strength and fatigue characteristics quantitatively for non load-carrying fillet welded joints subjected to pure bending. As a result of fatigue tests, fatigue strengths of as-welded specimens have satisfied the grade of fatigue strength prescribed in specifications of korea, AASHTO and JSSC. Fatigue strength at 2 million cycles of TIG-dressing specimens have increased compared with as-welded specimens. As the result of beachmark tests, fatigue cracks occurred at several points, where the radius of curvature and flank angle in the weld bead toes were low, and grew as semi-elliptical cracks, then approached to fracture. As a result of finite element analysis, stress concentration factor in weld bead toes has closely related to the flank angle and radius of curvature, and between these, the radius of curvature has more largely affected in stress concentration factor than flank angle. As a result of fracture mechanics approaches, the crack correction factor of test specimens has largely affected on stress gradient correction factor in case a/t is below 0.4. From the relations between stress intensity factor range estimated from FEM analysis and fatigue crack growth rate, fatigue life has been correctly calculated.

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Rating of steel bridges considering fatigue and corrosion

  • Lalthlamuana, R.;Talukdar, S.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.643-660
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    • 2013
  • In the present work, the capacity ratings of steel truss bridges have been carried out incorporating dynamic effect of moving vehicles and its accumulating effect as fatigue. Further, corrosion in the steel members has been taken into account to examine the rating factor. Dynamic effect has been considered in the rating procedure making use of impact factors obtained from simulation studies as well as from codal guidelines. A steel truss bridge has been considered to illustrate the approach. Two levels of capacity ratings- the upper load level capacity rating (called operating rating) and the lower load level capacity rating (called inventory rating) were found out using Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) method and a proposal has been made which incorporates fatigue in the rating formula. Random nature of corrosion on the steel member has been taken into account in the rating by considering reduced member strength. Partial safety factor for each truss member has been obtained from the fatigue reliability index considering random variables on the fatigue parameters, traffic growth rate and accumulated number of stress cycle using appropriate probability density function. The bridge has been modeled using Finite Element software. Regressions of rating factor versus vehicle gross weight have been obtained. Results show that rating factor decreases when the impact factor other than those in the codal provisions are considered. The consideration of fatigue and member corrosion gives a lower value of rating factor compared to those when both the effects are ignored. In addition to this, the study reveals that rating factor decreases when the vehicle gross weight is increased.

A Fatigue Related Equation with Shape and Loading Factors Representing Effect of Thickness in Al 2024-T3 Alloy Sheet (판재 Al 2024-T3 합금재료의 두께효과를 나타내는 형상인자 및 하중인자에 의한 피로관계식)

  • Kim, Seung-Gwon;Lee, Ouk-Sub;Jang, Joo-Sup
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.141-146
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    • 2012
  • Aluminum alloys have been used with various thicknesses suitable for light weight of structure. It is known that the thickness effect of material is an important factor affecting fatigue crack propagation under constant fatigue stress condition. In this work, we presented the behavior of fatigue crack propagation in thin plate compared to thick plate Al 2024-T3 alloy with referred thickness effect in a correlative equation determined by the shape factor and the loading factor. We chose two factors that are used in the correlative equation with considering that the experiments were carried out under a constant fatigue stress condition. The thickness ratio of thin plate compared to thick plate and the equivalent effective stress intensity factor ratio depending on thickness were chosen as shape and loading factors. A correlative equation is utilized to determine the equivalent effective stress intensity factor range of thin plate and identify the degree of increasing phenomenon of fatigue life in thin plate compared to thick plate.

Fatigue Characteristics of Non Load-Carrying Fillet Welded Joints According to Post-Processing (용접후처리에 따른 하중비전달형 필렛용접부의 피로특성)

  • Hong, Sung-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.161-168
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    • 2010
  • A series of fatigue tests have been performed on the non-load carrying fillet welded joints in order to quantitatively assess the fatigue characteristics due to the grindings and TIG(Tungsten Inert Gas) welding treatments. From the results of fatigue tests, it has been shown that the fatigue strengths at $2{\times}106$ load cycles were improved in the case of the grinding sand TIG welding treatments, and we could know that it is satisfying fatigue strength prescribed in fatigue design standard in general. Besides, from the results of fracture mechanics approaches, the geometric shape correction factors were the most dominant factors in the initial fatigue crack growth, but as the fatigue crack develops, the finite plate correction factor were became the most dominant factor, and the fatigue life on non-load carrying fillet welded joints could be relatively exactly estimated by using the relations between fatigue crack growth rate and stress intensity factor obtained from finite element analysis and existing proposed formulae.

Fatigue and its Related Factors in Patients on Hemodialysis (혈액투석환자의 피로와 관련 요인에 관한 연구)

  • 김혜령
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.53-72
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    • 1996
  • The Purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of fatigue and the relationship between fatigue and related factors in patients on hemodialysis. This study was a survey study using a cross-sectional design. The subjects for this study were 101 patients on hemodialysis who were registered in the six hemodialysis clinics among a total of eleven clinics in Seoul. The period of data collection was from February 28, 1995 to May 2, 1995. Data were collected through an interview with a structured packet and the physiological data. The tools used in this study were the Visual Analogue Scale-Fatigue developed by Lee et al(1990) and translated by Lee(1991), the fatigue interview schedule developed by this researcher, Zung's self rating depression scale(Zung, 1965), the self-efficacy scale developed by Sherer et al(1982) and the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire(NSSQ) translated by Oh(1984). The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics(mean, standard deviation, frequency, range), Pearson correlation coefficients and Stepwise multiple regression. The results were as follows ; 1. Characteristics of Fatigue of hemodialysis patients : 1) 79 of 101 hemodialysis patients complained fatigue. 2) The mean fatigue score as measured by the VAS-F was 36.2mm. 3) The mean duration of fatigue was 2.9 hours 2. Characteristics of fatigue related factors : 1) The physiologic factor which included Hgb, Hct, BUN, creatinine, potassium and interdialytic weight gain deviated from normal range. 2) The psychological factor which included depression and self-efficacy was about the same level as for patients with other chronic diseases. 3) The environmental factor which included social support had wide variation. 3. The relationship between fatigue and related factors : 1) Interdialytic weight gain in the physiologica factor was the only valuable with fatigue (p<.05) 2) The relationship between fatigue and the psychological factor of depression showed a positive and strong correlation(p<.05). According to the findings of this study, fatigue was highly correlated with the depression. This indicates that nurses should try to assess and control psychological factors when patients complain of fatigue rather than just considering physiological factors. Nursing has to develop effective nursing interventions to reduce fatigue in patients with chronic diseases using the relationship between fatigue and physiological, psychological and environmental factors.

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Validity and Reliability of Translated Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue Scale for the Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (류마티스 관절염환자용 다차원적 피로척도의 타당도 및 신뢰도)

  • Lee, Kyung-Sook;Lee, Eun-Ok
    • Journal of muscle and joint health
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.206-221
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to validate translated Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue(MAF) scale. The scale is a 16-item scale that measures four dimensions of fatigue : severity, distress, impact, timing. Fourteen items are numerical rating scales and 2 items have multiple choice responses. Data were collected from the 137 patients with rheumatoid arthritis after content validation. Criterion validity was tested by correlation coefficient with Piper Fatigue Scale, which resulted in 0.7573(p<.0000). Construct validity was tested by item analysis and factor analysis. Corrected item-total correlation coefficients were 0.63-0.88. And factor analysis showed 2 factors : fatigue degree factor and fatigue impact factor. These two factors explained 73.5% of total variance. Reliability of internal consistency was 0.96 in Cronbach's alpha. Further validation study is necessary in each factor in other settings with other subjects.

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Fatigue Life Evaluation of Notched Shaft Using Local Strain Approach (국부변형률방법을 이용한 노치를 지닌 축의 피로수명평가)

  • 고승기;김영일;이학주;김완두;이상록
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.80-89
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    • 1996
  • Fatigue life of a notched shaft was evaluated in order to estimate the durability and integrity of the notched shaft in design stage. Cumulative fatigue dama- ge analysis was performed using local strain approach based on the assumption that the fatigue life of a notched component is approximately same as that of a smooth specimen is subjected to the same strain at the notched component. In this paper, shafts with different notch root radius of 1, 2㎜ resulting in different values of stress concentration factors were tested under||rotating bending fatigue loading condition. Theoretical stress concentration factor for each notch type was calculated using finite element method. Fatigue life prediction program, FALIPS, written in C language was developed using the strain-life curve, and the local strain approach integrating Neuber's rule, cyclic stress-strain, and hysteresis loop equations. The fatigue life evaluated using the fatigue notch factor obtained from the experimentally determined fatigue strength showed very large scattering with nonconservatism, but the fatigue notch factors derived from the stress concentration factors and Peterson's equation reduced the considerablely accurate fatigue life evaluation within a factor of three.

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FATIGUE ANALYSIS OF A REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL FOR SMART

  • Jhung, Myung-Jo
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.683-688
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    • 2012
  • The structural integrity of mechanical components during several transients should be assured in the design stage. This requires a fatigue analysis including thermal and stress analyses. As an example, this study performs a fatigue analysis of the reactor pressure vessel of SMART during arbitrary transients. Using heat transfer coefficients determined based on the operating environments, a transient thermal analysis is performed and the results are applied to a finite element model along with the pressure to calculate the stresses. The total stress intensity range and cumulative fatigue usage factor are investigated to determine the adequacy of the design.

Fatigue Strength Assessment of Spot-Welded Lap Joint Using Strain Energy Density Factor

  • Sohn, Ilseon;Bae, Dongho
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.44-51
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    • 2001
  • One of the recent issues in design of the spot-welded structure such as the automobile body is to develop an economical prediction method of the fatigue design criterion without additional fatigue test. In this paper, as one of basic investigation for developing such methods, fracture mechanical approach was investigated. First, the Model I, Mode II and Mode III, stress intensity factors were analyzed. Second, strain energy density factor (S) synthetically including them was calculated. And finally, in order to decide the systematic fatigue design criterion by using this strain energy density factor, fatigue data of the ΔP-N(sub)f obtained on the various in-plane bending type spot-welded lap joints were systematically re-arranged in the ΔS-N(sub)f relation. And its utility and reliability were verified by the theory of Weibull probability distribution function. The reliability of the proposed fatigue life prediction value at 10(sup)7 cycles by the strain energy density factor was estimated by 85%. Therefore, it is possible to decide the fatigue design criterion of spot-welded lap joint instead of the ΔP-N(sub)f relation.

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Relation between Multiple Markers of Work-Related Fatigue

  • Volker, Ina;Kirchner, Christine;Bock, Otmar L.
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.124-129
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    • 2016
  • Background: Work-related fatigue has a strong impact on performance and safety but so far, no agreed upon method exists to detect and quantify it. It has been suggested that work-related fatigue cannot be quantified with just one test alone, possibly because fatigue is not a uniform construct. The purpose of this study is therefore to measure work-related fatigue with multiple tests and then to determine the underlying factorial structure. Methods: Twenty-eight employees (mean: 36.11; standard deviation 13.17) participated in five common fatigue tests, namely, posturography, heart rate variability, distributed attention, simple reaction time, and subjective fatigue before and after work. To evaluate changes from morning to afternoon, t tests were conducted. For further data analysis, the differences between afternoon and morning scores for each outcome measure and participant (${\Delta}$ scores) were submitted to factor analysis with varimax rotation and each factor with the highest-loading outcome measure was selected. The ${\Delta}$ scores from tests with single and multiple outcome measures were submitted for a further factor analysis with varimax rotation. Results: The statistical analysis of the multiple tests determine a factorial structure with three factors: The first factor is best represented by center of pressure (COP) path length, COP confidence area, and simple reaction time. The second factor is associated with root mean square of successive difference and useful field of view (UFOV). The third factor is represented by the single ${\Delta}$ score of subjective fatigue. Conclusion: Work-related fatigue is a multidimensional phenomenon that should be assessed by multiple tests. Based on data structure and practicability, we recommend carrying out further studies to assess work-related fatigue with manual reaction time and UFOV Subtest 2.