• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fatigue risk management system

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A Study on Application of Fatigue Risk Management System for Pilot to Fly Longer Hours (장시간 체공 항공기 조종사의 피로위험관리 적용 연구)

  • Kim, Dae Ho;Lee, Jang Ryong
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 2019
  • The development of the aviation industry and the changes in the military operation mission environment are demanding more long - distance operation (long - time flight), and such a flying environment is a risk factor for fatigue - related accidents. For the aviation related organizations such as ICAO and FAA, fatigue risk management system (FRMS) are applied along with flight time restriction regulations to prevent fatigue related accidents. The most important process in FRMS is fatigue risk management. Fatigue risk management systematically manages fatigue through scientific fatigue risk data collection and fatigue risk assessment. The purpose of this study is to applicate the assessment of scientific fatigue risk management to pilots of airplanes engaged in long flight. We reviewed the current state of risk management and FRMS through previous research. We also developed fatigue risk management indicators and examined the validity of internationally recognized fatigue risk data collection methods and fatigue risk assessment tools. There are 134 mission (flight) data used for development. In order to verify the indicators, the fatigue risk score between the items was assigned through pair-wise comparison. In addition, the verify test results were normalized.

Establishing the Importance Weights of Pilot;s Fatigue Factors through AHP analysis (AHP 기법을 활용한 조종사 피로요인의 상대적 중요도 분석)

  • Moon, Woo-Choon;Kang, Woo-Jung;Choi, Youn-Chul;Kim, Woong-Yi;Lee, Koo-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.68-75
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    • 2012
  • The traditional regulatory approach to managing pilots fatigue has been to prescribe limits on maximum daily, monthly, and yearly flight and duty hours, and require minimum breaks within and between duty periods. This approach comes from a long history of limits on working hours dating back to the industrial revolution. So, the Council of ICAO recently adopted International Commercial Air Transport regarding the development and implementation of fatigue risk management systems(FRMS). The FRMS can provide better safety outcomes than current prescriptive flight and duty regulations while allowing greater operational flexibility. This study aim to analyzing relative importance of pilots' fatigue factors in order to minimize pilots' fatigue-related safety risks. More researches regarding monitoring and managing fatigue, based upon scientific principles, are required in the future.

Evolution of Aviation Safety Regulations to cope with the concept of data-driven rulemaking - Safety Management System & Fatigue Risk Management System

  • Lee, Gun-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.345-366
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    • 2018
  • Article 37 of the International Convention on Civil Aviation requires that rules should be adopted to keep in compliance with international standards and recommended practices established by ICAO. As SARPs are revised annually, each ICAO Member State needs to reflect the new content in its national aviation Acts in a timely manner. In recent years, data-driven international standards have been developed because of the important roles of aviation safety data and information-based legislation in accident prevention based on human factors. The Safety Management System and crew Fatigue Risk Management Systems were reviewed as examples of the result of data-driven rulemaking. The safety management system was adopted in 2013 with the introduction of Annex 19 and Chapter 5 of the relevant manual describes safety data collection and analysis systems. Through analysis of safety data and information, decision makers can make informed data-driven decisions. The Republic of Korea introduced Safety Management System in accordance with Article 58 of the Aviation Safety Act for all airlines, maintenance companies, and airport corporations. To support the SMS, both mandatory reporting and voluntary safety reporting systems need to be in place. Up until now, the standard of administrative penal dispensation for violations of the safety management system has been very weak. Various regulations have been developed and implemented in the United States and Europe for the proper legislation of the safety management system. In the wake of the crash of the Colgan aircraft, the US Aviation Safety Committee recommended the US Federal Aviation Administration to establish a system that can identify and manage pilot fatigue hazards. In 2010, a notice of proposed rulemaking was issued by the Federal Aviation Administration and in 2011, the final rule was passed. The legislation was applied to help differentiate risk based on flight according to factors such as the pilot's duty starting time, the availability of the auxiliary crew, and the class of the rest facility. Numerous amounts data and information were analyzed during the rulemaking process, and reflected in the resultant regulations. A cost-benefit analysis, based on the data of the previous 10 year period, was conducted before the final legislation was reached and it was concluded that the cost benefits are positive. The Republic of Korea also currently has a clause on aviation safety legislation related to crew fatigue risk, where an airline can choose either to conform to the traditional flight time limitation standard or fatigue risk management system. In the United States, specifically for the purpose of data-driven rulemaking, the Airline Rulemaking Committee was formed, and operates in this capacity. Considering the advantageous results of the ARC in the US, and the D4S in Europe, this is a system that should definitely be introduced in Korea as well. A cost-benefit analysis is necessary, and can serve to strengthen the resulting legislation. In order to improve the effectiveness of data-based legislation, it is necessary to have reinforcement of experts and through them prepare a more detailed checklist of relevant variables.

선원용 피로위험관리시스템(Fatigue Risk Management System) 개발 방안

  • Kim, Hong-Tae;O, Seung-Bin;Jang, Jun-Hyeok;Park, Jin-Hyeong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research Conference
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    • pp.171-174
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    • 2015
  • 국내외 해양사고 통계에서 선원 피로가 해양사고의 주요 원인 중 하나로 꼽히고 있다. USCG의 보고에 의하면 선박충돌 및 좌초사고를 포함한 중대한 해양사고에서 인간과실의 원인으로 선박승무원의 피로가 약 16% 기여한 것으로 조사되었고, 인명손상사고의 약 33%가 피로에 의한 것으로 나타났다.(USCG, 1996). 또한 영국 해양사고조사국(MAIB)에 의하면 1994년부터 2003년까지 10년간 전체 해양사고의 1/3에서 선원피로가 사고원인으로 기여하였음이 확인되었다(MAIB, 2004). 2003년 스웨덴에서의 연구결과 약 73% 정도의 당직근무자들이 당직근무 기간 중 최소 1회 또는 그 이상 졸음에 빠져들었다는 사실이 확인되었다(KMST, 2012). 최근 개최된 IMO 인적요소훈련당직 전문위원회(Sub-Committee On Human Element, Training And Watchkeeping ; HTW) 회의에서는 MSC 74차에 회의에서 최종 승인된 "피로에 관한 지침서(Guidelines on Fatigue)"에 대한 개정 논의가 이루어지고 있다. 본 발표에서는 현재 IMO에서 논의 중인 "피로에 관한 지침"의 개정안과 개정안의 핵심 내용인 피로위험관리시스템(Fatigue Risk Management System)에 대한 연구개발 방향을 소개하고자 한다.

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A Study on the Legal Proposal of Crew's Fatigue Management in the Aviation Regulations (항공법규에서의 승무원 피로관리기준 도입방안에 관한 연구 - ICAO, FAA, EASA 기준을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Koo-Hee;Hwang, Ho-Won
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.29-73
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    • 2012
  • Aviation safety is the State and industry's top priority and more scientific approaches for fatigue management should be needed. There are lately various studies and regulation changes for crew fatigue management with ICAO, FAA and EASA. ICAO issued the provisions of fatigue management for flight crew since 1st edition, 1969, of Annex 6 operation of aircraft as a Standards and Recommended practice(SARPs). Unfortunately, there have been few changes and improvement to fatigue management provisions since the time they were first introduced. However the SARPs have been big changed lately. ICAO published guidance materials for development of prescriptive fatigue regulations through amendment 33A of Annex 6 Part 1 as applicable November 19th 2009. And then ICAO introduced additional amendment for using Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS) with $35^{th}$ amendment in 2011. According to the Annex 6, the State of the operator shall establish a) regulations for flight time, flight duty period, duty period and rest period limitations and b) FRMS regulations. The Operator shall implement one of following 3 provisions a) flight time, flight duty period, duty period and rest period limitations within the prescriptive fatigue management regulations established by the State of the Operator; or b) a FRMS; or c) a combination of a) and b). U.S. FAA recently published several kinds of Advisory Circular about flightcrew fatigue. U.S. passed "Airline Safety and FAA Extension Act of 2010" into law on August 1st, 2010. This mandates all commercial air carriers to develop a FAA-acceptable Fatigue Risk Management Plan(FRMP) by October 31st, 2010. Also, on May 16, 2012, the FAA published a final rule(correction) entitled 'Flightcrew Member Duty and Rest Requirements; correction to amend its existing prescriptive regulations. The new requirements are required to implement same regulations for domestic, flag and supplemental operations from January 4, 2014. EASA introduced a Notice of Proposed Amendment (NPA) 2010-14 entitled "Draft opinion of the European Aviation Safety Agency for a Commission Regulation establishing the implementing rules on Flight and Duty Time Limitations and Rest Requirements for Commercial Air Transport with aeroplanes" on December 10, 2010. The purpose of this NPA is to develop and implement fatigue management for commercial air transport operations. Comparing with Korean and foreign regulations regarding fatigue management, the provisions of ICAO, FAA, EASA are more considering various fatigue factors and conditions. Korea regulations should be needed for some development of insufficiency points. In this thesis, I present the results of the comparative study between domestic and foreign regulations in respect of fatigue management crew member. Also, I suggest legal proposals for amendment of Korea Aviation act and Enforcement Regulations concerning fatigue management for crew members. I hope that this paper is helpful to change korea fatigue regulations, to enhance aviation safety, and to reduce the number of accidents relating to fatigue. Fatigue should be managed at all level such as regulators, experts, operators and pilots. Authority should change surveillance mind-set from regulatory auditor to expert adviser. Operators should identify various fatigue factors and consider to crew scheduling them. Crews should strongly manage both individual and duty-oriented fatigue issues.

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A Study of Plans to Improve the Aviation Regulations about Pilot Flight (Duty) Time Limitations (Based on FRMS) (조종사비행(근무)시간기준에 대한 항공규정개선방안 연구 (FRMS를 중심으로))

  • Lee, Ki-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.23-34
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    • 2017
  • Approximately 70% of aviation accidents in the world are caused by human factors of pilots and 15-20% of these accidents are known to be caused by pilot fatigue. Recently ICAO established new standards of FRMS for aircrew. The US and the EU have introduced FRMS and established and operated new aviation regulation systems for pilot flight(duty) time limitations. On the other hand, Korea has not yet introduced FRMS. This study reviewed ICAO's standards of FRMS and analyzed the aviation regulations of the US and the EU. As a result of this study, it showed that Korea also needed to introduce FRMS. This study reasoned out plans to improve Korean aviation regulations about pilot flight time limitations based on international standards.

Domestic Application Plan of Fatigue Risk Management System by Air Traffic Controller (항공교통관제사의 피로위험관리시스템 도입에 따른 국내 적용 방안)

  • Lee, Young-Jong
    • Journal of Advanced Navigation Technology
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.501-506
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    • 2019
  • This paper presents a prescriptive alternative for establishing a FRMS suitable for us based on scientific data ahead of the introduction and implementation of the FRMS for air traffic controllers in order to meet the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) international standards. I would like to present. Therefore, we confirmed the operation of each air traffic control agency against the current domestic operating standards, and compared and reviewed the operation methods and standards of air traffic control agencies in each country. The controller in Korea defines 10 hours of working hours per day, 8 hours of minimum breaks, and 40 hours per week. Currently, in the case of air traffic control agencies, the daytime and the appropriate working hours are used in the daytime, but in the nighttime, the average time exceeds 5.9 hours. In the case of 40 hours a week, they work an average of 15.7 hours overtime. By adjusting the nighttime work time, this work can be solved by diversifying the form of the worker's input method according to the personal schedule rather than the two-day (day / night) method, as well as the appropriate nighttime time distribution by supplementing the personnel.

It is Time to Have Rest: How do Break Types Affect Muscular Activity and Perceived Discomfort During Prolonged Sitting Work

  • Ding, Yi;Cao, Yaqin;Duffy, Vincent G.;Zhang, Xuefeng
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.207-214
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    • 2020
  • Background: Prolonged sitting at work can lead to adverse health outcomes. The health risk of office workers is an increasing concern for the society and industry, with prolonged sitting work becoming more prevalent. Objective: This study aimed to explore the variation in muscle activities during prolonged sitting work and found out when and how to take a break to mitigate the risk of muscle symptoms. Methods: A preliminary survey was conducted to find out the prevalence of muscle discomfort in sedentary work. Firstly, a 2-h sedentary computer work was designed based on the preliminary study to investigate the variation in muscle activities. Twenty-four participants took part in the electromyography (EMG) measurement study. The EMG variations in the trapezius muscle and latissimus dorsi were investigated. Then the intervention time was determined based on the EMG measurement study. Secondly, 48 participants were divided into six groups to compare the effectiveness of every break type (passive break, active break of changing their posture, and stand and stretch their body with 5 or 10 mins). Finally, data consisting of EMG amplitudes and spectra and subjective assessment of discomfort were analyzed. Results: In the EMG experiment, results from the joint analysis of the spectral and amplitude method showed muscle fatigue after about 40 mins of sedentary work. In the intervention experiment, the results showed that standing and stretching for 5 mins was the most effective break type, and this type of break could keep the muscles' state at a recovery level for about 30-45 mins. Conclusions: This study offers the possibility of being applied to office workers and provides preliminary data support and theoretical exploration for a follow-up early muscle fatigue detection system.