• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fatty Acids

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Determination of Fatty Acid Composition and Total Trans Fatty Acids in Meat Products

  • Yilmaz, Ismail;Gecgel, Umit
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.350-355
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    • 2009
  • In this research, fatty acid composition and trans fatty acids of 22 selected meat products produced by Turkish companies were analyzed by capillary gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Total fat contents of the meat products ranged from 11.60-42.50%. Salami had the lowest fat content 11.60% and sucuk (soudjuk) the highest 42.50%. Major fatty acids were C$_{16:0}$, C$_{18:0}$, trans C$_{18:1}$, cis C$_{18:1}$, and C$_{18:2}$ in the samples. Total unsaturated fatty acid contents have changed from 38.73 to 70.71% of total fatty acids, and sausage had the highest percentage among the samples. The majority of samples contain trans fatty acids and the level ranged from 2.28 to 7.95% of the total fatty acids. The highest amount of total trans fatty acids was determined in kavurma (Cavurmas) (7.95%), and total trans fatty acids of meat products such as pastrami contained more than 5% of the total fatty acids.

Effect of the Extracting Condition on the Crude Fat and Free Fatty Acids of Red Ginseng Extract (추출조건이 홍삼엑기스의 지방과 유리지방당 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • 성형순;윤석권
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.179-185
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    • 1985
  • The effect of temperature and ethanol concentration on lipids yield and free fatty acids were investigated during 1-5 times of 8 hours extraction. The crude lipids recovered was generally increased as the ethanol concentration increased while it was decreased at higher extraction temperature. Fatty acids composition in free fatty acids showed linoleum and plasmatic acids to be the major fatty acids, accounting 60% of 16 fatty acids identified. Fatty acids pattern was little affected by the changes in ethanol concentration while increase in temperature resulted significant changes in fatty acids composition.

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Whole-cell Biotransformation of Chlorella Oil Hydrolysates into Medium Chain Fatty Acids

  • Seo, Joo-Hyun;Min, Won-Ki;Lee, Jung-Hoo;Lee, Sun-Mee;Lee, Choul-Gyun;Park, Jin-Byung
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.44-52
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    • 2018
  • A synthetic pathway, which consisted of fatty acid double bond hydratase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase, was applied to Chlorella oil to produce ester fatty acids, which can be hydrolyzed into medium chain fatty acids. Since linoleic acid is a major fatty acid constituent of Chlorella oil, a fatty acid double bond hydratase from Lactobacillus acidophilus NBRC13951, which is able to convert linoleic acid into 13-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid, was used. Recombinant Escherichia coli expressing the fatty acid double bond hydratase from L. acidophilus NBRC13951 successfully transformed linoleic acid in Chlorella oil hydrolysates into 13-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid with approximately 60% conversion yield. 13-Hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid was further converted into ester fatty acids by the recombinant E. coli expressing a long chain secondary alcohol dehydrogenase and a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase. The resulting ester fatty acids were then hydrolyzed into medium chain fatty acids by a lipase. Overall, industrially relevant medium chain fatty acids were produced from Chlorella oil hydrolysates. Thereby, this study may contribute to biosynthesis of medium chain fatty acids from microalgae oils as well as long chain fatty acids.

Effects of Different Concentrate and Roughage Ratios on Ruminal Balance of Long Chain Fatty Acids in Sheep

  • Sasaki, H.;Horiguchi, K.;Takahashi, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.960-965
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    • 2001
  • The effects of different feeding ratios of concentrate (C) and roughage (R) on balance of long chain fatty acids and microbial fatty acids in the rumen of sheep were investigated. The diets were divided into 8:2 (concentrate feeding), 4:6 (middle mixture) and 0:10 (roughage feeding) ratios (C:R). Duodenal digesta was collected through 24 hours after feeding. Biohydrogenation rate, total duodenal flow of fatty acids and microbial fatty acids were measured. Total duodenal flow of fatty acids was significantly (p<0.05) increased with increasing concentrate. Total duodenal flow of fatty acid was greater than intake of fatty acid in all diets. In comparison with intake of each fatty acid, duodenal flow of stearic acid ($C_{18:0}$) remarkably increased in all diets. Biohydrogenation rate for total C18 unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen tended to increase (p<0.10) when sheep were fed the middle mixture. In particular, biohydrogenation rate of linoleic acid ($C_{18:2}$) and linolenic acid ($C_{18:3}$) with the middle mixture were highest (p<0.05) compared with other diets. Duodenal flow of protozoal fatty acids was significantly (p<0.05) increased with the increased supply of concentrate. That of bacterial fatty acids was significantly (p<0.05) increased with both concentrate diets compared with the roughage feeding diet. $C_{18:0}$ occupied the greater part of both protozoal and bacterial fatty acids in all treatments. Results indicated that biohydrogenation of free unsaturated fatty acids was actively carried out when the middle mixture diet was supplied, and that microbial uptake and synthesis of fatty acids were accelerated by adding the supply of concentrate.

Relationship between Dietary Fatty Acids, Plasma Lipids, and Fatty Acid Compositions of Plasma and RBC in Young Korean Females (한국 일부 여대생의 식이 지방산과 혈장지질, 혈장 및 적혈구 지방산 조성과의 관계)

  • 김양희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.109-117
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    • 1994
  • This study was conducted to evaluate dietary fat intake and its effect on the plasma lipids and fatty acids composition in plasma and red blood cells(RBC) in 96 healthy Korean female college student. Three-day food intakes were recorded, and fasting blood samples were collected and analyzed for plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride. Fatty acid compositions were determined in plasma and RBC membrane. Oleic acid was the most abundant in diet, followed by palmitic and linoleic acids. Mean daily intake of cholesterol was 219$\pm$127mg, mean plasma cholesterol was 160$\pm$24mg/이 and mean plasma triglyceride was 68$\pm$25mg/dl. Plasma fatty acids were mostly composed of linoleic, palmitic and oleic acids, while palmitic, stearic and arachidonic acids were high in RBC membrane. Plasma triglyceride showed positive correlation with BMI. Among dietary fatty acids, arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA showed negative correlation with plasma total cholesterol. Plasma triglyceride levels were negatively correlated with dietary arachidonic acid, plasma n-6 fatty acids and plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dietary EPA and DHA levels were positively correlated with plasma EPA, dietary n-3/n-6 ratio were positively correlated with plasma n-3 fatty acids and n-3/n-6 ratio. Highly significant correlations were shown between the levels in plasma and RBC for several fatty acids.

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Fatty Acid Analysis from Leech Skin

  • Hong, Suk-Jin;Kim, Dong-Ryeong;Yoon, In-Joong;Kang, Ke-Won
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.261-264
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    • 1995
  • The lipids of a Korean native blood-sucking leech (Hirudo nipponia) were isolated and analyzed. Cholesterol, fatty acids, triglycerides, glycerylether diester and cholesteryl esters were found from epidennal extracts. The major fatty acids in the leech skin were $C_{16:0}$, $C_{18:0}$, $C_{20:1}$. $C_{20:3}$ components. These components were derived from cholesteryl esters, glycerides, fatty acids and other polar lipids. After 60 days fasting, cholesterol, fatty acids and triglycerides in the skin were reduced in number and the total fatty acid composition was changed slightly. The data of total fatty acids in fasted and fed leech showed that medium-chain fatty acids were more affected than long-chain fatty acids. Other trace fatty acids appeared to be decreased by fasting.

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Taurine Concentrations Are Closely Associated with Fatty Acids Concentrations in Breast Milk from Koreans (한국인 모유의 지방산 조성과 타우린 농도의 상관관계에 관한 연구)

  • 박태선
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.88-95
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    • 1998
  • Kong chain $\omega$3 & $\omega$6 fatty acids and taurine have been suggested to have structural and /or functional roles in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in the percentage of fatty acids and taurine concentration in human milk obtained from Korean mothers(n=37) as lactation proceeds from birth to 5wks postpartum , and to determine the correlation between taurine concentration and fatty acid composition in breast milk. Level of fatty acids and taurine in breast milk were measured by GLC and HPLC, respectively. The percentages of medium -chain saturated fatty acids(10 : 0, 12 : 0 & 14: 0) were increased significantly , while percentages of long-chain saturated fatty acids(22 :0 & 24 : 0), and most of the long chain $\omega$6 and $\omega$3 fatty acids(20 : 3$\omega$6 , 20 :4$\omega$6, 22 :4$\omega$6 , 22 :5$\omega$6, 22 :5$\omega$3 & 22 : 6$\omega$3) were decreased significantly in mature milk (5 wks postpartum ) as compared to the colostrum. Taurine concentrations in colostrum and mature milk from Korean mothers were 549 $\pm$58 and 233 $\pm$41nmol/ml , respectively. Taurine concentrations in human milk was negatively correlated with the percentages of medium -chain saturated fatty acids ( 10 : 0 &12 : 0), and positively correlated with the percentages of long-chain saturated fatty acids( 16 :0, 20 : 0, 22 : 0& 24 : 0) and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids( 20 : 1, 22 : 1 & 24 ; 1). Taurine concentration in human milk was positively correlated with elongation indices of both $\omega$6 and $\omega$3 fatty acids, and negatively correlated with the desaturation index of $\omega$6 fatty acids. These close relationships between fatty acids compositions and taurine level in human milk are worth pursing further investigation, especially with regard to their common roles in retina and brain development.

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Immunomodulatory Activities of Body Wall Fatty Acids Extracted from Halocynthia aurantium on RAW264.7 Cells

  • Monmai, Chaiwat;Jang, A-Yeong;Kim, Ji-Eun;Lee, Sang-Min;You, SangGuan;Kang, SeokBeom;Lee, Tae Ho;Park, Woo Jung
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1927-1936
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    • 2020
  • Tunicates are known to contain biologically active materials and one species in particular, the sea peach (Halocynthia aurantium), has not been thoroughly studied. In this study we aimed to analyze the fatty acids profile of the H. aurantium body wall and its immunomodulatory effects on RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells. The fatty acids were classified into three categories: saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Omega-3 fatty acid content, including EPA and DHA, was higher than omega-6 fatty acids. H. aurantium body wall fatty acids exhibited enhanced immune response and anti-inflammatory effects on RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells. Under normal conditions, fatty acids significantly increase nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2 production in a dose-dependent manner, thereby improving the immune response. On the other hand, in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells, fatty acids significantly decreased nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2 production in a dose-dependent manner, thereby enhancing anti-inflammatory effects. Fatty acids transcriptionally control the expression of the immune-associated genes, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and TNF-α, via the MAPK and NF-κB signaling cascades in RAW264.7 cells. However, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, H. aurantium body wall fatty acids significantly inhibited expression of inflammatory cytokine; similarly, production of COX-2 and PGE2 was inhibited. The results of our present study provide insight into the immune-improving and anti-inflammatory effects of H. aurantium body wall fatty acids on macrophages. In addition, our study demonstrates that H. aurantium body wall is a potential source of immune regulatory components.

Seasonal variation in fatty acid composition in various parts of broccoli cultivars

  • Bhandari, Shiva Ram;Park, Mi Young;Chae, Won Byoung;Kim, Dae-Young;Kwak, Jung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.289-296
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    • 2013
  • To evaluate seasonal variation in fatty acid composition in broccoli, 12 commercial cultivars of broccoli were grown in spring and fall season at the field of NIHHS, and their floret, leaf and stem parts were used for the fatty acid composition analyses. Among 14 fatty acids detected in broccoli, linolenic, palmitic and linoleic acids were major fatty acids comprising more than 80% of total fatty acids in both the seasons and all the parts. Likewise, stearic and oleic acids were also present in considerable amount while remaining fatty acids; caproic, lauric, myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitoleic, heptadecanoic, arachidic, behenic and lignoceric acids showed their minor compositional ratio. Among the three parts, stem exhibited highest SFAs (49.681% in spring and 50.717% in fall season) compared to MUFA and PUFA, while highest compositional ratio of PUFAs were observed in leaves (62.588% in spring and 68.931% in fall season), which indicates leaves as a good source of health beneficial fatty acids. In contrast, floret part exhibited highest SFA (48.786%) and PUFA (57.518%) in spring and fall seasons, respectively. Major fatty acids; palmitic, linoleic and linolenic acid showed lowest cultivar dependent variation (below 10%) and leaf showed least variation in both the seasons compared to floret and stem. Our results suggest that all the fatty acids are significantly influenced by genotype of cultivars (C), plant parts (P) and growing seasons (S). Among the 14 fatty acids, myristic and palmitic acid showed highest positive or negative correlationship with oleic (r=$0.912^{**}$) and linolenic acid (r=-$0.933^{**}$), respectively. The most abundant fatty acid, linolenic acid, showed either negative or no correlation ship with other fatty acids while palmitic acid, a second major fatty acid, exhibited either positive or negative correlation ship.

Serum Fatty Acids in Mother and Umbilical Cord of Full-Term and Preform Delivery (만기분만과 조기분만 산모의 모체 및 제대혈청의 지방산 조성)

  • 안홍석
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.36 no.10
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    • pp.1036-1041
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    • 2003
  • Ecological studies have indicated that the essential fatty acids in maternal and umbilical cord blood samples are associated with gestational length and birth weight. The objectives of this study were to examine serum fatty acid concentration, particularly $\omega$3 fatty acids, in maternal and umbilical cord blood and to investigate the relationship of serum fatty acid levels in the blood of the mother and of the umbilical cord. Subjects consisted of 30 full-term and 30 pre-term mothers and neonates of both groups. Serum levels of fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography. The concentration of total saturated fatty acids in pre-term pregnant women was significantly higher than that of the full-term group (p<0.05), however, the maternal level of $\omega$3 fatty acids in the pre-term group was significantly lower than that of the full-term pregnant women (p<0.05), Moreover, the concentrations of $\alpha$-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in full-term pregnant women were significantly higher than those of the pre-term group. In umbilical cord blood, the levels of total $\omega$3 fatty acid and arachidonic acid were significantly lower in the pre-term group than in the full-term group (p<0.05). Based on the coefficient of correlation between serum fatty acids in the mother and the umbilical cord, it turned out that in the full-term group, the newborn's umbilical cord serum fatty acids were not influenced by the levels of serum fatty acids in the mother. However, in the pre-term group, it seems to have positive correlations in terms of the levels of SFA, MUFA, PUFA and $\alpha$-linolenic acid. This study suggests that a lower status of $\omega$3 fatty acids in maternal and umbilical cord blood probably is a risk factor for pre-term birth.