• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fatty Acids

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Quality Characteristics of Commercial Fermented Skates (시판 발효 홍어의 품질특성)

  • Cho, Hee-Sook;Kim, Kyung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.397-402
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of domestic as well as imported fermented skate. Three types of fermented skate products were analyzed for proximate composition, pH, VBN, ammonia-N, free amino acids, and fatty acids. The results indicated that the domestic fermented skate contained large amounts of TMAO. Also, the domestic and imported fermented skates each contained approximately 7.1 log CFU/g and $5.8{\sim}6.5$ log CFU/g of aerobic bacteria, respectively, and 585.9 mg and $384.1{\sim}398.5$ mg of total free amino acids, respectively; all samples contained high levels of taurine, anserine, lysine, alanine, glycine, proline, and ${\beta}-alanine$. For fatty acid composition, the domestic fermented skate contained 11 different types of saturated fatty acid and 16 types of unsaturated fatty acid, whereas the imported skate contained 8 types of saturated fatty acid and $10{\sim}15$ types of unsaturated fatty acid. Overall, the results suggest that domestic fermented skate is a better source of amino acids and essential fatty acids and contains more aerobic bacteria than imported fermented skate.

Studies on the Constituents of Seeds of Acanthopanax sessiliflorum Seemann (I)-On Fatty Acids and Sterols- (오갈피나무 종자(種子)의 성분(成分)에 관한 연구(硏究)(제1보)(第1報)-지방산(脂肪酸)과 Sterol 성분(成分)에 관하여-)

  • Kim, Chong-Won;Kim, Soon-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.184-187
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    • 1987
  • Fatty acids and sterols were isolated from petroleum ether extract of seeds of Acanthopanax sessiliflorum Seeman. Fatty acids were obtained from the saponified fraction and sterols from nonsaponified fraction of petroleum ether extract. Fatty acids were identified by gas liquid chromatography, and its composition was myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. The composition of sterols were determined by preparative TLC and gas liquid chromatography. It was confirmed to be a mixture of stigmasterol and ${\beta}-sitosterol$. These fatty acids and sterols were not previously reported from seeds of Acanthopanax sessiliflorum Seemann.

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Dietary intake of fat and fatty acids by 1-5-year-old children in Korea: a cross-sectional study based on data from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  • Baek, YounJoo;Shim, Jae Eun;Song, SuJin
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.324-335
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We examined dietary fat intake and the major food sources by young children in Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 1,041 children aged 1-5 years were identified from the 2013-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data on total fat and fatty acid intake were obtained by a single 24-h dietary recall. Food sources were identified based on the amounts of total fat and fatty acids consumption according to each food. Fat and fatty acid intakes and their food sources were presented by age group (1-2-y, n = 401; 3-5-y, n = 640). Fat and fatty acid intakes were also evaluated according to socioeconomic characteristics. RESULTS: The mean intake of fat was $27.1{\pm}0.8g$ in the 1-2-y group and $35.5{\pm}0.7g$ in the 3-5-y group, and about 23% of the total energy was obtained from fat in both age groups. The mean intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) was $10.5{\pm}0.3g$ in the 1-2-y group and $12.7{\pm}0.3g$ in the 3-5-y group, with the 1-2-y group obtaining more energy from SFA than the 3-5-y group (9.2% vs. 8.3%). The mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was $6.3{\pm}0.1g$ in the total subjects, with $0.8{\pm}0.03g$ of n-3 fatty acids and $5.5{\pm}0.1g$ of n-6 fatty acids being consumed. Milk, pork, and eggs were major food sources of total fat, SFA, and monounsaturated fatty acids, and soybean oil was the main contributor to PUFA in both age groups. In the 1-2-y group, children in rural areas had significantly higher intake of PUFA and n-3 fatty acids than did those in urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide current information on dietary fat intake among young Korean children and could be used to establish dietary strategies for improvement of health status.

A Study on w6/w3 and P/M/S Ratios of Fatty Acids Ingested by University Students (일부 대학생의 지방산 섭취량과 섭취지방산의 w3, w6계 지방산 및 P/M/S 비율에 관한 연구)

  • 오경원;박계숙;김택제;이양자
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.399-407
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    • 1991
  • The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of individual fatty acid and eventually to contribute to the establishment of dietary guidelines and recommendations of fatty acids for the Koreans. The subjects consisted of female college students aged 20 to 29 years old. Their dietary intake was assessed twice. in summer and in winter, by means of a 24-hour dietary recall method. Food models and other measuring tools were also used. Concentrations of serm total triglyceride, total cholesterol and HDL-& LDL-cholesterol were measured. The subjects consumed 12.3g of polyunsaturated fatty acids, 14.3g of monounsaturated fatty acids and 14.99g of saturated fatty acids per day The ratios of polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids( P/S) and polyunsaturatedimonounsaturatedi saturated fatty acids (P/M/S) taken by the subjects were 0.8/1.0 and 0.8/l.0/l.0, respectively. The ratio of w61w3 fatty acids was found to be 8.3/l.0. All of these values seem to fall in the desirable range. The percentages of total calorie from carbohydrate. fat and protein were 59.4%, 23.4% and 17.2%, respectively. The concentrations of serum total triglyceride, total cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were 59.3ms/dl, 192.7mg/dl, and 59.0mg/dl, and 121.9mg/dl., respectively.

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Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Constituents of Protaetia brevitarsis Larvae

  • Yeo, Hyelim;Youn, Kumju;Kim, Minji;Yun, Eun-Young;Hwang, Jae-Sam;Jeong, Woo-Sik;Jun, Mira
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.150-156
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    • 2013
  • A total of 48 different volatile oils were identified form P. brevitarsis larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acids (48.67%) were detected as the major group in P. brevitarsis larvae comprising the largest proportion of the volatile compounds, followed by esters (19.84%), hydrocarbons (18.90%), alcohols (8.37%), miscellaneous (1.71%), aldehydes (1.35%) and terpenes (1.16%). The major volatile constituents were 9-hexadecenoic acid (16.75%), 6-octadecenoic acid (14.88%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (11.06%). The composition of fatty acid was also determined by GC analysis and 16 fatty acids were identified. The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid ($C_{18:1}$, 64.24%) followed by palmitic acid ($C_{16:0}$, 15.89%), palmitoleic acid ($C_{16:1}$, 10.43%) and linoleic acid ($C_{18:2}$, 4.69%) constituting more than 95% of total fatty acids. The distinguished characteristic of the fatty acid profile of P. brevitarsis larvae was the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (80.54% of total fatty acids) versus saturated fatty acids (19.46% of total fatty acids). Furthermore, small but significant amounts of linoleic, linolenic and ${\gamma}$-linolenic acids bestow P. brevitarsis larvae with considerable nutritional value. The novel findings of the present study provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of the insect as a nutritionally promising food source and a possibility for more effective utilization.

Sexual Maturation May Affect the Levels of n-6 PUFA in Muscle Tissues of Male Mice

  • Park, Chang Seok;Choi, Inho;Park, Young Sik
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.147-153
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    • 2013
  • Lipid metabolism in mature male mice may be different from immature male mice, but the relationship of lipid metabolism, especially n-6 fatty acid metabolism, and sexual maturation is not clearly established. This study was carried out to elucidate whether sexual maturation may affect the metabolism of functional n-6 fatty acids of lipid components by investigating the composition of fatty acids in the longissimus muscle tissues of mature and immature male mice with GC and analyzing the expression of genes and proteins for synthesis of n-6 fatty acids with real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Mature male mice showed significantly higher testosterone level in the sera. Similarly, n-6 fatty acids, levels of linoleic acid (LA 18:2n-6) and total n-6 PUFA (Polyunsaturated fatty acids) were increased, but the levels of ${\gamma}$-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3n-6), dihomo-${\gamma}$-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 n-6) were decreased in the mature male mice. mRNA levels of ${\Delta}5$-desaturase (FASD1) and elongase (ELOVL5) genes related to n-6 fatty acid metabolism increased. However, the level of FADS1 protein only increased in mature male mice. In conclusion, this study suggested that sexual maturation of male mice affected n-6 fatty acid metabolism by stimulating the expression of enzyme FADS1 of n-6 PUFA metabolism.

Systematic review of the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on improvement of blood flow while focused on evaluation of claims for health functional food (건강기능식품의 기능성을 중심으로 한 오메가-3 지방산 함유유지의혈행개선 효과에 대한 체계적 고찰)

  • Jeong, Sewon;Kim, Ji Yeon;Paek, Ju Eun;Kim, Joohee;Kwak, Jin Sook;Kwon, Oran
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.226-238
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    • 2013
  • Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential fatty acids because humans cannot synthesize them de novo and must obtain them in their diet. Fish and fish oil are rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Significant evidence of the beneficial role of dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids in blood flow has been reported and putative mechanisms for improvement of blood flow include anti-thrombotic effects, lowered blood pressure, improved endothelial function, and anti-atherogenic effects. Edible oils containing omega-3 fatty acids were registered as functional ingredients in the Korea Health Functional Food Code. Although omega-3 fatty acids have been evaluated by the Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) based on scientific evidence, periodic re-evaluation may be needed because emerging data related to omega-3 fatty acids have accumulated. Therefore, in this study, we re-evaluated scientific evidence for the effect of omega-3 fatty acids as a functional ingredient in health functional food on improvement of blood flow. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for collection of relevant human studies using the Medline and Cochrane, KISS, and IBIDS databases for the years 1955-2012. Search keywords were used by combination of terms related to omega-3 fatty acids and blood flow. The search was limited to human studies published in Korean, English, and Japanese. Using the KFDA's evidence based evaluation system for scientific evaluation of health claims, 112 human studies were identified and reviewed in order to evaluate the strength of the evidence supporting a relation between omega-3 fatty acids and blood flow. Among 112 studies, significant effects on improvement of blood flow were reported in 84 studies and the daily intake amount was ranged from 0.1 to 15 g. According to this methodology of systematic review, we concluded that there was possible evidence to support a relation between omega-3 fatty acid intake and blood flow. However, because inconsistent results have recently been reported, future studies should be monitored.

Studies on the Constituents of the Higher Fungi of Korea(IX) -Fatty Acids from Agaricus bisporus- (한국산(韓國産) 고등(高等) 균류(菌類)의 성분(成分) 연구(硏究)(IX) -양송이 버섯의 지방산(脂肪酸) 성분(成分)-)

  • Kim, Byong-Kak;Lee, Man-Hyong;Shim, Mi-Ja
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.5-8
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    • 1978
  • Attempts were made to investigate on the fatty acids of Agaricus bisporus, a cultivated edible mushroom. Fats were extracted from it and saponified with alcoholic potassium hydroxide. Isolated fatty acids were methylated and were subjected to column chromatography and G.L.C. Eleven saturated fatty acids, i.e., dodecanoic, tridecanoic, tetradecanoic, pentadecanoic, hexadecanoic, heptadecanoic, octadecanoic, eicosenoic, uncosenoic, docosenoic, and tricosenoic acids, were identified. Especially palmitic and stearic acids were abundant. Nine unsaturated fatty acids appear to exist in the carpophore.

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The Metabolites of a Marine Mollusk Mytilus edulis:- Isolation of Taurine and Compositions of Free Fatty Acids and Free Amino acids-

  • Cho, Yong-Jin;Son, Byeng-Wha;Choi, Hong-Dae
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.5-9
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    • 1995
  • The metabolites of marine mollusk Mytilus edulis were isolated and characterized, revealing the presence of the rare free fatty acids and proteinogenic amino acids together with a non-proteinogenic free amino acid, taurine. The free fatty acids in this organism were particularly interesting for the presence of both unusual n-6 acid [20:4 (n-6)] and triple bond containing acid (2,5-octadecadiynoic acid). In addition to the proteinogenic amino acids commonly found in proteins, non-proteinogenic free amino acid taurine was isolated and the structure was determined by its physicochemical properties. Recently taurine has been given much interest in the molecular level because of diverse biological activities and the medicinal properties. Furthermore, the result of the analyses of analyses of free amino acids showed that glycine, glutamic acid, serine and alanine, which were considered to be related to the taste of this organism, are predominantly present.

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Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Composition of Intramuscular Fatty Acids of Hyla Rabbit

  • Xue, Shan;Xiao, Xia;He, Zhifei;Li, Hongjun
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.178-185
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    • 2016
  • The influence of three cooking methods (stewing, microwaving and Aluminium (Al) foil-baking) was evaluated on the content of intramuscular lipid and the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit. The percentage of intramuscular lipid in cooked-longissimus dorsi (LD) (dry weight %) were in the order mentioned below: microwaving > foil-baking > stewing. All treated samples showed decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whilst increase in the proportion of saturated (SFA) and n-6/n-3 value during processing. All of the cooked samples had the n-6/n-3 ratio within the recommended range (5-10). By the analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR), the microwaving treatment was better to keep the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), whilst the long-time Al foil-baking did the most serious damage to UFA, especially the PUFA. In addition, the heating method showed greater influence on the samples than the processing time. The shorter processing time was better to retain the intramuscular PUFA of Hyla rabbit, especially the LC-PUFAs (C20-22). Considering all the factors, microwaving showed the superiority in reserving the composition of intramuscular fatty acids of Hyla rabbit.