• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fatty Acids

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Evaluation of Millet (Panicum miliaceum subsp. miliaceum) Germplasm For Seed Fatty Acids Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

  • Lee, Young-Yi;Kim, Jung-Bong;Lee, Ho-Sun;Jeon, Young-A;Lee, Sok-Young;Kim, Chung-Kon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.57 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to rapidly evaluate fatty acids in a collection of millet (Panicum miliaceum subsp. miliaceum) of different origins so that this information could be disseminated to breeders to advance germplasm use and breeding. To develop the calibration equations for rapid and nondestructive evaluation of fatty acid content, near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRs) spectra (1104-2494 nm) of samples ground into flour ($n$=100) were obtained using a dispersive spectrometer. A modified partial least-squares model was developed to predict each component. For foxtail millet germplasm, our models returned coefficients of determination ($R^2$) of 0.89, 0.89, 0.89, and 0.92 for palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and total fatty acids, respectively. The prediction of the external validation set (n=10) showed significant correlation between references values and NIRs values ($r^2$=0.64, 0.90, 0.79, and 0.89 for palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and total fatty acids, respectively). Standard deviation/standard errors of cross-validation (SD/SECV) values were close to 3 (2.62, 2.40, 1.85, and 2.23 for palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and total fatty acids, respectively). These results indicate that these NIRs equations are functional for the mass screening and rapid quantification of the oleic and total fatty acids characterizing millet germplasm. Among the samples, IT153514 showed an especially high content of fatty acids ($48.14mg\;g^{-1}$), whereas IT123909 had a very low content ($34.44mg\;g^{-1}$).

Application of Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy to Rapid Determination of Seed Fatty Acids in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv) Germplasm

  • Lee, Young Yi;Kim, Jung Bong;Lee, Sok Young;Lee, Ho Sun;Gwag, Jae Gyun;Kim, Chung Kon;Lee, Yong Beom
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.448-454
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to rapidly evaluate fatty acids in a collection of foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv) of different origins so that this information could be disseminated to breeders to advance germplasm use and breeding. To develop the calibration equations for rapid and nondestructive evaluation of fatty acid content, near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRs) spectra (1104-2494 nm) of samples ground into flour (n=100) were obtained using a dispersive spectrometer. A modified partial least-squares model was developed to predict each component. For foxtail millet germplasm, our models returned coefficients of determination ($R^2$) of 0.91, 0.89, 0.98 and 0.98 for strearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and total fatty acids, respectively. The prediction of the external validation set (n=10) showed significant correlation between references values and NIRs values ($r^2=0.97$, 0.91, 0.99 for oleic, linoleic, and total fatty acids, respectively). Standard deviation/standard error of cross-validation (SD/SECV) values were greater than 3 (3.11, 5.45, and 7.50 for oleic, linoleic, and total fatty acids, respectively). These results indicate that these NIRs equations are functional for the mass screening and rapid quantification of the oleic, linolenic, and total fatty acids characterizing foxtail millet germplasm. Among the samples, IT153491 showed an especially high content of fatty acids ($84.06mg\;g^{-1}$), whereas IT188096 had a very low content ($29.92mg\;g^{-1}$).

The Effect of Saturated Fatty Acids on Cellulose Digestion by the Rumen Anaerobic Fungus, Neocallimatix frontalis C5-1

  • Ha, J.K.;Lee, S.S.;Gao, Z.;Kim, C.-H.;Kim, S.W.;Ko, Jong Y.;Cheng, K.-J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.941-946
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    • 2001
  • The effects of various concentrations of saturated fatty acids (SFA; caprylic, capric and stearic acids) on the growth of the anaerobic fungus, Neocallimastix frontalis C5-1 isolated from the rumen of a Korean native goat were investigated. At higher concentrations of fatty acids (0.1%, w/v), the addition of SFA strongly decreased filter paper (FP) cellulose digestion and polysaccharide-degrading enzyme activity. The sensitivity of the rumen anaerobic fungus to the added fatty acids increased in the following order: caprylic ($C_{8:0}$)>capric($C_{10:0}$)>stearic($C_{18:0}$) acid, although stearic acid had no significant (p<0.05) inhibitory effects at any of the concentrations tested. However, the addition of SFA at lower concentrations (0.01 and 0.001% levels), did not inhibit FP cellulose degradation and enzyme activity. Furthermore, although these parameters were slightly stimulated by the addition of SFA, they were not statistically different from control values. This is the first report examining the effects of fatty acids on anaerobic gut fungi. We found that the lower levels of fatty acids used in this experiment were able to stimulate the growth and specific enzyme activities of rumen anaerobic fungi, whereas the higher levels of fatty acids were inhibitory with respect to fungal cellulolysis.

Measurement of Trans Fatty Acid formation and Degree of Rancidity in Fat and Oils According to Heating Conditions (가열조건에 따른 유지의 트랜스 지방산 생성과 산패도 측정에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn, Myung-Soo;Suh, Mi-Sook;Kim, Hyun-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.469-478
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    • 2008
  • In this study, degree of rancidity and trans fatty acid formation were examined in fat and oils, including soybean oil (SB), canola oil (CA), corn germ oil (CO), olive oil (OL), palm oil (PO), and beef tallow (BT), during heating for 10-130 minutes at 160-200$^{\circ}C$. In order to determine the rancidity of the fat and oils, acid values (AV), iodine values (IV), viscosity, and color were measured. Changes in the amounts of fatty acids and the formation of trans fatty acids were measured using GC and HPLC. For all groups, AV increased, IV decreased, and coefficients of viscosity and color increased as the heating temperature and heating time increased, indicating there were positive correlations between the heating temperature and time and AV. In addition, all groups had similar amounts of trans fatty acids, with the exception of the beef tallow; however, its level only slightly increased with heating. The olive oil had the lowest trans fatty acid content and the lowest amount created by heating. The order of trans fatty acid amounts generated while heating was BT>PO>CO>CA>SB>OL. According to the study results, the deep frying temperature during cooking should be 160-180$^{\circ}C$ in order to reduce AV and the amount of trans fatty acids that are formed. In addition, it is better to remove beef tallow during cooking and avoid heating at high temperatures since it results in high levels of trans fatty acids. The correlation between the amount of trans fatty acids and AV was positive, while the correlation between the amount of trans fatty acids and IV was negative, indicating that AV and trans fatty acid levels increase while IV decreases as the deep frying temperature and time increase. From the results, it was found that reducing the deep frying temperature and time can lessen increases in AV and trans fatty acids, and decrease IV. Accordingly, to reduce AV and trans fatty acid formation, the ideal deep frying conditions would be to use olive oil or soybean oil rather than beef tallow or palm oil at a temperature of 160-180$^{\circ}C$.

Influences of Free Fatty Acid on the Albumin Binding of Warfarin and Dansylsarcosine (Warfarin, Dansylsarcosine의 알부민결합에 미치는 유리지방산의 영향)

  • Bae, Jin-Woo
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.255-260
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    • 1994
  • There are some reports about the influences of free fatty acids on the albumin binding of drugs. But they were concerned to the limited free fatty acids, mostly of azapropazone-warfarin bidning site bound drugs and determination of dissociation and association constants by stopped flow technique. These data were not enough to make conculsions for the general tendency of free fatty acid to albumin binding. Therefore the influence of various saturated fatty acids of $C_{10{\sim}20}$, oleic acid and linoleic acid as unsaturated fatty acids to albumin binding of warfarin and dansylsarcosine were studied by equilibrium dialysis. The concentration of free drug was determined by spectrophotometer according to the molar ratios of 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 between free fatty acid and albumin. There were significant increasing in the free durg concentration of warfarin and dansylsarcosine when the molar ratio for capric acid, lauric acid and palmitic acid was 4. The free warfarin concentration was increased significantly at a molar ratio of 4 between oleic acid and albumin. Therefore the albumin binding of durgs can be variated significantly by increased free fatty acid of diabetics and cause to the pharmacokinetic variation between healthy and diabetics.

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On the Hydroxydation of Saturated Fatty Acids (1) (飽和脂肪酸의 酸素添加反應에 關한 硏究 (第1報))

  • Bahk, Jong-Hwan;Han, Kap-Hyon
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.18-21
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    • 1961
  • The hydroxydation of the saturated fatty acids in order to prepare hydroxy fatty acids in the presence of catalysts was reported by several workers. The considering commercial applications of this reaction, authors studied on the hydroxydation of natural fats composed of nonhydroxy saturated fatty acids. Tallow and stearic acid were tested with manganese dioxide as catalyst, $110 {\pm}3^{\circ}C,$ and under atmospheric oxygen. The highest hydroxyl values were obtained at 20 hours for tallow, 107.6 and at 14 hours for stearic add, 116.0.

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Polyunsaturated fatty acids regulate APP metabolism.

  • Yeon, Seung-Woo;Kim, Tae-Yong
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.151.1-151
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    • 2003
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play many important physiological roles on cellular process through the regulations of intracellular signaling. Recent clinical studies suggest that PUFAs such as n-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6 and a-lnolenic acid, 18:3) may reduce the risk of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). And also the reports regarding the decrease of n-3 fatty acids in AD brain support the correlation between PUFAs and AD. AD is a neurodegenerative disorder with pathological hallmarks of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. (omitted)

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Changes in Rutin and Fatty Acids of Buckwheat During Germination (메밀의 발아과정중 Rutin과 지방산의 변화)

  • 권태봉
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.124-127
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    • 1994
  • This study was carried out to investigate the chemical change of rutin and fatty acids of buckwheat during germination. The content of rutin in buckwheat before germination was 31.5mg% and that after 7 days was increased to 1, 660.3mg%. The content of stearic acid was increased slightly after 3 day during germination but those of other fatty acids were decreased gradually.

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Fatty Acid Compositions of Lipids Extracted from Bullfrogs (황소개구리에서 추출한 지방의 지방산 조성)

  • 황금택;홍진선;강성국;정순택
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.351-354
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    • 2002
  • The objective of this study was to analyze fatty acid composition in lipids extracted from bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana Shaw) inhabiting in Korea. Lipid contents in bullfrog legs and bodies were less than 1% (w/w, wet basis) and seasonal variation of the lipid contents was not observed. Lipids in bullfrog legs consisted of 26~31% (w/w) saturated fatty acids, 16~24% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 30~40% polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipids in bullfrog bodies consisted of 23~28% saturated fatty acids, 29~44% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 16~30% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids in lipids extracted from bullfrogs were palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. Lipids in leg muscles contained 3~8% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 6~10% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Lipids in bodies had 1~3% EPA and 1~3% DHA.

Fatty Acid and Volatile Oil Compositions of Allomyrina dichotoma Larvae

  • Youn, Kumju;Kim, Ji-Young;Yeo, Hyelim;Yun, Eun-Young;Hwang, Jae-Sam;Jun, Mira
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.310-314
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    • 2012
  • Thirty-two different volatile oils were identified from Allomyrina dichotoma (A. dichotoma) larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major volatile components were 2,2,4-trimethyl-3-carboxyisopropyl pentanoic acid isobutyl ester (5.83%), phenol,2,6-bis(a,a-dimethyl ethyl)-4-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl) (5.72%), heptacosane (5.49%) and phenol,2,4-bis(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl) (5.47%). The composition of the fatty acids in A. dichotoma larvae was also determined by gas chromatography (GC) and fourteen constituents were identified. Oleic acid (19.13%) was the most abundant fatty acid followed by palmitic acid (12.52%), palmitoleic acid (3.71%) and linoleic acid (2.08%) in 100 g of A. dichotoma larvae on a dry weight basis. The quantity of unsaturated fatty acids (64.00%) were higher than that of saturated ones (36.00%). The predominant fatty acids in A. dichotoma consist of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA, 57.70%) such as oleic acid, myristoleic acid and palmitoleic acid, followed by saturated fatty acids (36.00%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 6.50%). In particular, the presence of essential fatty acids, such as linoleic (5.30%) and linolenic acid (0.40%) give A. dichotoma larvae considerable nutritional and functional value and it may be a useful source for food and/or industrial utilization.