• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fecal Coliform

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Removal of Fecal Indicator Bacteria from Bivalves under Natural and Electrolyzed Water (패류 중 자연정화 및 인공정화에 의한 위생지표세균의 변화)

  • Oh, Eun-Gyoung;Yoo, Hyun-Duk;Yu, Hong-Sik;Ha, Kwang-Soo;Shin, Soon-Bum;Lee, Tae-Seek;Lee, Hee-Jung;Kim, Ji-Hoe;Son, Kwang-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 2012
  • In coastal areas that are affected by continuous, seasonal or occasional pollution sources, bivalves accumulate biological contaminants such as pathogenic bacteria. We investigated the effect of natural seawater relaying and electrolyzed seawater depuration on the bacteriological quality of artificially contaminated oysters Crassostrea gigas and short-necked clams Ruditapes philippinarum to suggest an alternative method of shellfish sanitation control.When artificially contaminated oysters and short-necked clams (fecal coliform level 1,700 MPN/100 g) were relayed into a sea area of safe bacteriological water quality, the fecal coliform level dropped to below 110 MPN/100 g after 1 day. The bacteriological quality of oysters and short-necked clams that are contaminated at a fecal coliform level of 1,700 MPN/100 g could be improved, and become appropriate for raw consumption by a single day relay under proper environmental conditions. When artificially contaminated oysters (fecal coliform level 330 MPN/100 g) were depurated with electrolyzed seawater, 94% of fecal coliform was eliminated after 12 h and fecal coliform was undetectable after 24 h. After 24 h depuration with electrolyzed seawater, the fecal coliform level of short-necked clams with initial fecal coliform of 2,400 MPN/100 g was below 20 MPN/100 g. However, the fecal coliform level of short-necked clams with initial fecal coliform of 17,000 MPN/100 g was relatively high, at 790 MPN/100 g, even after 24 h of depuration with electrolyzed seawater, because of the repeated cycle of excretion and accumulation of fecal coliform in shellfish tissue under the closed depuration environment. Such natural seawater relaying and electrolyzed seawater depuration can be restrictively applied to improve or secure the bacteriological quality of oysters and short-necked clams in accordance with safety levels for bivalves for raw consumption.

A Study on Bacterial Contamination of Ice Tea Sold on the Street in Seoul Area (路上販賣冷茶의 세균오염에 관한 조사연구)

  • Jang, Jae Seon
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.39-48
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    • 1986
  • This study was carried out to investigate the bacterial contamination of Ice Tea sold on the l street in Seoul area. For this, study 81 samples were collected on the street from July to September, 1985 and were examined on the following items. 1. Degree of bacterial contamination. 2. The relation of the occurrence of fecal coliform and salmonella. 3. The change of bacterial contamination in Ice Tea against temperature. As the results of this study, the following conclusion were obtained. 1. The mean count of total viable bacteria by standard plate count was $6.5{\times}10^3$/ml, the mean count of total coliform and fecal coliform by MPN method were $3.4{\times}10^2$/100ml, 5.5/100ml and those of fecal streptococci was $3.2{\times}10^2$/100ml. 2. The mean count of Staphylococcus aureus was 10.5/ml, the isolated rate of salmonella was 7.41%. 3. In relation to the occurrence of fecal colfform and salmonella, salmonella isolated that for values above $10^2$ fecal coliform 100ml. 4. In the change of bacterial contamination in Ice Tea against temperature, the number of total coliform and fecal coliform increased at $25{\circ}$C, decreased at $4{\circ}$C, but fecal streptococci increased at $25{\circ}$C and $4{\circ}$C.

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A STUDY ON THE SANITARY QUALITY OF PACIFIC OYSTERS, CRASSOSTREA GIGAS AND GROWING WATERS IN BURLEY LAGOON, WASHINGTON (미국 Washington주 Burley Lagoon에 있어서의 참굴, Crassostrea gigas과 그 서식수역에 대한 위생학적 연구)

  • KIM Seonh Jun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.41-51
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    • 1974
  • A study of the sanitary quality of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and growing waters associated with raft culture in Burley Lagoon, Washington was conducted. The study was sponsored by the Agency for International Development of the U.S. Department of State. The results obtained in this study are as follows: The average values of temperature, salinity and turbidity in the water showed that the values of bottom sample were slightly higher than top samples. The difference was about $0.3^{\circ}C$ for temperature, $0.5\%_{\circ}$ for salinity and 0.1 JTU for turbidity. The changes of temperature and salinity by tide generally followed the tide cycle pattern. Sanitary indicator microorganism concentrations in top water were generally higher than those in bottom water. In general, the levels of mean coliform and fecal coliform MPN's varied inversely with tide level indicating that the sources of these groups of microorganisms are the fresh water streams flowing into the estuary. The $35^{\circ}C$ plate counts were more stable at different tide levels. Mean values of coliform and fecal coliform MPN's in oysters demonstrated that levels in top oysters were generally higher than those in bottom oysters. However, mean values of $35^{\circ}C$ Plate count in oysters did not show this pattern. The mean levels of both coliform and fecal coliform MPN's in oysters also correlated inversely with tidal level. The accumulation ratios of oysters obtained during the study period ranged from 8.6 to 19.7 for mean coliform MPN and 16.9 to 44.3 for fecal coliform MPN. According to the results obtained from present study, one suggestion could be of considerable importance for the sanitary operation in hanging culture of pacific oysters. The results indicate that harvest of the oysters at high tide would result in lower levels of indicator organisms in the shellfish.

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BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON MARKET SEA FOODS 2. Sanitary Indicative Bacteria in Slices of Raw Fish (시판 수산식품에 대한 세균학적 연구 2. 생선회의 위생지표 세균에 관하여)

  • CHANG Dong-Suck;CHOE Wi-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.6 no.3_4
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    • pp.92-96
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    • 1973
  • This examination was carried out to evaluate the sanitary quality of slices of raw fish being served in the restaurants. Twenty five kinds of slices of raw fish collected from various restaurants in Busan Korea were examined during the period from March to May in 1971. As the evaluation factors of sanitary quality, the contents of sanitary indicative bacteria such as coliform group, fecal coliform, feral streptococci and enterococci and plate counts were determined. The results obtained are as in below: 1. The numbers of fecal streptococci and enterococci MPN were much greater than those of coliform group and fecal coliform. 2. The median value of coliform group MPN was 3,300 per 100 grams of the sample examined and those of enterococci was 5,400. The median value of plate counts was $1.8\times10^5$ per gram. 3. Fifty-two percent of the samples examined were exceeded fecal coliform MPN 930 per 100 grams. 4. As a sanitary indicative bacteria fecal coliform MPN was more reasonable than enterococci 5. The grade of restaurants was not correlated with the bacterial quality of the foods served. 6. No correlation between the numbers of sanitary indicative bacteria ana plate counts was observed.

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Survey of fecal coliform contamination in sands of educational facilities and parks in Seoul (서울지역 교육시설 및 공원 내 토양 중 분원성대장균군 오염실태)

  • Kim, Hye-Ra;Kim, Neung-Hee;Park, Hyong-Suk;Kim, Doo-Hwan;Lee, Ju-Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.307-312
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    • 2014
  • Fecal coliform bacteria are indicators of fecal contamination and of the potential presence of pathogens associated with animal excreta, wastewater, sludge. This study examined the distribution of fecal coliform in sand of the playground at educational facilities and parks in Seoul. Fecal coliform were detected from 61 (22.1%) places out of 276 playgrounds. Escherichia (E) coli (75.4%) was found most frequently, followed by Cronobacter (Cro) sakazakii (8.7%), Klebsiella (K) pneumoniae (7.2%) and Actinobacter baumannii (4.3%). We also tested the bacteria for their susceptibility to 16 antibiotics using disk diffusion method. All the isolates were highly susceptible to cefepime, gentamicin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid and sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim, but resistant to apramycin and cephalothin. E. coli and Cro. sakazakii were highly resistant to apramycin (100% and 83.3%), followed by cephalothin (51.9% and 50%) and ampicillin (19.2% and 16.7%). K. pneumoniae was highly resistant to ampicillin and apramycin (100%, respectively) but the remaining antibiotics were susceptible.

BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON MARKET SEA FOODS 1. Sanitary Indicative Bacteria in Sundried Sea Foods. (시판 수산식품에 대한 세균학적 연구 1. 건제품의 위생지표 세균에 관하여)

  • CHANG Dong-Suck;CHOE Wi-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.6 no.3_4
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    • pp.87-91
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    • 1973
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the sanitary quality of sun dried sea foods being distributed in the markets located in Busan city. Twenty one kinds of sun dried sea foods, 9 kinds of fish and shellfish, 5 kinds of mollusca and 7 kinds of seaweed were examined during the Period from September to December in 1970. For the evaluation of sanitary contents of sanitary indicative bacteria such as coliform group, fecal coliform, fecal streptococci and enterococci, and plate counts were determined. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Through out all the samples examined, the numbers of fecal streptococci and enterocccci were much greater than those of coliform group and fecal coliform. 2. Generally, the contents of enterococci exceeded MPN of 1,000 per 100 grams through all samples examined, while fecal coliform MPN'S were less than 18. 3. The median value of coliform group MPN was 78 and those of fecal streptococci MPN was 3,300 per 100 grams, The median value of the plate counts was $9.9\times10^4$ per gram, 4. Bacterial densities of the foods which had many chances to come into contact with hands were much higher than those of other foods which had not. 5. The bacterial contamination rate of seaweed was much lower than those of fish and shellfish. 6. No correlation between the numbers of sanitary indicative bacteria and plate counts was observed.

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Sanitary characteristics of Seawater and Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) in Goseong Bay, Korea (경남 고성만 굴양식장의 위생학적 특성)

  • Lee, Sang-Jun;Jeong, Woo-Geon;Koo, Jun-Ho;Kwon, Jung No
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.157-164
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    • 2016
  • For the hygienic production of oyster at Goseong bay, this study investigated the marine bacteriological condition of the area from 2008 to April 2009. Average seawater temperature and salinity ranged $2.8-19.3.0^{\circ}C$ and 32.61-34.91 psu, respectively. The coliform group and fecal coliform of seawater ranged < 1.8-4,900 MPN/100 mL and < 1.8-700 MPN/100 mL, respectively. The coliform group of oyster (Crassostrea gigas) ranged < 1.8-13,000 MPN/100 g. Fecal coliform of oyster ranged and < 1.8-310 MPN/100 g. Only one of 140 samples was exceeded in the U.S NSSP standard (> 230 MPN/100 g) of fecal coliform. Fecal coliform in seawater was on the level of clean sea, below the U.S. NSSP standards, and the contents of fecal coliform and heavy metals in cultured oyster were also below the U.S. NSSP, heavy metal standards, showing that the sea area is bacteriologically safe.

The Bacteriological Quality of Seawater in Kamak Bay, Korea (가막만해역 해수의 세균학적 수질 평가)

  • Kwon, Ji Young;Park, Kunbawui;Song, Ki Cheol;Oh, Eun Gyoung;Lee, Hee Jung;Jo, Mi-Ra;Kim, Ji Hoe;Son, Kwang Tae
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.460-464
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    • 2012
  • From 1998 to 2008, the bacteriological quality of seawater in Kamak Bay, Korea, was monitored. The total and fecal coliforms in seawater were monitored as bacterial indicators, and the level of fecal coliform contamination was used to evaluate seawater quality. In the southern shellfish growing area of Kamak Bay, the observed fecal coliform geometric mean (GM) and estimated 90th percentile did not exceed the quality standards for fecal coliforms in seawater in Korea and th USA (GM<14 MPN/100 mL, 90th percentile<43 MPN/100 mL). The GM and estimated 90th percentile of the fecal coliform levels in the adjacent northern area of Kamak Bay were higher than in the southern area. Stations near wastewater discharge sites and urban areas in the north had the lowest quality and did not meet the bacteriological seawater quality criteria. The high fecal coliform levels in the Seonso coastal region near wastewater discharges and northern urban areas declined significantly following dredging and operation of a sewage treatment plant.

Evaluation of the Bacteriological Quality of a Shellfish-growing Area in Kamak Bay, Korea

  • Kwon, Ji-Young;Park, Kun-Ba-Wui;Song, Ki-Cheol;Lee, Hee-Jung;Park, Jeong-Heum;Kim, Jin-Do;Son, Kwang-Tae
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2008
  • The sanitary quality of a shellfish-growing area in Kamak Bay, Korea, was assessed through a bacteriological examination of seawater and oysters from January 2004 to December 2006. From seawater samples collected at 28 stations, the range of geometric mean (GM) and the estimated 90th percentile for most-probable-number (MPN) values of fecal coliforms were <1.8-2.4 MPN/100 mL and 1.8-6.0 MPN/100 mL, respectively. The observed fecal coliform GM and the estimated 90th percentile did not exceed the fecal coliform water quality standards of 14 MPN/100 mL and 43 MPN/100 mL. Therefore, the bacteriological quality of seawater at this shellfish-growing area met the Korean Shellfish Sanitation Program (KSSP) criteria for a growing area used for export. The range of the fecal coliform GM and the estimated 90th percentile MPN values of oyster samples were 19.2-160 MPN/100 g and 20.2-166.9 MPN/100 g, respectively, and the range of the viable cell count was 30-1900 CFU/g. Thus, the fecal coliform value for the oysters and the viable cell count were less than the current shellfish quality standards of 230 MPN/100 g and 50,000 CFU/g, respectively. The bacteriological quality of the oysters complied with the criteria for domestic use and export of shellfish.

SANITARY SURVEY OF SHELLFISH GROWING AREA ON WEST FOWL RIVER ESTUARY, MOBILE, ALABAMA (미국 Alabama주 West Fowl River 하구 패류서식장에 대한 위생학적 조사)

  • KIM Seong Jun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.145-162
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    • 1974
  • 시판되는 굴, 담치, 백합 등 패류는 깨끗한 수역에서 생산되어야 한다는 것은 공중보건상 매우 중요하다. 따라서 이들 서식해역에 대한 위생상태를 평가하는 것은 패류위생관리에 있어 가장 기본적인 일이다. 본 조사는 미국 Alabama주 West Fowl River 지역에 있어 패류위생관리상 양식장의 등급분류와 관련한 굴(Crassostrea virginica) 및 그 서식수의 위생학적 성상을 알기 위하여 실시되었다. 이 연구는 미국 국제개발처(AID) 연수계획에 의하여 이루워 졌음을 밝혀 둔다. 조사지역에 있어서의 감염원은 가옥, 소업체, 가축, 물새, 야생동물 등에 의한 일반적인 발기물과 배설물로 되어 있고 특별한 하수나 공업배출물은 없었다. 이 조사는 이 지방에 있어 건조기인 10월에 실시되었으며 조사기간중의 총 강우양은 0.08mm, 평균 기온은 $21.3^{\circ}C$, 바람은 동풍이 우세하였다. 저질은 뻘로 되어 있고 저호시 평균수침은 약 1m이며 조사기관중 평균 수온은 $26.0^{\circ}C$였다. 염분은 조사지점에 따라 상이하였으며 바다로 향한 강의 흐름에 따라 증가하고 평균 염분은 $18.0\~28.7\%$의 범위에 있었다. 해수 및 굴 양자의 Coliform 함양은 Fecal coliform 보다 시종 높았으며 Coliform 및 Fecal coliform의 수는 바다로 향한 강의 흐름에 따라 점차 감소하였다. 이것은 해수의 오염은 주로 지표수의 유입에 의한다는 것을 말하고 있다. 굴의 Coliform 및 Fecal coliform MPN은 해수의 그것보다 $11\~12$배 높았다. 조사수역에 설정한 7개소 Sampling station 중 오직 Station 7만이 패류양식장 허가해역의 세균학적 수질기준에 합당하였으며 굴의 Fecal coliform MPN은 시판용 패류의 세균학적 기준을 초과하고 있었다. EC test 양성시험관에서 분리된 세균의 $97.6\%$가 E. coli group로 나타나 EC test는 Echerichie Coli 시험에 매우 효과적인 방법임을 알 수 있다.

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