• Title, Summary, Keyword: Feed Additive

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The Influence of Feed Energy Density and a Formulated Additive on Rumen and Rectal Temperature in Hanwoo Steers

  • Cho, Sangbuem;Mbiriri, David Tinotenda;Shim, Kwanseob;Lee, A-Leum;Oh, Seong-Jin;Yang, Jinho;Ryu, Chaehwa;Kim, Young-Hoon;Seo, Kang-Seok;Chae, Jung-Il;Oh, Young Kyoon;Choi, Nag-Jin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.11
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    • pp.1652-1662
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    • 2014
  • The present study investigated the optimum blending condition of protected fat, choline and yeast culture for lowering of rumen temperature. The Box Benken experimental design, a fractional factorial arrangement, and response surface methodology were employed. The optimum blending condition was determined using the rumen simulated in vitro fermentation. An additive formulated on the optimum condition contained 50% of protected fat, 25% of yeast culture, 5% of choline, 7% of organic zinc, 6.5% of cinnamon, and 6.5% of stevioside. The feed additive was supplemented at a rate of 0.1% of diet (orchard grass:concentrate, 3:7) and compared with a control which had no additive. The treatment resulted in lower volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and biogas than the control. To investigate the effect of the optimized additive and feed energy levels on rumen and rectal temperatures, four rumen cannulated Hanwoo (Korean native beef breed) steers were in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design. Energy levels were varied to low and high by altering the ratio of forage to concentrate in diet: low energy (6:4) and high energy (4:6). The additive was added at a rate of 0.1% of the diet. The following parameters were measured; feed intake, rumen and rectal temperatures, ruminal pH and VFA concentration. This study was conducted in an environmentally controlled house with temperature set at $30^{\circ}C$ and relative humidity levels of 70%. Steers were housed individually in raised crates to facilitate collection of urine and feces. The adaptation period was for 14 days, 2 days for sampling and 7 days for resting the animals. The additive significantly reduced both rumen (p<0.01) and rectal temperatures (p<0.001) without depressed feed intake. There were interactions (p<0.01) between energy level and additive on ruminal temperature. Neither additive nor energy level had an effect on total VFA concentration. The additive however, significantly increased (p<0.01) propionate and subsequently had lower acetate:propionate (A/P) ratios than non-additive supplementation. High concentrate diets had significantly lower pH. Interactions between energy and additive were observed (p<0.01) in ammonia nitrogen production. Supplementation of diets with the additive resulted in lower rumen and rectal temperatures, hence the additive showed promise in alleviating undesirable effects of heat stress in cattle.

Effectiveness of Phytogenic Feed Additive as Alternative to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate on Hematological Parameters, Intestinal Histomorphology and Microbial Population and Production Performance of Japanese Quails

  • Manafi, M.;Hedayati, M.;Khalaji, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.1300-1308
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additive and antibiotic growth promoter in laying Japanese quails. One hundred and sixty five quails were divided into three groups of 5 replicates and 11 quails (8 females and 3 males) in each replicate. Treatment 1 was fed control diet, treatment 2 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.05% bacitracin methylene disalicylate as antibiotic growth promoter and treatment 3 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.1% phytogenic feed additive (PFA) for two periods of 3 weeks each from 37 to 42 weeks of age. Results showed that egg production, eggshell strength, eggshell weight, villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio were significantly (p${\leq}$0.05) increased and feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, albumen, Haugh unit, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, number of goblet cell, crypt depth and intestinal bacterial population of Coliforms, Salmonella and E. coli were significantly (p${\leq}$0.05) decreased in PFA fed group. It is concluded that addition of PFA containing phytomolecules and organic acids as main ingredients could significantly improve the production parameters and the general health of laying quails as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters.

The Effect of Bacillus-based Feed Additive on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Fecal Gas Emission, and Pen Cleanup Characteristics of Growing-finishing Pigs

  • Upadhaya, S.D.;Kim, S.C.;Valientes, R.A.;Kim, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.999-1005
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    • 2015
  • Bacillus-based feed additive was evaluated for its efficacy on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal gas emission, and the consumption of time and amount of water for cleaning the pen of growing finishing pigs. A total of 120 growing pigs ($23.59{\pm}1.41kg$) were used in a 16-wk feeding trial. Pigs were randomly distributed into 1 of 2 treatments on the basis of body weight and sex. There were 12 replicate pens per treatment, with 5 pigs (3 barrows and 2 gilts) per pen. Dietary treatments were CON which was basal diet, and T1 which was CON+62.5 ppm microbial feed additive that provided $1.47{\times}10^8cfu$ of Bacillus organisms per gram of supplement. During the weeks 0 to 6, average daily gain (ADG) in T1 treatment was higher (p<0.05) than CON, but no improvement in average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed efficiency (G:F) was noted. During 6 to 16 weeks, no difference (p>0.05) was noted in growth performance. However, ADG was improved (p<0.05) and overall ADFI tended (p = 0.06) to improve in T1 compared with CON. At week 6, the co-efficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of dry matter (DM) nitrogen (N) was increased (p<0.05) in T1 compared with CON. Fecal $NH_3$ emission was decreased (p<0.05) in T1 compared with CON, at the end of 6th and 15th weeks. The time and water consumed for washing the pens were decreased (p<0.05) in T1 compared with CON. In conclusion, supplementation with Bacillus-based feed additive could improve the overall growth performances, increase the CATTD of DM and decrease the fecal $NH_3$ content and the time and water consumed in washing the pens for growing-finishing pigs.

Effect of Different Feed Additives on Growth Performance and Blood Profiles of Korean Hanwoo Calves

  • Sarker, M.S.K.;Ko, S.Y.;Lee, S.M.;Kim, G.M.;Choi, J.K.;Yang, C.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.52-60
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    • 2010
  • This experiment was conducted on 60 Hanwoo calves comprising five feed additive groups, with 12 calves in each group, to determine the effects of additives at pre- and post-weaning on growth performance and blood profile. The groups were control, antibiotic (Neomycin 110 ppm), illite (2%), fermented green tea probiotics (FGTP, 0.5%), and mixed additives (FGTP 0.25%, illite 1% and licorice 0.1%). The calves were offered experimental pellet feeds ad libitum and after one month were supplied with imported timothy hay. They moved freely within the group and suckled their mother' milk during the pre-weaning stage (birth to 3 months) and were separated from their dam during the post-weaning stage (4-5 months). During the pre-weaning stage, the highest average daily gain (ADG) was recorded in the antibiotic- and mixed additive-fed groups followed by FGTP, control and illite groups. In the post-weaning stage, significantly higher total weight gain and ADG were recorded in both the FGTP and mixed additive groups compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Feed efficiency of mixed additive- and illite-fed calves were almost similar with antibiotic-fed calves compared to the other two groups, but the ADG was lowest in illite-fed calves during the pre-weaning stage. In contrast, post-weaning calves fed FGTP and mixed additives showed better feed efficiency. The values of hematological indices, differential leukocyte count, blood proteins and immunoglobulin among the additive-fed calves were not significantly different (p>0.05), although hemoglobin and hematocrit values were lower in FGTP compared to control, but similar in mixed additive and antibiotic groups. These results indicate no detrimental effects of feed additives on the blood profile of calves at both pre- and post-weaning age. Serum albumin in post-weaning calves of all feed additive groups were similar but significantly lower (p<0.05) than in the control group. Post-weaning, IgM was significantly lower (p<0.05) in illite-fed calves compared to other treatment groups, but there was no difference at pre-weaning. Considering all factors, the mixed feed additives and FGTP can be the replacement feed formula for antibiotic for Hanwoo beef calf production, especially when used post- weaning.

Effects of Dietary formulated feed Additive on Growth Performance and Carcass Traits in Hanwoo Steers (반추위 발효 조절 항생제 대체 물질이 한우 거세우 생산성과 육질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryu, Chaehwa;Park, Hae-Ryoung;Cho, Sangbuem;Choi, Nag-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.869-879
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    • 2016
  • The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary formulated feed additive on growth performance and carcass traits of Hanwoo steers. A formulated feed additive reported to reduce heat load in the rumen in our previous research was used (Cho et al., 2014). Total 32 herds of Hanwoo steers were assigned into two groups of control and treatment. Total mixed ration was provided as basal diet for cattle and 100 g of additive was supplemented on diet for treatment. Feeding trial was performed during 120 days before slaughter. For growth performance, 3 periods (0~90 days; 90~120 days; 0~120 days) were allotted and average daily gain, feed requirement and final body weight were determined. Loin meat between $12^{th}$ and $13^{th}$ rib was used for meat quality analysis after slaughtering. Only $1^{st}$ period showed significantly improved growth performance of treatment (P<0.05) and there were no significant difference in other periods. At $3^{rd}$ periods (overall), a trend of increased average daily gain was found at treatment (P=0.075). Carcass performance and quality did not show significant differences between treatment and control (P>0.05). In meat quality, treatment showed significant increment in all measured meat colors (P<0.05) and significantly less sharing force compared to the control (P<0.05). Although no significant difference in growth performance and carcass yield were found, remarkably improved economic status was detected in treatment group. In conclusion, it could be suggested that application of a formulated feed additive specialized in reduction of heat load in the rumen was able to increase economical balance through enhancing heat stress condition of ruminant and growth.

Organic Water Additive on Growth Performances, Hematological Parameters and Cost Effectiveness in Broiler Production

  • Saha, Munmun;Chowdhury, Sachidananda Das;Hossain, Md. Elias;Islam, Md. Kamrul;Roy, Bishwajit
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.517-523
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    • 2011
  • The experiment was conducted with 144 broiler chicks from day-old to 5 weeks of age to investigate the efficacy of a water additive in broiler production. The chicks were randomly distributed into four different treatments namely T1 (control), T2 (water additive as per recommendation level), T3 (25% less than recommendation) and T4 (25% more than recommendation). Body weight of control group was higher in 2nd week of age, but at the end of the experiment additive groups showed higher values compare to control (p<0.05). Body weight gain was increased and feed conversion ratio was improved in the additives groups during the finishing and total period, although feed intake was different among the additive groups (p<0.05). When the hematological parameters were evaluated, packed cell volume and total erythrocytes counts were increased in the additive group that received 25% more than recommendation, and hemoglobin in 25% less than recommendation group. Mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin of the additive groups showed lower (p<0.05) values compare to the control, but other parameters were not affected. Sales price and profit were significantly higher in the additive groups compare to the control, although total production cost was increased in the additive groups (p<0.05). All levels of water additive increased profit in comparison with the control but 25% less than recommendation level appeared to be most profitable and cost effective. It also suggests that any additive considered for poultry, must undergo trial for determining efficacy as well as its cost effectiveness for application.

Effects of Dietary Feed Additives on Meat Quality in Broiler Production (육계사료 내 사료첨가제가 계육의 육질에 미치는 영향)

  • Youn B. S.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.193-198
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted for improvement of meat quality in broiler chcikens. Birds were fed basal diet(control), ferritin, illite, betafin, or wood vinegar counting broiler feed according as broiler growth stage. Birds fed with basal diet, which was distributed under the best environmental condition, were more weight gain than other groups reared under same environmental condition. In the mean weight gain, the ferritin-group showed the highest and the illite-group showed the lowest among the feed additive groups; therefore, the effect of feed requirement change in odor reduction in illite and methyl saving of betafin was lower than those of other feed additives along to pass rear time. Meat quality was appraised by National Livestock Research Institute of RDA. Except the control-group, that had the best feed conversion ratio, the cooking loss of the illite-group was the biggest among groups although the illite-group chickens had a good water hold capacity. Therefore, illite is not good for making merchandise by reason that group chickens get reduction carcass weight after slaughter. On the other hand, the ferritin-group got the highest point of shear stress, cooking loss, and crude fat level. That group showed the best appraise in both breast and leg of sensory test in company and also feed conversion ratio was the highest among feed additive groups. As a result, the ferritin-group might use for making new merchandise among the feed additive groups.

Field evaluation of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-specific bacteriophage (ΦCJ19) as a feed additive (Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli 특이 박테리오파지 (ΦCJ19)의 사료 첨가제로서의 사양 평가)

  • Yoo, Anna;Cha, Seung Bin;Shin, Min Kyoung;Park, Hong Tae;Seo, Hyo Sil;Kim, Jae Won;Yoo, Han Sang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.83-88
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    • 2013
  • Field efficacy of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-specific phage (${\Phi}CJ19$) as a feed additive was evaluated in weaning piglets. Fifty-four piglets at 3-4 weeks old were allocated in three different groups and two of them were fed with bacteriophage at different concentrations ($10^6PFU/kg$ feed and $10^8PFU/kg$ feed, respectively) for 30 days. Body weight and feed intake were measured at 10 days interval and body condition and fecal score were inspected every day. Based on the measurement, feed conversion rate (FCR) and average daily gain (ADG) of each group during 30 days were analyzed. The analysis suggests that the bacteriophage may help the improvement of FCR and ADG at $10^8PFU/kg$ of bacteriophage feeding group in 30 days. A result from analysis of fecal score indicates that the bacteriophage also may help to relieve the intermittent diarrhea in post-weaning stage. Those results suggest that bacteriophage might help the growth of piglets in post-weaning stage.

Application of Ecklonia cava Kjellman by-product as a feed additive: enhancing weight gain, immunity and protection from Salmonella infection in chickens (양계 사료첨가제로서 감태 추출 부산물로 인한 체중증가 및 방어효능 평가)

  • Park, Soyeon;Kim, Chung Yoh;Park, Bokyoung;Kim, Kiju;Park, Keuntae;Han, Jong Kwon;Hahn, Tae-Wook
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.255-260
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    • 2016
  • The Ecklonia cava Kjellman by-product (ECBP) as a feed additive was evaluated in improvement of productivity and immune enhancement against Salmonella Gallinarum (SG). Lohmann Brown chickens proved SG-free were randomly divided into 3 groups of 8 chickens each. Chickens were fed with the experimental diet treatment: T0, Non treatment-commercial feed; T1, commercial feed with 0.5% ECBP; T2, commercial feed with 0.1% Lactobacillus plantarum. In this study, we evaluated the effect of T1 and T2 groups on the body weight and protective efficacy against SG in chickens. The results demonstrated that treatment of T1 group as a feed additive affected significantly body weight gaining in chickens. In addition, T1 group showed a significant different colonization of SG when compared to T2 and T0 groups. We also studied that serum IgG and $interferon-{\gamma}$ levels were significantly different compared with other treatment groups. Therefore, we suggest that ECBP can be used as a good candidate of feed additives in chicken industry.

ADDITIVE NATURE OF DIGESTIBLE ENERGY AND RELATIVE ENERGY VALUES OF DIFFERENT ENERGY-YIELDING NUTRIENTS IN PRACTICAL TROUT DIETS

  • Kim, J.D.;Kaushik, S.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.231-242
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    • 1990
  • A study is reported which investigated the additive nature of digestible energy (DE) from dietary nutrients and to estimate the relative energy values of different energy-yielding nutrients in practical trout diets. A growth study was conducted over 12 weeks with 6 diets. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed diets once a day ad libitum. Digestible energy values determined and calculated had direct relationship indicating additive nature of such values for feed ingredients. Overall growth performance was best in a diet containing 33% digestible protein (DP) with a DP/DE ratio of 18.6. A reduction in digestible protein level with the same DP/DE rat io led to a significant decrease in growth and feed efficiency. The increase of 7% of lipid with concomitant decrease in protein resulted in the relative gain of 130% in growth and nutrient retention, suggesting that 1 g of lipid is equal to about 1.3 g of proteins in terms of net energetic value. Replacement of 10% of dietary lipid by carbohydrates led to a slight decrease in energy retention efficiency but to a great increase in lipid retention efficiency (130%) showing that dietary carbohydrates led to increased lipogenesis.