• Title, Summary, Keyword: Feed Supply

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A Study on Problems and Improvement in Statistics on Fisheries Supply and Demand (수산물 수급통계의 문제점과 개선방향)

  • Kang, Jong-Ho
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to raise some questions about the supply and demand statistics of fisheries products and to find implications for food supply and demand. There are three problems in the statistics of fisheries supply and demand. First, it is a structural problem of supply and demand statistics. Supply and demand statistics are not accurate because the feed, the amount of loss, and the waste rate are not surveyed. Second, the amount of fish used as a moist pellet is missing. Third, although some of the seaweed and kelp production is used as abalone feed, it is not classified as feed. Taking these results into consideration, at least 300,000 tons should be classified as feed for fisheries supply and demand statistics. As mentioned above, the current statistics on the supply and demand of fisheries are incomplete and structural improvement is needed.

Optimal Supply of Grinding Fluid for Creepfeed Grinding (고능률 연삭을 위한 연삭유제 공급의 최적화)

  • 박재현;홍순익;하만경;송지복
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.90-94
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    • 1996
  • Thermal problems of creep-feed grinding are more serious than regular grinding. So grinding fluid supply in creep-feed grinding is very important. Grinding fluid supply quantity is not linear with effectiveness because grinding wheel is porosity material and the grinding area is solid contact area. In this paper, by using AE signal, optimal quantity of fluid supply was determined. And surface characteristics of wet creep-feed grinding were analized.

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Production of Tantalum Powder and Characteristics by External Supply of Feed Material and Reductant (원료물질과 환원제의 외부공급에 따른 탄탈륨 분말의 제조 및 특성)

  • 윤재식;박형호;배인성;김병일
    • Journal of Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.349-352
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    • 2003
  • This study examined the correlation of various operational factors including reaction temperature and the quantity of reductant and diluent with the characteristics of powder using $K_2$ TaF$_{7}$ as feed materials, Na as a reductant and KCl/KF as a diluent. Also to control the particle size and shape, external supply system developed, it can provide a feed material and a reductant at a fixed quantity and evaluated the characteristics of tantalum powder. When the external supply system was applied instead of the batch type process that charges feed material, reductant and diluent at the same time, it was possible to induce regular reduction reaction between feed material and reductant, which increased the recovery rate and reduced the mixture of impurities. In particular, the application of the external supply system enabled the control of reaction temperature and reaction speed according to the feeding rate of feed material during reduced reaction, and resultantly it enabled the manufacturing of granular-shaped powder with a regular granularity of 2∼3 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ and purity of 99.5%.

Influence of Level of Feed Intake on Concentration of Purine Derivatives in Urinary Spot Samples and Microbial Nitrogen Supply in Crossbred Bulls

  • George, S.K.;Dipu, M.T.;Mehra, U.R.;Verma, A.K.;Singh, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1291-1297
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    • 2006
  • The potential of the spot urine sampling technique as an alternative to performing a total urine collection to predict the microbial nitrogen supply was evaluated in crossbred bulls. In a completely randomized design, 20 growing crossbred bulls were assigned four levels of feed intake (120, 100, 80 and 60% of voluntary dry matter intake) on diets comprised of wheat straw and concentrate mixture (50:50). After three months of experimental feeding, a metabolism trial was conducted for ten days, during which spot urine collections were performed every 6 h post feeding on days 9 and 10. The daily urinary excretion of allantoin (A) and purine derivatives (PD) decreased with the reduction in feed intake while creatinine (C) excretion remained similar in animals fed at different levels. The microbial nitrogen (MN) supply calculated from the PD excreted in total urine (35.08 to 72.08 g/d) was higher at increased levels of feed intake. PD concentration in spot urine samples had poor correlation with feed intake except at 12 h post feeding. A/C ratio and PD/C ratio in spot urine samples remained similar irrespective of sampling time and significantly (p<0.01) correlated with daily urinary PD excretion, digestible organic matter intake and dry matter (DM) intake. However, no significant differences were evident in these ratios among animals fed at levels 120, 100 and 80% of voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI) at different times post feeding. These results suggests that the spot urine sampling technique to predict the microbial protein supply is not suitable for detecting small differences in MN supply and hence, estimation of PD excreted in total urine (mmol/d) is necessary to assess precisely the MN supply in crossbred bulls.

Comparative Study on 220V AC Feed System and 300V DC Feed System for Internet Data Centers

  • Kim, Hyo-Sung
    • Journal of Power Electronics
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.157-163
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    • 2012
  • Internet Data Centers (IDCs), which are essential facilities in the modern IT industry, typically have scores of MW of concentrated electric loads. The provision of an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) is necessary for the power feed system of IDCs owing to the need for stable power. Thus, conventional IDC AC power feed systems have three cascaded power conversion stages, (AC-DC), (DC-AC), and (AC-DC), resulting in a very low conversion efficiency. In comparison, DC power feed systems require only a single power conversion stage (AC-DC) to supply AC main power to DC server loads, resulting in comparatively high conversion efficiency and reliability [4-11]. This paper compares the efficiencies of a 220V AC power feed system with those of a 300V DC power feed system under equal load conditions, as established by the Mok-Dong IDC of Korea Telecom Co. Ltd. (KT). Experimental results show that the total operation efficiency of the 300V DC power feed system is approximately 15% higher than that of the 220V AC power feed system.

Estimation of Rumen Microbial Protein Supply Using Urinary Purine Derivatives Excretion in Crossbred Calves Fed at Different Levels of Feed Intake

  • Singh, M.;Sharma, K.;Dutta, N.;Singh, P.;Verma, A.K.;Mehra, U.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.10
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    • pp.1567-1574
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    • 2007
  • A study was carried out to study the response of total purine derivatives (PD) excretion in urine to determine microbial N (MN) supply at four fixed levels of feed intake (namely 95, 80, 60 and 40% of voluntary intake). The crossbred (CB) calves were allocated according to a $4{\times}4$ Latin Square Design and fed wheat straw and concentrate (1:1). The rate of PD excretion (mmol/d) as a linear function of feed intake was 15.85/kg DMI and 20.12/kg DOMI. Based on the endogenous and PD excretion rates obtained in this study, a relationship between daily urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol) and daily microbial protein supply (X, mmol) was developed for crossbred calves as Y = 0.83X+0.296 kg $W^{0.75}$. The derived microbial N values using this equation differed (p<0.001) among the 4 groups and was the highest in L-95 followed by L-80, L-60 and L-40. The relationship between urinary nitrogen loss (Y, g/d) and DOMI (X, kg/d) was established as: Y = 6.038X+21.753 ($r^2$ = 0.663, p<0.01). When urinary excretion of PD (Y, mmol/d) was plotted against intake of DM and DOM (X, kg/d), the equations obtained were: Y = 7.1711X+8.674 ($r^2$ = 0.889, p<0.01) and Y = 12.434X+7.683 ($r^2$ = 0.896, p<0.01), respectively. The proportional contribution of allantoin and uric acid to total PD remained stable irrespective of level of feed intake. Similarly, urinary excretion of creatinine did not differ (p>0.05) between animals fed at different levels. The MN supply was the highest to animals at intake levels L-95, and decreased linearly with corresponding decrease in feed intake. However, the MN supply when expressed per kg DOMI remained statistically (p>0.05) similar irrespective of level of intake. The results revealed that the excretion of urinary purine derivatives were positively correlated with the level of feed intake as well as rumen microbial supply and thus it could be a good indicator for measuring the microbial protein supply and nutritional status of animals.

Effect of Cattle Genotype and Variable Feed Supply on Forage Intake and Digestibility

  • Habib, M.;Pollott, G.E.;Leaver, J.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.10
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    • pp.1435-1440
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    • 2008
  • An experiment was carried out to investigate whether a local breed of cattle is better adapted than European breed crosses to low quality feeds and to variations in their supply. Four Red Chittagong (RC) and four Holstein cross Sahiwal (Hx) cattle were used to compare the intake and digestibility of German grass (Echinocloa crusgalli) and rice straw with four regimes of feed supply. These were; a choice of German grass and rice straw each offered ad libitum on the same day (A); German grass and rice straw offered ad libitum on alternate days (B); rice straw offered ad libitum for 5 days followed by German grass ad libitum for 5 days (C); and German grass offered ad libitum for 5 days followed by rice straw ad libitum for 5 days (D). Each breed was offered the treatments in a $4{\times}4$ Latin Square design. The German grass intake and total dry matter intake per kg metabolic live weight were significantly higher for the Hx than for RC, but there were no significant effects of genotype on digestibility of nutrients or live weight. Treatment A had the highest proportion of German grass relative to rice straw in the total DM intake, and had the highest total DM intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients compared with treatments B, C and D. It was concluded that there was no significant evidence that the RG cattle were better adapted to a variable supply of low quality feed than Hx cattle, and that the variable feed supply reduced the ability of cattle to select a preferred diet and consequently nutrient intake was depressed.

The Flicker Control by Feed-forward for Stabilization of CVCF Inverter (철도차량용 보조전원장치의 전향제어를 이용한 Flicker 제어)

  • 박채운;신형진;조국춘;원충연
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.267-272
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    • 1999
  • The auxiliary power supply system fur passenger service of railway car has been developed from MA(Motor-Alternator) to CVCF Inverter (Static Inverter). Generally, a customer wants to apply tile new control method and device for auxiliary power supply of railcar However, if the auxiliary power supply is supplied to extended existing line, the maintenance cost of the old system is less expensive than new developed system, so, the customer specifies that the auxiliary power supply has compatibility with existing one completely. At that time, the hardware is nearly same as existing system except small changes of accessories for better performance. This paper describes the flicker control using feed-forward method of auxiliary power supply system for new 50 electric railcars, which are delivered to Korean National Railroad (KNR) Kwa-chon Line. The existing power supply system has damping resistor box to stabilize the DC input (1.5 ㎸). At this time, for better system efficiency the new system has not include resistor box but new control method including feed-forward control is applied. This control algorithm realizes the better stabilization of input power compared to the result of the existing system, which includes resistor box

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Modeling Nutrient Supply to Ruminants: Frost-damaged Wheat vs. Normal Wheat

  • Yu, Peiqiang;Racz, V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.333-339
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    • 2010
  • The objectives of this study were to use the NRC-2001 model and DVE/OEB system to model potential nutrient supply to ruminants and to compare frost damaged (also called "frozen" wheat with normal wheat. Quantitative predictions were made in terms of: i) Truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein in the small intestine; ii) Truly absorbed rumen undegraded feed protein in the small intestine; iii) Endogenous protein in the digestive tract; iv). Total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine; and v). Protein degraded balance. The overall yield losses of the frozen wheat were 24%. Results showed that using the DVE/OEB system to predict the potential nutrient supply, the frozen wheat had similar truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein (65 vs. 66 g/kg DM; p>0.05), tended to have lower truly absorbed rumen undegraded feed protein (39 vs. 53 g/kg DM; p<0.10) and had higher endogenous protein (14 vs. 9 g/kg DM; p<0.05). Total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine was significantly lower (89 vs. 110 g/kg DM, p<0.05) in the frozen wheat. The protein degraded balance was similar and both were negative (-2 vs. -1 g/kg DM). Using the NRC-2001 model to predict the potential nutrient supply, the frozen wheat also had similar truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein (average 56 g/kg DM; p>0.05), tended to have lower truly absorbed rumen undegraded feed protein (35 vs. 48, g/kg DM; p<0.10) and had similar endogenous protein (average 4 g/kg DM; p>0.05). Total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine was significantly lower (95 vs. 108 g/kg DM, p<0.05) in the frozen wheat. The protein degraded balance was not significantly different and both were negative (-16 vs. -19 g/kg DM). In conclusion, both models predict lower protein value and negative protein degraded balance in the frozen wheat. The frost damage to the wheat reduced nutrient content and availability and thus reduced nutrient supply to ruminants by around 12 to 19%.