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The Bioenergy Conversion Characteristics of Feedlot Manure Discharging from Beef Cattle Barn

  • Oh, Seung-Yong;Kim, Chang-Hyun;Yoon, Young-Man
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.697-704
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    • 2015
  • This study was carried out to assess bioenergy conversion efficiency by biogas and solid fuel production in the cattle feedlot manure discharged from beef cattle barn. Feedlot manure was sampled from the cattle farmhouse located in Yong-in, Gyeonggi during the mid-fattening stage, periodically. The chemical characteristics, BMP (Biochemical methane potential) and HV (Heating values) of feedlot cattle manures were analyzed. Total solid contents of cattle feedlot manure were in the range of 29.98~44.28%, and volatile solid contents were in the range of 23.53~24.47%. In the anaerobic digestion of cattle feedlot manure, the methane production potential has increased from 0.141 to $0.187Nm^3kg^{-1}-VS_{added}$. The methane production of fresh cattle feedlot manure showed the range $0.141{\sim}0.187Nm^3kg^{-1}$-Manure (average $0.047Nm^3kg^{-1}$-Manure), the LHVs (lower heating values) of the produced methane were in the range of $316{\sim}560kcalkg^{-1}$-Manure (average $400kcalkg^{-1}$-Manure). In the direct combustion of fresh cattle feedlot manure, the LHVs were measured in the range of $747{\sim}1,271kcalkg^{-1}$-Manure (average $916kcalkg^{-1}$-Manure), and LHVs of solid fuel which have the water content of 20% were in the range of $2,694{\sim}2,876kcalkg^{-1}$-Manure (average $2,791kcalkg^{-1}$-Manure). Then, the drying energy of average $443kcalkg^{-1}$-Manure was consumed in the production of solid fuel which has a water content of 20%. Therefore, the direct combustion of cattle feedlot manure showed about 2.3 times higher LHV than the LHV of methane produced by anaerobic digestion. And LHV of solid fuel was about 6.0 times higher than the LHV of methane produced by anaerobic digestion. Then, the production of solid fuel presented more bioenergy conversion efficiency than the biogas production in the bioenergy use of cattle feedlot manure.

Thermal and Physicochemical Characteristics of Solid Fuel Extruded with Cattle Feedlot Manure (우분 성형 고형연료의 열 및 물리화학적 특성)

  • Lee, Gwi-Hyun
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.64-68
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    • 2010
  • Cattle feedlot manure could be used effectively as the solid fuel for heating of agricultural facilities. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the thermal and physicochemical characteristics of solid fuel extruded with cattle feedlot manure. Calorific values of the solid fuel extruded with cattle feedlot manure, which was dried to the moisture contents of 0.0% (w.b) and 35.0% (w.b,) were 14,906 kJ/kg and 11,797 kJ/kg, respectively. Calorific value of extruded solid fuel was linearly decreased with the increase of moisture content. The first, second, and third reaction point during thermal pyrolysis of solid fuels extruded with cattle feedlot manure was investigated as $108.1^{\circ}C$, $312.2^{\circ}C$, and $459.4^{\circ}C$, respectively. The maximum reaction point was presented at the temperature of $312.2^{\circ}C$. Weight loss of extruded cattle feedlot manure during thermal pyrolysis until $600^{\circ}C$ was reached to about 60%. Volume decrease of initial extruded cattle feedlot manure was 61% during drying for the use as solid fuel. Maximum strength of extruded cattle feedlot manure, which was dried as the moisture content of 10% (w.b.) was 41,9150 N/$m^2$. Ignition gas analysis of extruded cattle feedlot manure presented that it has small amount of $NO_x$ and $SO_x$. It was shown that dried cattle feedlot manure had main components of C and O including small amount of Mg, Si, and Ca.

Temporal Variations in Isotope Ratios and Concentrations of Nitrate-nitrogen in Groundwater as Affected by Chemical Fertilizer and Livestock Manure

  • Yoo, Sun-Ho;Choi, Woo-Jung;Han, Gwang Hyun;Park, Jung-Geun;Lee, Sang-Mo;Jin, Sheng-ai
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.186-190
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    • 1999
  • Isotope ratio ($^{15}N/^{14}N$) and nitrate-nitrogen concentration in groundwater were measured to investigate the effect of chemical fertilizer and livestock manure on temporal variations in nitrate-nitrogen concentration and to estimate the contribution of fertilizer and manure to groundwater contamination by nitrate. Four study wells from a rural area in Kyonggi province were selected. One well was located on an upper site from a livestock feedlot, and the others were situated at lower sites from the feedlot. The ${\delta}^{15}N$ values were analyzed by a stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Micromass, VG Optima IRMS). Reproducibility of the method and precision of the mass spectrometer were below 1.0 and 0.1‰, respectively Even though study wells were located at the same area, nitrate-nitrogen concentrations and ${\delta}^{15}N$ values differed and fluctuated during the sampling period. The ${\delta}^{15}N$ values of well located at upper site from the feedlot were extremely variable (-1.48~20.80‰). The ranges of ${\delta}^{15}N$ value of three wells situated at lower sites from the feedlot were 11.83~20.73 (ave. 16.11), 8.90~11.73 (ave.11.01), and 5.29~12.73‰ (ave. 8.21‰) with increasing distance from the feedlot. The average values of contribution proportion of nitrogen derived from livestock manure to nitrate-nitrogen in groundwater were 79% for the well closet to the feedlot, 44% for the well most distant from the feedlot, and 56% for the well in between the two wells.

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A Study on the Effects of Heat Stress on Feedlot Environment and Productivity of Dairy Cattle (고온 환경이 젖소의 생산성 및 축사환경에 미치는 영향 연구)

  • Kim, Byul;Lim, Joung-Soo;Cho, Sung-Back;Hwang, Ok-Hwa;Yang, Seung-Hak
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.63-68
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    • 2014
  • Environmental heat stress by global warming has a severe effect on the productivity of livestock and, in particular, on that of dairy cattle. Heat stress during high temperature environment directly and indirectly affects milk yield, milk quality and physiological response. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of heat stress on productivity and physiological responses of livestock. Temperature-humidity data logger were established inside the feedlot for measuring real time changes in the feedlot environment. Milk was collected every day for analysing the productivity of dairy cattle. Blood sample and respiration of dairy cattle were collected once in a week for investigating the physiological response factors. Blood component concentration associated with lipolysis metabolism and milk production showed change during tropical night period. Temperature humidity index (THI) of a specific location inside the feedlot showed continuously high levels.

A Practical Study on the Solid-Liquid Separation of the Swine Wastewater from Slurry Feedlot (슬러리 양돈분뇨의 최적 고액분리 방안 연구)

  • Park, Seung-Kyun;Choi, Jae-Gil;Chung, Yoon-Jin
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.60-70
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    • 2000
  • The swine wastewater from slurry feedlot has been a social problem in Korea since the proper treatment is very difficult. Therefore, a practical study on the Solid-Liquid separation of swine wastewater from slurry feedlot was carried out as a pan of pretreatment for the successful biological treatment. The appropriate type of coagulant and optimum dosage were proposed for the most efficient Solid-Liquid separation and the best Solid-Liquid separation methods for different size of feedlot were determined through the tests with field-scaled Solid-Liquid separation equipment. The appropriate coagulant for the conditioning of dewatering property was E-851, which is a cationic polyelectrolyte made of polyacrylamide, and the optimum dosage was 0.24~0.6% of unit solids weight. Mesh Screen, Drum Screen, Cyclone Drum Filter, Screw Press, High-speed Screw Decanter, Low-speed Screw Decanter, and Dissolved Air Flotation Process had been investigated in this study. According to the results, the Screw Press was the best dewatering equipment for the small & medium size for feedlot and low-speed Screw Decanter was the best for the large size feedlot & public owned treatment facilities for the primary Solid-Liquid separation, and the most suitable secondary treatment process was DAF. On the other hand, reductions for the requirement of bulking agent and organic loading by Solid-Liquid separation process were 94.8% and 84.7%, respectively Therefore, the Solid-Liquid separation process must be required for the successful treatment of swine wastewater from slurry feedlot.

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Plasma Leptin and Performance of Purebred and Backcrossed Hereford throughout Grazing and Feedlot Fattening

  • Vega, R.A.;Hidari, H.;Matsunaga, N.;Kuwayama, H.;Manalo, D.D.;Lee, H.G.;Hata, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.954-959
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    • 2004
  • In a herd of 24 spring-born steers, plasma leptin and performance of selected purebred (n=5) and backcrossed Hereford (n=5) were compared in a year-round summer grazing and winter feedlot fattening. Bimonthly blood collection and body weight measurement were accomplished. The plasma samples were analyzed for leptin, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, NEFA and glucose. The experimental design utilized one-way ANOVA with breed as the treatment. The purebred obtained higher plasma NEFA (p<0.001) compared to backcross, regardless of seasonal feeding systems (SFS). The backcross showed gradual increase and nonresponsiveness of plasma leptin to SFS. During summer grazing, attenuation of plasma leptin and sudden elevation when shifted to winter feedlot fattening were observed in purebred. Plasma leptin obtained linear relationship with body weight of purebred (r=0.53;p<0.001) and backcrossed Hereford (r=0.49; p<0.01). The purebred and backcrossed Hereford, when shifted to summer grazing, resulted to sustained and restricted daily gain, respectively. Therefore, cattle breeds of higher growth potential exhibit significant elevation of plasma leptin after 400 kg BW, when animal starts to deposit significant body fat.

Effects of Size and Rate of Maturing on Carcass Composition of Pasture- or Feedlot- Developed Steers

  • Brown, A.H. Jr.;Camfield, P.K.;Baublits, R.T.;Pohlman, F.W.;Johnson, Z.B.;Brown, C.J.;Tabler, G.T.;Sandelin, B.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.661-671
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    • 2006
  • Steers (n = 335) of known genetic backgrounds from four fundamentally different growth types were subjected to two production systems to study the main effects and possible interactive effects on carcass composition. Growth types were animals with genetic potential for large mature weight (LL), intermediate mature weight-late maturing (IL), intermediate mature weight-early maturing (IE), and small mature weight-early maturing (SE). Each year, in a nine year study, calves of each growth type were weaned and five steers of each growth type were developed on pasture or feedlot and harvested at approximately 20 and 14 mo of age, respectively. Data recorded were chilled carcass weight and percentages of forequarter, foreshank, chuck, rib, plate, brisket, hindquarter, round, rump, shortloin, sirloin, flank, lean, fat, bone, and retail cuts. The growth $type{\times}production$ system interaction was an important source of variation in chilled carcass weight (p = 0.0395) and percentage retail cuts (p = 0.001), lean (p = 0.001), fat (p = 0.001), rump (p = 0.0454), shortloin (p = 0.0487), and flank (p = 0.001). The ranking of the growth $type{\times}production$ system means for percentage lean was LL-pasture>IL-pasture = IE-pasture = SE-pasture>LL-feedlot, IL-feedlot>IE-feedlot = SE-feedlot. The growth $type{\times}production$ system interaction was non-significant (p>0.05) for forequarter, foreshank, chuck, rib, plate, brisket, hindquarter, round and bone. Growth types of IE and SE yielded greater (p<0.05) mean forequarter than did growth types of IL and LL ($51.6{\pm}0.3$ and $51.5{\pm}0.3$ vs. $51.1{\pm}0.3$ and $50.8{\pm}0.3%$). Mean bone was highest (p<0.05) for the LL growth type and lowest (p<0.05) for the SE growth type ($19.5{\pm}0.5$ vs. $16.8{\pm}0.5%$). Mean bone was greater (p<0.05) for the pastured steers than for the feedlot steers ($21.8{\pm}0.8$ vs. $14.5{\pm}0.6%$). These data indicate that growth type responded differently in the two production systems and that these results should be helpful in the match of genetics to production resources.

Effects of Trace Mineral Supplementation and Source, 30 Days Post-weaning and 28 Days Post Receiving, on Performance and Health of Feeder Cattle

  • Dorton, K.L.;Engle, T.E.;Enns, R.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1450-1454
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    • 2006
  • Three hundred and seventy-five steers (approximately 7 mo of age and $239.0{\pm}10.4kg$) were utilized to determine the effects of trace mineral (TM) supplementation and source on performance during the on-farm backgrounding and feedlot receiving phases of beef cattle production. At their respective ranches, steers were stratified by body weight into six groups. Groups were then assigned to one of six pens and pens were randomly assigned to treatments. Treatments consisted of: 1) control (no supplemental Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co), 2) inorganic trace mineral ($CuSO_4$, $ZnSO_4$, $MnSO_4$, and $CoCO_3$), and 3) organic trace mineral (iso-amounts of organic Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co). Mineral treatments were fed in alfalfa pellets formulated to supply 360 mg of Zn, 200 mg of Mn, 125 mg of Cu, and 12.5 mg of Co per head per day from either organic or inorganic trace mineral sources. Control steers received alfalfa pellets with no additional Cu, Zn, Mn, or Co. Steers were allowed free access to harvested alfalfa-grass hay throughout the 30-d on-farm backgrounding phase. On day 30 post-weaning, steers were weighed and transported to the feedlot. Steers were blocked by treatment within ranch, stratified by initial body weight, and randomly assigned to one of 36 pens (9-12 head per pen; 12 pens per treatment). Steers remained on the same on-farm backgrounding trace mineral treatments, however, trace mineral treatments were included in the total mixed growing ration. Steers were fed a corn silage-based growing diet throughout the 28 d feedlot receiving period. There was no effect of TM supplementation on performance of steers during the on-farm backgrounding phase. By the end of the 28-d feedlot receiving phase, ADG was similar between control and trace mineral supplemented steers. Steers supplemented with organic TM had greater (p<0.05) ADG than steers supplemented with inorganic TM by the end of the 28-d feedlot receiving phase. Morbidity and mortality rates were similar across treatments.

Biological data transmission performance of virtual cattle feedlot sensor network (가상센서네트워크를 이용한 사육장 생체데이터 전송성능에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Hyun-Joong;Ju, Hui-Dong;Lee, Meong-Hun;Yoe, Hyun
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.1134-1141
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    • 2008
  • As sensor network technologies developed, the sphere field of application is escalated unfortunately, the applicable size is smaller than the actual quantity of cattle in feedlot. In this paper, we simulated and evaluated biological data transmission performance of virtual cattle feedlot. Deducted conclusions show us a more efficient cattle control scenario is required and effective routing protocol design and modification are needed.

Effects of Moisture and a Saponin-based Surfactant during Barley Processing on Growth Performance and Carcass Quality of Feedlot Steers and on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation

  • Wang, Y.;Gibb, D.;Greer, D.;McAllister, T.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.12
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    • pp.1690-1698
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    • 2011
  • Feedlot and in vitro ruminal experiments were conducted to assess the effects of saponin-containing surfactant applied during tempering of barley grain on cattle growth performance and on ruminal fermentation. In the feedlot experiment, treatments with three barley grain/barley silage based diets were prepared using barley grain at 7.7% moisture (dry, D), after tempering to 18% moisture (M), or after tempering with a saponin-based surfactant included at 60 ml/t (MS). Each treatment was rolled at settings determined previously to yield optimally processed barley. A total of 180 newly weaned British${\times}$Charolais steers were fed three diets in 18 pens for a 63-d backgrounding period and 91-d finishing period to determine feed intake, growth rate and feed efficiency. Cattle were slaughtered at the end of the experiment to measure the carcass characteristics. Tempering reduced (p<0.001) volume weight and processing index, but processing characteristics were similar between MS and M. Tempering increased (p<0.05) growth during backgrounding only, compared with D, but did not affect feed intake in either phase. During backgrounding, feed efficiency was improved with tempering, but during finishing and overall this response was only observed with the surfactant. Tempering did not affect carcass weight, fat content or meat yield. Surfactant doubled the proportion of carcasses grading AAA. In the in vitro experiment, barley (500 mg; ground to <1.0 mm or steam-rolled) was incubated in buffered ruminal fluid (40 ml) without or with surfactant up to 20 ${\mu}l/g$ DM substrate for 24 h. Surfactant increased (p<0.05) apparent DM disappearance and starch digestibility but reduced productions of gas and the volatile fatty acid and acetate:propionate ratio, irrespective of barley particle size. Compared with feeding diets prepared with non-tempered barley, tempering with surfactant increased the feed efficiency of feedlot steers. This may have arisen from alteration in processing characteristics of barley grain by surfactant rather than its direct effect on rumen microbial fermentation.