• Title, Summary, Keyword: Female cancer

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An Analysis of Deaths Caused by Cancer in Metropolitan Areas of Korea - Seoul, Pusan, Taegu, Incheon - (우리나라 대도시지역 암 사망자에 대한 분석 -서울, 부산, 대구, 인천을 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Chae-Un;Kim, Joon-Youn
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.84-96
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    • 1987
  • For the purpose of preparing the basic data for further cancer epidemiologic study and cancer patients control, we conducted the analysis on the degree and structure of deaths from cancer in metropolitan areas of Korea with 7,934 certified cancer deaths records of Seoul, Pusan, Taegu and Incheon in 1982. The analyzed results were as follows: 1) The total number of cancer deaths in metropolitan areas were 7,934 (male: 4,749, female: 3,185) as 14.1% of deaths from all causes in the same area. 2) The rate of physician's certification on cancer deaths was 77.4% and most of cancer deaths (84.4%) occured at their home. 3) Cancer specific death rate was 51.7 per 100.000 population (male: 62.9, female: 41.9) and age-adjusted cancer death rate was 82.4 in male and 51.6 in female per 100,000 population. And the difference was statistically significant (p< 0.01). 4) Age-specific cancer death rate was generally increased with age and most of cancer deaths (male: 75% , female: 65%) occurred from 45 to 74 years old. 5) The first three orders of cancer site were stomach (32.7%), liver (28.8%), lung (11.7%) in male and stomach (30.6%), uterus (18.4%), liver (13.8%) in female. And the relative frequency of these three cancer sites among total cancer deaths was corresponded to 73.2% in male and 62.8% in female. 6) The ratio of male to female cancer death rate was 1.5:1. And the ratio was aboye 3.0 in esophagus, liver, larynx, bladder cancer and the ratio was similar to 1.0 in stomach, pancreas, leukemia, brain, colon cancer, but the ratio was reversed in gall bladder and bile duct, and thyroid cancer.

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Cancer Screening Adherence of Asian Women According to Biochemically-verified Smoking Status: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  • Ko, Young-Jin;Kim, Soyeun;Kim, Kyae-Hyung;Lee, Kiheon;Lee, Cheol Min
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.4081-4088
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    • 2015
  • Background: Men and women who smoke tend to show less compliance to screening guidelines than non-smokers. However, a recent study in Korea showed that self-reported female smokers constituted less than half of cotinine-verified smokers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify hidden smokers using cotinine-verified method and examine cancer screening behavior according to biochemically verified smoking status. Materials and Methods: Among 5,584 women aged 30 years and older who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 372 (6.66%) hidden smokers were identified based on interview responses and verified by urinary cotinine levels. We compared cancer-screening behavior (cervical, breast, stomach, and colon cancer) of female hidden smokers to that of non-smokers and selfreported smokers by cross-sectional analysis. Results: Hidden female smokers had significantly lower adherence to breast cancer screening compared to non-smokers (aOR (adjusted odds ratio) [95% CI] = 0.71 [0.51-0.98]). Adherence to stomach cancer (aOR [95% CI] = 0.75 [0.54-1.03]) and cervical cancer (aOR [95% CI] = 0.85 [0.66-1.10]) screening was also lower among hidden female smokers compared to non-smokers. Self-reported (current) smokers showed lowest adherence to cervical cancer (aOR: 0.64, 95% CI0.47-0.87), breast cancer (0.47 [0.32-0.68]), stomach cancer (0.66[0.46-0.95]), and colon cancer (0.62 [0.38-1.01]) screening compared to non-smokers, followed by female hidden smokers, then non-smokers. These lower adherence rates of current smokers were attenuated after we incorporated hidden smokers into the current smoker group. Conclusions: Cancer screening adherence of female hidden smokers was lower than cotinine-verified non-smokers but higher than current smokers. Considering the risk of smoking-related cancer among women, identifying hidden smokers is important to encourage appropriate cancer screening.

Perception of Breast Health amongst Malaysian Female Adolescents

  • Che, Chong Chin;Coomarasamy, Jeya Devi;Suppayah, Balakrishnan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7175-7180
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    • 2014
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia, about one in 19 women being at risk. This study aimed to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination (BSE), as well as knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer amongst female adolescents in Malaysia. Subsequently, relationships between demographic characteristics and knowledge level of BSE, risk factors for breast cancer and BSE practice were assessed. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross sectional survey was conducted using a sample of 500 Malaysian adolescents from the age of 15 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of BSE, knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer and BSE practices. Results: The findings of this study indicated that female adolescents in Malaysia demonstrated an inadequate knowledge level of BSE and risk factors for breast cancer. Only 27.8% of female adolescents performed BSE regularly. BSE practice, knowledge of BSE and knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer showed significant positive relationships. Conclusions: The study highlighted the importance of planning and implementing breast health education programs for female students in secondary schools in Malaysia. It will also provide the health care providers an avenue to stress on the importance of imparting breast health education to adolescents.

Correlation between Depression and Spiritual Health in Women with Cancer (여성암 환자의 영적 건강과 우울의 관계)

  • Tae, Young-Sook;Kim, Mi-Yea
    • Asian Oncology Nursing
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.169-178
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: This study was to identify the relationship between depression and spiritual health in patients suffering from female cancer. Methods: The study utilized a cross-sectional descriptive study design. Data was collected by questionnaires from 106 female patients who were diagnosed with cancer of female organs at three university hospitals and one general hospital. The instruments used in this study included, "the Depression Scale" developed by Zung(1965) and "Spirituality Health Inventory" developed by Highfield(1992) and amended by Kim. The collected data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation coefficients. Results: There was significantly negative correlation between spiritual health and depression in female cancer patients (r= -.65, p< .0001). There were significant differences in spiritual health according to the monthly income (F=4.30, p= .016), the degree of pain (F=2.85, p= .041), the degree of fatigue (F=3.42, p= .020), the frequency of attendance at worship services (F=3.26, p= .014), the effect of religion on personal life (F=9.41, p= .000). There were significant differences in depression, according to the residence type (F= .75, p= .012), the cancer insurance (t=7.86, p= .006), the degree of pain (F=2.78, p= .045). Conclusions: There is a necessity to develop strategies to improve the spiritual health and to reduce depression in female cancer patients. The significant several characteristics related to depression and spiritual health should be considered in psychsocial nursing intervention of female cancer patients.

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Epidemiology of Female Reproductive Cancers in Iran: Results of the Gholestan Population-Based Cancer Registry

  • Taheri, NegarSadat;Fazel, Abdolreza;Mahmoodzadeh, Habibollah;Omranpour, Ramesh;Roshandel, Gholamreza;Gharahjeh, Saeedeh;Sedaghat, Seyed Mehdi;Poorabbasi, Mohammad;Moghaddami, Abbas;Semnani, Shahryar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.20
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    • pp.8779-8782
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    • 2014
  • Background: Malignancies of the female reproductive tract are estimated to be the third most common group of cancers in women. Objectives: We here aimed to present their epidemiological features in Golestan province located in Northeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: Data on primary female reproductive cancers diagnosed between 2004-2010 were obtained from Golestan Population-based Cancer Registry (GPCR). CanReg-4 and SPSS software were used for data entry and analysis. Age standardized incidence rates (ASR) (per 100,000 person-years) were calculated using the world standard population. Poisson regression analysis was used to compare incidence rates. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: A total of 6,064 cancer cases were registered in Golestan females in the GPCR during 2004-2010, of which 652 cases (11%) were female reproductive cancers. Cancers of the ovary (ASR=6.03) and cervix (ASR=4.97) were the most common. We found significant higher rates in females living in cities than in villages. Our results showed a rapid increase in age specific incidence rates of female reproductive cancers at the age of 30 years. Conclusions: We found significant higher rates of female reproductive cancers among residents of cities than villages. Differences in the prevalence of risk factors including reproductive behavior between the two populations may partly explain such diversity. Our results also showed a rapid increase in incidence rates of these cancers in young age females. Further studies are warranted to determine risk factors of female reproductive cancers in our population.

Attitudes and Practice of Cervical Cancer Screening among Female University Students from 25 Low, Middle Income and Emerging Economy Countries

  • Pengpid, Supa;Peltzer, Karl
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7235-7239
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    • 2014
  • Cervical cancer, the third commonest cancer in women worldwide, can be prevented through early detection by cervical screening (Pap smear). The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and practice of cervical cancer screening among female undergraduate university students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 9,194 female undergraduate university students aged 18-26 years (mean age 20.9, SD=2.0) from 26 universities in 25 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 11.6% of the female students indicated that they had conducted one or more times a cervical (Pap) smear test; 8.3% among 18-20 year-olds and 15.6% among 21-26 year-old students. There was considerable country variation on having had a cervical (Pap) smear test among 21-26 year-old female university students, ranging from 59.2% in Colombia and 50.9% in Barbados to 0% in India and 1.0% in Tunesia. Logistic regression showed that cervical cancer screening importance or positive attitude were highly associated with the cervical screening practice. Moreover, risky sexual behaviour and tobacco use, two cervical cancer risk factors, were associated with screening. Cervical cancer screening practices were found to be inadequate and e fforts should be made to develop programmes that can increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening.

Chinese Female Immigrants English-Speaking Ability and Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Practices in the New York Metropolitan Area

  • Chen, Wei-Ti;Wang, Justin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.733-738
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    • 2013
  • Background: Breast and cervical cancers are significant causes of mortality and morbidity for Asian women, and poor English-speaking ability is a barrier to cancer prevention practices. Materials and Methods: This project tested relationships among English-speaking ability and early detection practices regarding to breast and cervical cancer among female Chinese immigrants. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was used. Results: 175 female Chinese immigrants completed the survey in the breast cancer prevention section, and 35 of them also completed the cervical cancer prevention section. Some 63% of them had heard about the clinical breast exam (CBE), but only 54% had had a CBE. While 46% of the participants were aware of their need for a Pap smear, only 31% had heard about it and had undergone a pelvic exam. Conclusions: English-speaking ability was strongly associated with immigrant women's knowledge of female cancer early detection. Culturally and linguistic issues should be considered as the first step to access immigrant population in designing future education intervention.

Clinical Characteristics of Female Laryngeal Cancer (여성후두암의 임상적 특성)

  • Kwon Soon-Young;Jung Kwang-Yoon;Choi Jong-Ouck
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.132-136
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    • 1995
  • The laryngeal cancer is a cancer of secondary sex organ, such as malignant tumors of the mammary gland, endometrium, and prostate. The clinical characteristics of the female laryngeal cancers are considered somewhat to be different from that of male. As cancer of the larynx is principally a disease of men, many investigations have showed the characteristics of the male laryngeal cancers. For understanding the clinical characteristics of the female laryngeal cancers, we analyzed 21 cases of laryngeal cancer in women, diagnosed and treated in our institute during the last 10 years. The results were, 1) In female subjects, supraglottis was most common subsite of laryngeal cancer(85.7%). 2) On histopathologic grade, the moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was the most common (80.9%). 3) The positive neck nodes were 19 %, considered to be lower than that of total laryngeal cancer. 4) The treatment results, the 2 year disease free rate and 5 year survival rate were 88.9%, 83.3%, respectively. These results suggest, therefore, female laryngeal cancers are more likely to be supraglottic cancer than glottic cancer. In spite of high incidence of supraglottic cancer, the nodal metastases are rare, the prognosis appeared to be good.

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Clinical and Pathological Study on the Lung Cancer of the Pusan Paik Hospital (부산 백병원의 폐암 임상 및 병리학적 검색)

  • 석동수
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.376-381
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    • 1991
  • From June 1979 to July 1988 for 9 years, total 440 cases of lung cancer[including biopsy and surgical specimen] of the Pusan Paik hospital were examined for the clinical and pathology study. The findings of the study are as follows; [1] The incidence of lung cancer started to increase from 1982, and it again remarkably increased since 1987. Such increase was solely brought by the increase of male lung cancer. Male and female ratio is 5.6: 1. [2] Histopathologically, the most prevalent type is squamous cell carcinoma[60.ado], and next are adenocarcinoma[15.6%] and small cell carcinoma[15.0%]. But in female alone, the most prevalent type is adenocarcinoma[40.3%], and next are squamous cell carcinoma[37.3%] and small cell carcinoma[11.9%]. [3] The absolute number of adenocarcinoma are approximately equally distributed among both sexes until 60 years of age. Above 61 years of age, mostly male was shown while female was not. Most probably, many female patient.- of that old age simply did not visit general hospitals for surgery in Korea. [4] Surgical treatment was performed in 8% of total cases of lung cancer. And most cases showed stage I progression of the cancer. Average size of the cancer was 5 cm in diameter in the operated 35 cases suggesting that the cancer could be detected more than 10 years ago before the time of surgery. [5] Lung cancer affected more in the right lung [right: left=1.6: 1], and each upper lobe of both lungs are affected about 1/4 of cases indicating that about 1/2 of all lung cancer develop from the upper lobes. [6] There are more nonsmokers[67.6%] among the lung cancer patients[male 64.6%, female 82.1%]. Probably, this will mean that there are other potent carcinogenic agents in our environment like automobile exhaust beside tobacco smoke. For the past history of lung disease other than cancer, tuberculosis is the most prevalent disease[16.1%, male 17.4%, female 9.0%]. Most of them is probably not related etiologically though this possibility is not completely denied.

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Knowledge and prevention Attitude of Female North Korean Refugees regarding cervical cancer and human papillomavirus infection (북한이탈 여성의 자궁경부암 및 인유두종 바이러스 감염에 대한 지식과 예방태도)

  • Jeon, Jung Hee;Lee, In Sook
    • Journal of Korean Academic Society of Home Health Care Nursing
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.166-176
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and prevention attitudes of female North Korean refugees regarding cervical cancer and human papillomavirus(HPV) infection. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted. Data were collected from November 2015 to March 2016 and 130 female North Korean refugees participated. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0. Results: Score on knowledge and prevention attitudes regarding cervical cancer and HPV were 2.53 out of 8 points, 1.67 out of 17 points, and 28.90 out of 36 points. There were significant differences between entry duration, the number of children, previous cervical cancer tests, Precognition about HPV, preferred education method, and knowledge of cervical cancer. There were significant differences between previous cervical cancer tests, Precognition about HPV and knowledge of HPV. The correlation between knowledge and prevention attitudes regarding cervical cancer and HPV was significant positive. Conclusion: Female North Korean refugees' knowledge level of cervical cancer and HPV is very low. However, their attitudes towards prevention was higher. These results imply a need for education, aimed at guiding North Korean female refugees, so as to enhance their knowledge regarding cervical cancer and HPV, and to promote their sexual health.