• Title/Summary/Keyword: Field Emission

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Field Emission from Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Aligned on a Gold Plate using Self-Assembly Monolayer

  • Lee, Ok-Joo;Jeong, Soo-Hwan;Lee, Kun-Hong
    • 한국정보디스플레이학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.305-308
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    • 2002
  • Field emission from single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) aligned on a patterned gold surface is reported. The SWNTs emitters were prepared at room temperature by a self-assembly monolayer technique. SWNTs were cut into sub-micron length by sonication in an acidic solution. Cut SWNTs were attached on the gold surface by the reaction between the thiol groups and the gold surface. The field emission measurement showed that the turn-on field was 4.8 $V/{\mu}m$ at the emission current density of 10 ${\mu}A/cm^2$. The current density was 0.5 $mA/cm^2$ at 6.6 $V/{\mu}m$. This approach provides a novel route for fabricating CNT-based field emission displays.

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Numerical Calculation Study on the Generalized Electron Emission Phenomenon

  • Kim, Hee-Tae;Yu, Soon-Jae
    • Journal of Information Display
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.158-163
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    • 2009
  • There are two kinds of well-known electron emissions from metal: field and thermionic emission. For thermionic emission, electrons come out of a metal due to the thermal energy, whereas for field emission, electrons tunnel out of a metal through the strong electric field. In this study, the most general electron emission caused by the temperature and electric field with a free electron gas model was considered. The total current density of electron emission comes from the field emission effect, where the electron energy is lower than vacuum, and from the thermionic-emission effect, where the electron energy is higher than vacuum. The total current density of electron emission is shown as a function of the temperature for a constant electric field, and as a function of the electric field for a constant temperature.

Stablilization of Field Emission Current (Field Emission 전류의 안정화)

  • Yamamoto, Shigehiko
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.335-338
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    • 1993
  • 텅스텐으로 만들어진 field emitter와 탄소로 만들어진 field emitter에서 생기는 step이나 spike 형태의 잡음에 대하여 비교 연구하였다. 그리고 dispenser 형태의 field emiter와 array 형태의 field emitter와 같은 새로운 형태의 field emitter를 설명하였다.

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CNT-BASED FIELD EMISSION X-RAY SOURCE

  • Kim, Hyun Suk;Lee, Choong Hun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.433-433
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    • 2016
  • Carbon nanotubes (CNT) emitter has widely become an attractive mechanism that draws growing interests for cold cathode field emission. CNT yarns have demonstrated its potential as excellent field emitters. It was demonstrated that a small focal spot size was achieved by manipulating some electrical parameters, such as applied bias voltage at the mesh gate, and electrostatic focal lenses, geometrical parameters, such as axial distances of the anode, and the electrostatic focal lens from the cathode assembly, and the dimension of the opening of the electrostatic lens. Electrical-optics software was used to systematically investigate the behavior of the electron beam trajectory when the aforementioned variables were manipulated. The results of the experiment agree with the theoretical simulation results. Each variable has an individual effect on the electron beam focal spot size impinging on the target anode. An optimum condition of the parameters was obtained producing good quality of X-ray images. Also, MWCNT yarn was investigated for field emission characteristics and its contribution in the X-ray generation. The dry spinning method was used to fabricate MWCNT yarn from super MWCNTs, which was fabricated by MW-PECVD. The MWCNT yarn has a significant field emission capability in both diode and the triode X-ray generation structure compared to a MWCNT. The low-voltage-field emission of the MWCNT yarn can be attributed to the field enhancing effect of the yarn due to its shape and the contribution of the high-aspect-ratio nanotubes that protrude from the sides of the yarn. Observations of the use of filters on the development of X-ray images were also demonstrated. The amount of exposure time of the samples to the X-ray was also manipulated. The MWCNT yarn can be a good candidate for use in the low voltage field emission application of X-ray imaging.

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Effect of Ball Milling on Photosensitive Carbon Nanotube Pastes and Their Field Emission Properties (감광성 CNT paste에 대한 저에너지 Ball Milling 처리 효과)

  • Jang, Eun-Soo;Lee, Han-Sung;Lee, Nae-Sung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.154-154
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    • 2008
  • Although the screen printing technology using photosensitive carbon nanotube (CNT) paste has many advantages such as low cost, simple process, uniform emission, and capability of mass production, the CNT paste needs to be improved further in CNT dispersion, printability, adhesion, electrical conductivity, population of CNT emitters, etc. Ball milling has been frequently employed to prepare the CNT paste as ball milling can mix its ingredients very well and easily cut the long, entangled CNTs. This study carried out a parametric approach to fabricating the CNT paste in terms of low-energy ball milling and a paste composition. Field emission properties of the CNT paste was characterized with CNT dispersion and electrical conductivity which were measured by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer and a 4-point probe method, respectively. Main variables in formulating the CNT paste include a length of milling time, and amounts of CNTs and conductive inorganic fillers. In particular, we varied not only the contents of conductive fillers but also used two different sizes of filler particles of ${\mu}m$ and nm ranges. Among many variations of conductive fillers, the best field emission characteristics occurred at the 5 wt% fillers with the mixing ratio of 3:1 for ${\mu}m$-and nm-sizes. The amount and size of fillers has a great effect on the morphology, processing stability, and field emission characteristics of CNT emitter dots. The addition a small amount of nm-size fillers considerably improved the field emission characteristics of the photosensitive CNT paste.

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Adsorption of residual gases on carbon nanotubes and their field emission properties

  • Lee, Han-Sung;Jang, Eun-Soo;Goak, Jeung-Choon;Kim, Jin-Hee;Lee, Nae-Sung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.51-51
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    • 2008
  • Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have long been reported as an ideal material due to their excellent electrical conductivity and chemical and mechanical stability as well as their high aspect ratios for field emission devices. CNT emitters made by screen printing the organic binder-based CNT paste may act as a source to release gases inside a vacuum panel. These residual gases may cause a catastrophic damage by electrical arcing or ion bombardment to the vacuum microelectronic devices and may change their physical or electrical properties by adsorbing on the CNT emitter surface. In this study, we analyzed the composition of residual gases inside the vacuum-sealed panel by residual gas analyzer (RGA), investigating the effects of individual gases of different kinds at several pressures on the field emission characteristics of CNT emitters. The residual gases included $H_2$, CO, $CO_2$, $N_2$, $CH_4$, $H_2O$, $C_2H_6$, and Ar. Effect of residual gases on the field emission was studied by observing the variation of the pulse voltages with the duty ratio of3.3% to keep the constant emission current of $28{\mu}A$. Each gas species was introduced to a vacuum chamber up to three different pressures ($5\times10^{-7}$, $5\times10^{-6}$, and $5\times10^{-5}$ torr) each for 1 h while electron emission was continued. The three different pressure regions were separated by keeping a high vacuum of $\sim10^{-8}$ torr for a 1 h. The emission was terminated 6 h after the third gas exposure was completed. Field emission characteristics under residual gases will be discussed in terms of their adsorption and desorption on the surface of CNTs and the resultant change of work function.

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Fabrication of Transparent Ultra-thin Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Field Emission Applications

  • Jang, Eun-Soo;Goak, Jung-Choon;Lee, Han-Sung;Kim, Myoung-Su;Lee, Nae-Sung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.353-353
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    • 2008
  • Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are attractive for field emitter because of their outstanding electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties. Several applications using CNTs as field emitters have been demonstrated such as field emission display (FED), backlight unit (BLU), and X-ray source. In this study, we fabricated a CNT cathode using transparent ultra-thin CNT film. First, CNT aqueous solution was prepared by ultrasonically dispersing purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in deionized water with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). To obtain the CNT film, the CNT solution in a milliliter or even several tens of micro-litters was deposited onto a porous alumina membrane through vacuum filtration process. Thereafter, the alumina membrane was solvated by the 3 M NaOH solution and the floating CNT film was easily transferred to an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate of $0.5\times0.5cm^2$ with a film mask. The transmittance of as-prepared ultra-thin CNT films measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometer was 68~97%, depending on the amount of CNTs dispersed in an aqueous solution. Roller activation, which is a essential process to improve the field emission characteristics of CNT films, increased the UV-Vis transmittance up to 93~98%. This study presents SEM morphology of CNT emitters and their field emission properties according to the concentration of CNTs in an aqueous solutions. Since the ultra-thin CNT emitters prepared from the solutions show a high peak current density of field emission comparable to that of the paste-base CNT emitters and do not contain outgassing sources such as organic binders, they are considered to be very promising for small-size-but-high-end applications including X-ray sources and microwave power amplifiers.

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