• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fixed Feature Extractor

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Development of Robust Feature Detector Using Sonar Data (초음파 데이터를 이용한 강인한 형상 검출기 개발)

  • Lee, Se-Jin;Lim, Jong-Hwan;Cho, Dong-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 2008
  • This study introduces a robust feature detector for sonar data from a general fixed-type of sonar ring. The detector is composed of a data association filter and a feature extractor. The data association filter removes false returns provided frequently from sonar sensors, and classifies set of data from various objects and robot positions into a group in which all the data are from the same object. The feature extractor calculates the geometries of the feature for the group. We show the possibility of extracting circle feature as well as a line and a point features. The proposed method was applied to a real home environment with a real robot.

Pedestrian Classification using CNN's Deep Features and Transfer Learning (CNN의 깊은 특징과 전이학습을 사용한 보행자 분류)

  • Chung, Soyoung;Chung, Min Gyo
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.91-102
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    • 2019
  • In autonomous driving systems, the ability to classify pedestrians in images captured by cameras is very important for pedestrian safety. In the past, after extracting features of pedestrians with HOG(Histogram of Oriented Gradients) or SIFT(Scale-Invariant Feature Transform), people classified them using SVM(Support Vector Machine). However, extracting pedestrian characteristics in such a handcrafted manner has many limitations. Therefore, this paper proposes a method to classify pedestrians reliably and effectively using CNN's(Convolutional Neural Network) deep features and transfer learning. We have experimented with both the fixed feature extractor and the fine-tuning methods, which are two representative transfer learning techniques. Particularly, in the fine-tuning method, we have added a new scheme, called M-Fine(Modified Fine-tuning), which divideslayers into transferred parts and non-transferred parts in three different sizes, and adjusts weights only for layers belonging to non-transferred parts. Experiments on INRIA Person data set with five CNN models(VGGNet, DenseNet, Inception V3, Xception, and MobileNet) showed that CNN's deep features perform better than handcrafted features such as HOG and SIFT, and that the accuracy of Xception (threshold = 0.5) isthe highest at 99.61%. MobileNet, which achieved similar performance to Xception and learned 80% fewer parameters, was the best in terms of efficiency. Among the three transfer learning schemes tested above, the performance of the fine-tuning method was the best. The performance of the M-Fine method was comparable to or slightly lower than that of the fine-tuningmethod, but higher than that of the fixed feature extractor method.

Transfer Learning using Multiple ConvNet Layers Activation Features with Principal Component Analysis for Image Classification (전이학습 기반 다중 컨볼류션 신경망 레이어의 활성화 특징과 주성분 분석을 이용한 이미지 분류 방법)

  • Byambajav, Batkhuu;Alikhanov, Jumabek;Fang, Yang;Ko, Seunghyun;Jo, Geun Sik
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.205-225
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    • 2018
  • Convolutional Neural Network (ConvNet) is one class of the powerful Deep Neural Network that can analyze and learn hierarchies of visual features. Originally, first neural network (Neocognitron) was introduced in the 80s. At that time, the neural network was not broadly used in both industry and academic field by cause of large-scale dataset shortage and low computational power. However, after a few decades later in 2012, Krizhevsky made a breakthrough on ILSVRC-12 visual recognition competition using Convolutional Neural Network. That breakthrough revived people interest in the neural network. The success of Convolutional Neural Network is achieved with two main factors. First of them is the emergence of advanced hardware (GPUs) for sufficient parallel computation. Second is the availability of large-scale datasets such as ImageNet (ILSVRC) dataset for training. Unfortunately, many new domains are bottlenecked by these factors. For most domains, it is difficult and requires lots of effort to gather large-scale dataset to train a ConvNet. Moreover, even if we have a large-scale dataset, training ConvNet from scratch is required expensive resource and time-consuming. These two obstacles can be solved by using transfer learning. Transfer learning is a method for transferring the knowledge from a source domain to new domain. There are two major Transfer learning cases. First one is ConvNet as fixed feature extractor, and the second one is Fine-tune the ConvNet on a new dataset. In the first case, using pre-trained ConvNet (such as on ImageNet) to compute feed-forward activations of the image into the ConvNet and extract activation features from specific layers. In the second case, replacing and retraining the ConvNet classifier on the new dataset, then fine-tune the weights of the pre-trained network with the backpropagation. In this paper, we focus on using multiple ConvNet layers as a fixed feature extractor only. However, applying features with high dimensional complexity that is directly extracted from multiple ConvNet layers is still a challenging problem. We observe that features extracted from multiple ConvNet layers address the different characteristics of the image which means better representation could be obtained by finding the optimal combination of multiple ConvNet layers. Based on that observation, we propose to employ multiple ConvNet layer representations for transfer learning instead of a single ConvNet layer representation. Overall, our primary pipeline has three steps. Firstly, images from target task are given as input to ConvNet, then that image will be feed-forwarded into pre-trained AlexNet, and the activation features from three fully connected convolutional layers are extracted. Secondly, activation features of three ConvNet layers are concatenated to obtain multiple ConvNet layers representation because it will gain more information about an image. When three fully connected layer features concatenated, the occurring image representation would have 9192 (4096+4096+1000) dimension features. However, features extracted from multiple ConvNet layers are redundant and noisy since they are extracted from the same ConvNet. Thus, a third step, we will use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to select salient features before the training phase. When salient features are obtained, the classifier can classify image more accurately, and the performance of transfer learning can be improved. To evaluate proposed method, experiments are conducted in three standard datasets (Caltech-256, VOC07, and SUN397) to compare multiple ConvNet layer representations against single ConvNet layer representation by using PCA for feature selection and dimension reduction. Our experiments demonstrated the importance of feature selection for multiple ConvNet layer representation. Moreover, our proposed approach achieved 75.6% accuracy compared to 73.9% accuracy achieved by FC7 layer on the Caltech-256 dataset, 73.1% accuracy compared to 69.2% accuracy achieved by FC8 layer on the VOC07 dataset, 52.2% accuracy compared to 48.7% accuracy achieved by FC7 layer on the SUN397 dataset. We also showed that our proposed approach achieved superior performance, 2.8%, 2.1% and 3.1% accuracy improvement on Caltech-256, VOC07, and SUN397 dataset respectively compare to existing work.