• Title, Summary, Keyword: Flammulina velutipes

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The Effects of Flammulina velutipes Water Extract on the Activation of Spleen Cell and Macrophage in Mice (팽이버섯 열수추출물이 마우스 비장세포와 대식세포의 증식 및 활성에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Ok;Ryu, Hye-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.236-241
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    • 2018
  • Flammulina velutipes is an edible mushroom and contains a lot of fiber, vitamin $B_1$, $B_2$, niacin and folic acid. This study was conducted to explore the effects of the Flammulina velutipes mushroom on immune cells and immunity. Th1 cytokine productions as $IFN-{\gamma}$, $TNF-{\alpha}$, and IL-2 were measured in an activated macrophage by Flammulina velutipes water extract in seven concentrations (0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500, and $1,000{\mu}g/mL$). Also, the splenocyte proliferation index was measured at 48 hours after treatment of the Flammulina velutipes water extract in seven concentrations or mitogen, LPS and ConA. The $IFN-{\gamma}$ and $TNF-{\alpha}$ productions were increased by treatment of the Flammulina velutipes water extract. The $TNF-{\alpha}$ production was significantly higher in the $50{\sim}1,000{\mu}g/mL$ Flammulina velutipes water extract treated macrophages. The $IFN-{\gamma}$ production of macrophages treated with the Flammulina velutipes water extract increased significantly in all groups, and the highest $1000{\mu}g/mL$ concentration. The splenocyte proliferation index was enhanced when the $10{\sim}1,000{\mu}g/mL$ Flammulina velutipes water extracts were treated compared to the control. These primary results suggest that Flammulina velutipes may enhance the immune function by activation of the macrophage and spleen cell.

Functional Activities of Ethanol Extracts from Flammulina velutipes (팽이버섯 에탄올 추출물의 기능적 특성)

  • Oh, Se-In;Lee, Mee-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative effect and antimutagenic capacity of ethanol extracts of Flammulina velutipes by employing biological and biochemical assays. The $IC_{50}$ of MDA with BSA conjugation reaction, lipid peroxidation and scavenging effect on DPPH radical in ethanol extracts of Flammulina velutipes was found to be 28.39 mg/assay, 9.33 mg/assay and 144.61 mg/assay respectively. Therefore, the most effective antioxidative capacity of ethanol extracts of Flammulina velutipes was $Fe^+$-induced linoleate peroxidation, among the method used this study. The indirect and direct antimutagenic effects of the ethanol extracts of Flammulina velutipes were examined by the Ames test using Salmonella typimurium TA98 and TA100. The inhibition rates on indirect mutagenicity mediated by 2-anthramine and on direct mutagenicity mediated by sodium azide in Salmonella typimurium TA100 and mediated by 2-nitrofluorene in Salmonella typimurium TA98 were 0%, respectively. These findings indicate that ethanol extracts of Flammulina velutipes have no effects on indirect and direct mutagenicity. Based on these results, it believed that the ethanol extracts of Flammulina velutipes has antioxidative capacities, and is a the candidate for the prevention and dietetic treatment of chronic diseases and the development of antioxidative functional food.

Highly Efficient Electroporation-mediated Transformation into Edible Mushroom Flammulina velutipes

  • Kim, Jong-Kun;Park, Young-Jin;Kong, Won-Sik;Kang, Hee-Wan
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.331-335
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    • 2010
  • In this study, we developed an efficient electroporation-mediated transformation system featuring Flammulina velutipes. The flammutoxin (ftx) gene of F. velutipes was isolated by reverse transcription-PCR. pFTXHg plasmid was constructed using the partial ftx gene (410 bp) along with the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (hygB) downstream of the glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) promoter. The plasmid was transformed into protoplasts of monokaryotic strain 4019-20 of F. velutipes by electroporation. High transformation efficiency was obtained with an electric-pulse of 1.25 kV/cm by using 177 transformants/${\mu}g$ of DNA in $1{\times}10^7$ protoplasts. PCR and Southern blot hybridization indicated that a single copy of the plasmid DNA was inserted at different locations in the F. velutipes genome by non-homologous recombination. Therefore, this transformation system could be used as a useful tool for gene function analysis of F. velutipes.

Cloning of a Gene Specifically Expressed During Early Stage of Fruiting Body Formation in Flammulina velutipes (팽이버섯의 자실체형성 초기과정에서 특이적으로 발현하는 유전자의 클로닝)

  • Kim, Dool-Yi;Azuma, Tomo-Nori
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.187-190
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    • 1999
  • A cDNA library was constructed using mRNA from the cells of 7-day-old cultures of Flammulina velutipes after induction of fruiting treatment. A cDNA clone, FVFD16 (Flammulina velutipes fruiting body differentiation), was selected by differential screening. The expression property of the FVFD16 gene was examined by Northern blot analysis. FVFD16 represents mRNA that is specifically expressed during differentiation of fruit bodies. The conspicuous accumulation of the FVFD16 mRNA was detected in 4-day-old and 1-day-old cultures. The nucleotide sequence of the FVFD16 gene was determined and the mRNA contained an open reading frame that encoded a putative protein of 128 amino acid residues (13.5 kDa).

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Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation of the Winter Mushroom, Flammulina velutipes

  • Cho, Jung-Hee;Lee, Seung-Eun;Chang, Who-Bong;Cha, Jae-Soon
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.104-107
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    • 2006
  • Flammulina velutipes was transformed efficiently by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. The transformation frequency was about 16% with the gill tissues of the fungal fruiting body. Southern hybridization and genetic analysis suggest that the introduced DNA was inserted onto different locations of the fungal genome, and inherited stably to the next generation via basidiospores. Transformation or gene tagging with Agrobacterium T-DNA based vector should be useful for wide ranges of genetic or molecular biological studies of the mushroom.

Studies on Antitumor Components of Flammulina velutipes of Korea (II) - Production of Antitumor Component of Flammulina velutipes by Submerged Culture - (팽나무버섯의 항암(抗癌) 성분(成分)에 관한 연구(硏究)(제(第)2보(報)) - 액내(液內) 배양(培養)에 의한 항암(抗癌) 성분(成分)의 생성(生成) -)

  • Woo, Myoung-Sik
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.147-150
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    • 1983
  • To investigate a possibility of producing the antitumor component by shake culture method, the mycelia of Flammulina velutipes were cultured in flasks on a shaker at $26{\sim}28^{\circ}C$ at 180 rpm for seven days. The extract of the mycelia was concentrated under vacuum. The precipitate obtained by adding a three-fold volume of ethanol was centrifugated and freeze-dried after dialysis. The fraction was tested against sarcoma 180 in the mice. The inhibition ratio of the fraction against the tumor was 68.0% at the dose of 20 mg/kg/day for the period of ten days and the tumors in three of the mice were completely regressed. The results showed, therefore, that the antitumor component was produced by the shake culture method.

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Evaluation of the nutrition properties of Flammulina velutipes (저장 조건을 달리한 팽이버섯의 영양학적 특성 평가)

  • Kim, Kyung-Je;Jin, Seong-Woo;Choi, Bong-Suk;Kim, Jin-Kyeong;Koh, Young-Woo;Ban, Seung-Eon;Seo, Kyoung-Sun
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.44-50
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    • 2016
  • In the present study, we analyzed the amino acid and free sugar contentof Flammulina velutipes. We observed that the free sugar content in Flammulina velutipes increased under higher storage temperatures. However, the the packaging material had no effect on the sugar content. Higher storage temperature increased the level Among the packaging film materials tested for the storage of Flammulina velutipes, polyphenol oxidase. ${\beta}$-glucan level of Flammulina velutipes by variation in the packaging film material or storage temperature. We suggest that the ${\beta}$-glucan content is not an acceptable to mushroom storage standards.

Development of SSR markers for classification of Flammulina velutipes strains (팽이버섯 (Flammulina velutipes) 계통의 분류를 위한 SSR 마커개발)

  • Woo, Sung-I;Seo, Kyoung-In;Jang, Kab yeul;Kong, Won-Sik
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.78-83
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    • 2017
  • Microsatellite SSR markers were developed and utilized to reveal the genetic diversity of 32 strains of Flammulina velutipes collected in Korea, China, and Japan. From the SSR-enriched library, 490 white colonies were randomly selected and sequenced. Among the 490 sequenced clones, 85 (17.35%) were redundant. Among the remaining 405 unique clones, 201 (49.6%) contained microsatellite sequences. We used 12 primer pairs that produced reproducible polymorphic bands for four diverse strains, and these selected markers were further characterized in 32 Flammulina velutipes strains. A total of 34 alleles were detected using the 12 markers, with an average of 3.42 alleles, and the number of alleles ranged from two to seven per locus. The major allele frequency ranged from 0.42 (GB-FV-127) to 0.98 (GB-FV-166), and values for observed ($H_O$) and expected ($H_E$) heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 0.94 (mean = 0.18) and from 0.03 to 0.67 (mean = 0.32), respectively. SSR loci amplified with GB-FV-127 markers gave the highest polymorphism information content (PIC) of 0.61 and mean allele number of five, whereas for loci amplified with GB-FV-166 markers these values were the lowest, namely 0.03 and two. The mean PIC value (0.29) observed in the present study with average number of alleles (3.42). The genetic relationships among the 32 Flammulina velutipes strains on the basis of SSR data were investigated by UPGMA cluster analysis. In conclusion, we succeeded in developing 12 polymorphic SSRs markers from an SSR-enriched library of Flammulina velutipes. These SSRs are presently being used for phylogenetic analysis and evaluation of genetic variations. In future, these SSR markers will be used in clarifying taxonomic relationships among the Flammulina velutipes.

A Phylogenetic Relationship between Foreign and Korean Strains of Flammulina velutipes Identified by rDNA-ITS Sequence Analysis (Flammulina velutipe의 국내 균주와 외래 균주 간의 ITS region을 이용한 계통학적 유연관계 분석)

  • Hwang, Gwang-Rip;Woo, Ju-Ri;Yoon, Hyeok-Jun;Lee, Chang-Yun;Lee, Sang-Han;Kong, Won-Sik;Kim, Jong-Guk
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.62-73
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to investigate the genetic relationship of Flammulina velutipes with other species. The ribosomal DNA cluster containing 4 rRNA genes from F. velutipes 4154 were sequenced. The length of the rDNA cluster sequence was estimated at 7,403 bp long and consisted of 1,806 bp of SSU rDNA, 245 bp of ITS 1 region, 159 bp of 5.8S rDNA, 308 bp of ITS 2 region, 3,402 bp of LSU rDNA, 1,400 bp of IGS 1 region, and 83 bp of 5S rDNA. The F. velutipes 4154 genes were contained in the rDNA cluster of F. velutipes in the order of SSU rDNA - ITS 1 - 5.8S rDNA - ITS 2 - LSU rDNA - IGS 1 - 5S rDNA. The phylogenetic relationships of 20 strains of Tricholomataceae and Physalacriaceae were analyzed by conducting distance analysis using the Neighbor-joining (NJ) method. The 20 strains used in this study were divided into three groups and the strains of the genus Flammulina were related very closely to strains of Physalacria bambusae.

Effect of Flammulina velutipes Extracts Cultivated with Oriental Herbal Plants on the Activation of Immune Cells (폐 한방슬러지로 배양한 팽이버섯(Flammulina velutipes) 추출물의 면역세포 활성화 효과)

  • Kim, Jong-Jin;Lee, Sang-Won;Park, Kyung-Wuk;Seo, Kwon-Il;Yee, Sung-Tae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.828-836
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    • 2012
  • The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of the extracts isolated from the fruit body of Flammulina velutipes cultivated with oriental herbal plants on mouse splenocytes, B cells, and macrophages in vitro. The ethanol extracts B (EEB) directly induced the proliferation of spleen cells in a dose-dependent manner and increased IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$, and IFN-${\gamma}$ synthesis. The EEB also increased the proliferation of B cells in a dose-dependent manner. The production of immunoglobulin M, G1, G2a, G2b, and IgG3 in the presence of the EEB increased progressively in the culture supernatant. When the EEB were used in macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) stimulation, there was a marked induction of NO synthesis in a dose-dependent manner and an increased IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$, and GM-CSF synthesis. Intraperitoneal injection with EBB showed life prolongation effect of 16.1% in mice previously inoculated with sarcoma-180, respectively. These results suggest that the capacity of the EEB isolated from the fruit body of Flammulina velutipes cultivated with oriental herbal plants seems to act as a potent immunomodulator causing augmentation of immune cell activity, and with the absence of notable side-effects, Flammulina velutipes EEB could be used as a biological response modifier having possible therapeutic effects against immunological disorders. This study also showed that functional components of Flammulina velutipes were possibly improved by incorporating oriental herbal plants in a growth medium.