• Title/Summary/Keyword: Flocculation

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Effects of CellCaSi and Bioflocculant on the Control of Algal Bloom (규산질다공체와 미생물응집제의 녹조제어 효과)

  • 박명환;이석준;윤병대;오희목
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.129-135
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    • 2001
  • The effects of CellCaSi and bioflocculant on the control of algal bloom were investigated in enclosures in a small eutrophic pond. The bioflocculant produced by a bacterial strain S-2 was finally selected to remove Microcystis aeruginosa which was a dominant species of algal bloom in the pond. Enclosure experiment showed that phosphorus concentration decreased dramatically from $131\mu{g}\ell^{-1}$ (Control) to $1-14\mu{g}\ell^{-1}$ in three CellCaSi-enriched enclosures. Chlorophyll $-\alpha$ concentration also decreased from $215\mu{g}\ell^{-1}$ (Control) to $59\mu{g}\ell^{-1}$ by the addition of CellCaSi $(1g\ell^{-1}$, bioflocculant $(2ml\ell^{-1}$, calcium chloride $(1g\ell^{-1}$ and ferric chloride $(2mg\;Fe\ell^{-1})$ in Enclosure 4. From the results of the mouse acute toxicity test of the S-2 bioflocculant and the goldfish survival test in enclosures, it seems that both the S-2 bioflocculant and the CellCaSi do not show any severe toxicity in water system. Consequently, it was concluded that the bioflocculant and the CellCaSi could be used to control algal bloom in eutrophic waters by removing phosphorus and chlorophyll$-\alpha$.

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Distribution and Risk Assessment of Bisphenol-A in Tap Water from Rehabilitated Indoor Water Service Pipe (갱생 옥내급수관 수돗물에서 비스페놀-A 분포 및 위해성 평가)

  • Jeong, Gwanjo;Son, Boyoung;Lee, Inja;Ahn, Chihwa;Kim, Junil;Moon, Boram;Lee, Suwon;Ahn, Jaechan;Kim, Bogsoon;Chung, Deukmo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.38 no.7
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    • pp.371-376
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    • 2016
  • In this study, the survey of bisphenol-A in indoor water service pipes rehabilitated with epoxy resin was conducted and the risk assessment was done to investigate the effect on the human health to drink tap water. Bisphenol-A in raw water was detected in a range of 50~118 ng/L in all samples, where the limit of quantification was 10 ng/L. This is caused by inflow of the sewage effluent or the tributaries of the surrounding area containing bisphenol-A. Bisphenol-A was not detected in finished water after the advanced water treatment process. It was achieved by its removal from the processes of flocculation-precipitation and oxidation of ozone and chlorine and by being changed to other by-product materials. For the indoor water service pipe, bisphenol-A was not detected in all cases which was not coated with epoxy resin. However, when epoxy resin is lined within the indoor water service pipe, bisphenol-A was identified at maximum level of 521 ng/L and was detected above the limit of quantitation at 68 percentages of all samples. The Hazard Quotient (HQ) at the maximum level (521 ng/L) of the detected bisphenol-A is 0.004, which is less than the reference value of 0.1 for the tap water intake. Therefore, it is considered that the detected levels of bisphenol-A in this study would be safe to drink tap water.

A Study on the Removal of Low-concentration Fluoride-ion by Modified Alumina (변형 알루미나를 이용한 저농도 불소이온 제거 연구)

  • Kim, So-Young;Kim, Ju-Hee;Kim, Hyoun-Ja;Cho, Young-Sang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.247-252
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    • 2005
  • The typical treatment method for fluoride polluted water is the flocculation and precipitation method which usually is capable of reducing the fluoride concentration down to the level of about 10 ppm. However, this method is no longer effective for the treatment of contaminated water having less than 10 ppm of fluorides. To remove fluorides in polluted water from the fluoride concentration between 1 to 10 ppm, several adsorbents were prepared mainly based on an activated alumina and the fluoride removal efficiencies of the adsorbents were analyzed. The best fluoride removal efficiency was obtained when the activated alumina treated by sulfuric acid was used as the adsorbent. A proper calcination temperature for the sulfuric acid contained activated alumina was found to be about $500^{\circ}C$. An adsorption isotherm for the adsorbent was also obtained by using Freundlich model. The values of the constants in Freundlich isotherm model were calculated to be K=6.63 and 1/n=0.29 based on the results obtained from the series of batch type adsorption experiments.

Comparison of Al(III) and Fe(III) Coagulants for Improving Coagulation Effectiveness in Water Treatment (정수처리 응집효율 개선을 위한 Al(III)염과 Fe(III)염 응집제의 비교)

  • Han, Seung woo;Kang, Lim seok
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.325-331
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    • 2015
  • The experimental results of the characteristics of aluminum based and ferric based coagulants for the Nakdong River water showed that the main hydrolysis species contained in alum and $FeCl_3$ are monomeric species of 98% and 93.3%, respectively. The PACl of r=1.2 produced by the addition of base contained 31.2% of polymeric Al species and the PACl of r=2.2 contained 85.0% of polymeric Al species, as showing more polymeric Al species with increasing r value. Coagulation tests using Al(III) and Fe(III) salts coagulants for the Nakdong River water showed that the coagulation effectiveness of turbidity and organic matter was high in the order of $FeCl_3$ > PACl (r=2.2) > PACl (r=1.2) > alum. $FeCl_3$ has showed better flocculation efficiency than Al(III) salts coagulants. In addition, in case of Al(III) coagulants, the Al(III) coagulants of higher basicity, which contained more polymeric Al species, resulted in better coagulation efficiency for both turbidity and organic matter removed. The optimum pH range for all of the coagulants investigated was around pH 7.0 under the experimental pH range of 4.0~9.5. Especially, the highest basicity PACl (r=2.2) and $FeCl_3$ were considered as more appropriate coagulants for the removal of turbidity in the case of raw water exhibiting higher pH.

Normal Physiologic Data of Korean Mongrel Dogs (한국산 잡견의 정상 생리학적 기준치)

  • 김종환
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.115-132
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    • 1969
  • The normal physiological values of Korean mongrel dogs were studied, comparing them with foreign references, on the basis of control physiological data measured on 110 cases out of the dogs submitted to the experiments in our department. The hemodynamic measurements varied widely between the both limits of reported normal control data, with the mean value of heart rate $140.4{\pm}26.6$/min., and both the systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressures $137.2{\pm}31.7$mmHg and $104.7{\pm}14.4$ mmHg, as well as the venous pressure of $9.11{\pm}2.18$ cm.$H_2O$. Hematologically, the number of red blood cells $4,571,000{\pm}767,000$per cu.mm., the amount of hemoglobin $11.57{\pm}3.74$ gm/dl and the hematocrit $37.3{\pm}7.2$ per cent, were equally the values a little lower than the reported normal means. However, the white blood cells were within the reported normal limits both in number, $10,384{\pm}4,877$ per cu. mm and their differential counts with slightly broader ranges of variation. The platelet count was $149,800{\pm}47,000 $per cu. mm and was also far below the normal, while the coagulation time $9.03{\pm}2.69$min. and the prothrombin time $13.17{\pm}6.52$sec were within normal limits, though a little prolonged. The serum electrolytes, Na $146.6{\pm}10.44$mEq/L.,K $4.46{\pm}0.84$mEq/L., CI $118.3{\pm}7.88$mEq/L. and Ca $11.45{\pm}5.62$mg./dl, and the blood glucose level of $94.9{\pm}31.79$mg./dl were essentially not different from the reported normal values. The serum proteins, total protein $7.15{\pm}1.41$gm/dl., albumin $4.09{\pm}0.77$gm./dl. and globulin $3.18{\pm}0.88$gm/dl. were included near the higher limits of the reported normal levels. The thymol turbidity 0.1-3.04 units were normal in 10 cases, and the cephaline flocculation was within normal range except 2 cases out of 26 dogs, showing two positive in 24 hours. And the nitrogen series, NPN $34.61{\pm}10.29$mg/dl. and BUN $12.77{\pm}6.37$mg./dl. were normal. It may be concluded that from the point of view of hereby measured physiological data compared with the foreign references, the Korean mongrel dogs have a compatible laboratory data with only the special regards to their tendency toward anemia in red blood cell series.

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Development of a Pilot-Scale Soil Washing Process (파일롯 규모의 토양세척장치 개발)

  • 장윤영;신정엽;황경엽
    • Journal of Korea Soil Environment Society
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 1998
  • Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons and residual metals can be effectively treated by soil washing. In developing the soil washing process several major effects for separating contaminants from coarse soils progressively improved upon combinations of mining and chemical processing approaches. The pilot-scale soils washing process consists of the four major parts : 1) abrasive scouring, 2) scrubbing action using a washwater that is sometimes augmented by surfactants or other agents, 3) rinsing, and 4) regenerating the contaminated washwater. The plant was designed based upon the treatment capacity > 5 ton/hr on site. The lumpy contaminated soil fractions first experience deagglomeration and desliming passing through a rolling mill pipe. In the second unit the attrition scrubbing module equipped with paddles uses high-energy to remove contaminants from the soils. And a final rinsing system is assembled to separate the washwater containing the contaminants and very fine soils from the washed coarse soils. For recycling the contaminated washwater passes through a washwater clarifier specifically designed for flocculation, sedimentation and gravity separation of fine as well as flotation and separation of oils from the washwater. In order to more rapidly assess the applicability of soil washing at a potential site while minimizing the expense of mobilization and operation, a mobile-type soil washing process which is self-contained upon a trailer will be further developed.

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Floc Behaviors Due to Flocculation Process (응집현상에 의한 플럭의 거동 변화)

  • Son, Minwoo;Park, Byeoung Eun;Byun, Jisun
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • 2019.05a
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    • pp.253-253
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    • 2019
  • 유사의 이동은 하천, 해안 지역과 같은 수계에서 하상의 변동, 침식과 퇴적을 일으켜 지형적인 변화를 초래한다. 유사의 이동은 유사의 특성과 유체의 유수동역학적 특성에 의해 결정되며 유체특성 간의 복잡한 상호 작용에 의해 변화한다. 유사가 가지는 점착성은 유사의 특성에 큰 영향을 끼친다. 입자의 크기가 매우 작은 점착성 유사는 그 표면이 가지는 전자기적 점착력에 의해 주위의 1차 입자나 다른 작은 알갱이들이 서로 뭉치는 응집과 충돌에 의해 크기가 작아지는 파괴의 과정을 겪는다. 이 과정을 응집현상이라고 하며 응집현상을 통해 점착성 유사의 크기와 밀도, 침강속도는 계속해서 변화한다. 따라서 점착성 유사의 응집거동 고려한 유사 이동 연구는 필수적이다. 과거 연구의 많은 사례에서 유사의 크기와 농도는 비례 관계를 가지는 것이 일반적이라 알려져 있다. 그러나 실제 현장에서 측정한 결과 유사의 크기와 농도가 반비례 관계를 가지는 특이점이 발견되었다. 실측 연구에서 발견된 응집거동에 따른 유사의 특성의 특이한 변화를 설명하기 위해 1차원 연직 수치 모형(1DV)을 이용하여 수치 실험을 수행하였다. 모의 수행 시, 흐름 조건을 크기와 방향이 일정한 순방향흐름(Current)에 특정 주기와 진폭을 가지는 진동 흐름(Oscillatory Flow)을 추가하여 진행하였다. 플럭의 성장과 그에 따른 입자의 크기는 많은 현상에 영향을 받는다. 그 중 응집현상의 응집 과정과 파괴 과정 중 어떤 현상이 더 우세한지 그 경쟁관계를 파악하여 플럭의 크기의 증감을 예측할 수 있게 농도(?)와 난류소산매개변수(?)를 이용하여 $c/G^{0.5}$로 매개화하였다. 실험 결과, 순방향 흐름을 제외하고 스토크스파 흐름 조건을 이용하여 진행된 모의에서는 플럭의 크기와 농도가 반비례하는 현상을 관찰할 수 없었으며 $c/G^{0.5}$ 의 변화 역시 흐름의 속도와 농도가 더 큰 지점에서 큰 값을 가지는 일반적인 결과를 나타내었다. 그러나 같은 조건에서 순방향흐름을 추가하여 모의한 결과에서는 플럭의 크기와 농도가 반비례하는 현상을 나타냈다. 연직 방향 $c/G^{0.5}$의 변화를 나타낸 그래프에서 응집과 파괴의 우세에 따라 $c/G^{0.5}$ 가 역전되는 현상을 확인하였다. 즉, 플럭의 크기는 난류의 구조와 그 영향에 의해 농도와 비례관계를 갖지 않을 수도 있다고 판단된다. 또한 본 연구에서 정상류 흐름 조건의 유무에 따라 플럭의 크기와 농도가 비례하거나 반비례하는 상반된 결과를 보였다. 정상류 흐름 조건이 난류의 강도에 큰 역할을 하며 이에 따라 비선형 관계에 영향을 끼친다는 것을 발견하였다. 그러나 흐름의 영향에 대한 더 자세한 분석은 본 연구에서 진행되지 않았으며 향후 연구 시에 분명히 고려되어야 할 사항이다.

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Stability of the enzyme-modified starch-based hydrogel model premix with curcumin during in vitro digestion (효소변형 전분기반 하이드로젤 모델 프리믹스 내 탑재된 커큐민의 소화과정 중 안정성)

  • Kang, Jihyun;Rho, Shin-Joung;Lee, Jiyoung;Kim, Yong-Ro
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.365-374
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    • 2021
  • In this study, the effect of enzyme-modified starch used in the preparation of filled hydrogel powder loaded with curcumin (FHP) on redispersibility, thermal and UV stability, and curcumin retention during in vitro digestion was investigated. FHP maintained stability without layer separation when redispersed and showed more stability against UVB than the emulsion powder (EMP). There was no significant difference in the chemical stability of curcumin between rice starch-based filled hydrogel powder (RS-FHP) and enzyme-modified starch-based filled hydrogel powder (GS-FHP). However, the gel matrix of GS-FHP maintained greater stability of lipid droplets in the stomach compared to RS-FHP, thereby improving the retention rate of curcumin after in vitro digestion. GS-FHP could be used as a novel material for developing premixes that require stable formulation and maintenance of functional substances, as it can increase the dispersion stability and retention rate of functional substances after digestion.

Determination of the Coagulant Injection Methods for Efficient Treatment of Industrial Wastewater (산업폐수의 효율적 처리를 위한 응집제의 주입방법 결정)

  • Park, Se-Jin;Jung, Byung-Gil
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Environmental Technology
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.570-575
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    • 2018
  • The various of raw wastewater inflows to the industrial wastewater treatment plants everyday. This makes it difficult to operate the coagulation and flocculation efficiently as a pretreatment process for the industrial wastewater treatment. Additionally, it causes loads on evaporation and membrane facilities which are the posttreatment and alternative processes. For this reason, this study sampled raw wastewater before and after the NaOH injection. An experiment was conducted to compare the coagulation characteristics according to the methods of coagulant injection (single injection, simultaneous injection, consecutive injection, and inverse injection) aiming at efficient treatment of industrial wastewater. The coagulation experiment was conducted using a jar tester. The TDS removal efficiency by the coagulant injection methods increased in the order of consecutive injection (2.8 %) < single injection (3.9 %) < simultaneous injection(8.1 %) < inverse injection(9.6 %); the TOC removal efficiency grew in the order of single injection (84.3 %) < inverse injection (86.2 %) < consecutive injection (88.6 %) < simultaneous injection (89.1 %); the turbidity removal efficiency grew from single injection (99.7 %) < consecutive injection (99.8 %) ${\fallingdotseq}$ inverse injection (99.8 %) < simultaneous injection (99.9 %). These results show that the simultaneous inorganic coagulant-polymer coagulant injection method was more efficient than the consecutive injection method (inorganic coagulant ${\rightarrow}$ polymer coagulant).

Effect of Coagulants and Separation Methods on Algal Removal in Water Treatment Process (정수처리에서 응집제 종류와 분리공정이 조류 제거에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hung-Suck;Lee, Sang-Yoon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.279-289
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    • 2000
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of coagulants and solid-liquid separation methods on algal removal in water treatment processes. Thus characterization of raw water quality in terms of turbidity. UV-254, $KMnO_4$ consumption, chlorophyll-a and correlation analysis of these parameters were conducted. In addition, the effect of commercial Al-based coagulants(Alum. PAC and PACS) on algal removal was studied by turbidity and organic removal, algal species removal, characteristic of pH drop and alkalinity consumption using laboratory jar tests. Organic components including UV-254, $KMnO_4$ consumption, chlorophyll-a in case of algal bloom were highly correlated with turbidity and the correlation coefficients of UV-254, $KMnO_4$ consumption, chlorophyll-a with turbidity were 0.775, 0674 and 0.623, respectively. In coagulation and sedimentation, the Al-based coagulants showed similar efficiency of organic and turbidity removal in low organic($KMnO_4$ consumption below 15mg/l) and low turbidity(below 30NTU). However, PAC and PACS showed better algal removal than alum in high organic concentration($KMnO_4$ consumption above 20mg/l) and high turbidity(above 100NTU) raw water conditions generated by high algal growth, which is considered to be due to the floc settleability. In comparison of sedimentation and flotation after chemical coagulation and flocculation, the removal efficiency of organic and turbidity were higher in case of alum dose with flotation than with sedimentation, while those were better in case or PAC and PACS with sedimentation than with flotation. Thus, Alum with flotation and PAC and PACS with sedimentation is recommended for efficient algal removal. The dominant phytoplankton in raw water were Microcystic and pediastrum simplex and the removal efficiency of algae with sedimentation using alum. PAC and PACS were 27%, 45% and 22% respectively, while those with DAF showed 100% removal of phytoplankton and zooplankton.

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