• Title, Summary, Keyword: Flowers and Insects

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Environmental Risk Assessment of Watermelon Grafted onto Transgenic Rootstock Resistant to Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus (CGMMV) on Non-Target Insects in Conventional Agro-Ecosystem

  • Yi, Hoon-Bok;Park, Ji-Eun;Kwon, Min-Chul;Park, Sang-Kyu;Kim, Chang-Gi;Jeong, Soon-Chun;Yoon, Won-Kee;Park, Sang-Mi;Han, Sang-Lyul;Harn, Chee-Hark;Kim, Hwan-Mook
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.323-330
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    • 2006
  • We investigated the impact of watermelon grafted onto Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus (CGMMV)-resistant transgenic watermelon rootstock on insects as non-target organisms in a greenhouse in 2005. We quantitatively collected insect assemblages living on leaves and flowers, and we used sticky traps to collect alate insects. We compared the patterns of insect assemblages and community composition, cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) on watermelon leaves and western flower thrip (Frankliniella occidentalis Trybom) on watermelon male flowers, between CGMMV-resistant transgenic watermelon (TR) and non-transgenic watermelon (nTR). Non-parametric multidimensional scaling (NMS) ordination verified that insect assemblages on leaves and sticky traps were different between TR and nTR (P<0.05). The insect assemblages on male flowers were not statistically significant. Multi-response permutation procedures proofed our results from NMS results (P>0.05). Conclusively, TR watermelons appear to have some adverse effects on the population of cotton aphids on leaves and sticky traps, but watermelon male flowers do not show an adverse effect. Further research is required to assess the effect of TR on the aphid and western flower thrip. Life table experiments might support the specific reason for the adverse effects from leaf assemblages. Assessment of non-target impacts is an essential part of the risk assessment of non-target insects for the impact of transgenic organisms.

Phytophagous Insects Associated with Composite(Campanulales : Dicotyledoneae) (국화과(초롱꽃목 : 쌍자엽식물아강)의 잡초가해 곤충)

  • ;;Patrick J.Shea
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.509-515
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    • 1992
  • Phytophagous insects were surveyed from field populations of Compositae weeds in the order Campanulales. Forty five insect species including unidentified ones of 43 genera in 5 orders and 17 families were recorded from 16 species in 12 genera of Compositae weeds. The hemipterans and coleopterans were the most abundant insects representing 13 and 13 species, repectively. Aphids and leaf beetles were important phytophagous insects on Compositae weeds. The potential biological control insects were Uromelan gobonis and Aethes cnicana on Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriensis and Cryptosiphum artemisiae on Artemisia lavandulaefolia. The leaf beetles, Chrysolina aurichalcea, Longitarsus succineus, Basilepta fulvipes, and Hamushia konishii were often collected from A. lavandulaefolia. Aphids and leaf beetles showed host specificities. The roles of hemipterans collected from the flowers of A. lavandulaefolia and Erigeron canadensis were questionable.

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Floral Visitors and Nectar Secretion of the Japanese Camellia, Camellia Japonica L.

  • Rho, Jeong-Rae;Choe, Chun-Choe
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.123-125
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    • 2003
  • We studied the nectar secretion of the Japanese Camellia (Camellia japonica L.), an evergreen tree and observed its floral visitors during the day. The mean volume of nectar secreted, during daylight (08:31 to 16:30 h) was 30.26$\pm8,29ml$ (SD) (n = 27). During the late afternoon and overnight (16:31 to 08:30 following day), 100.54$\pm54.85$(n = 27) of nectar was secreted. Total volume measured when flowers were sampled once every two hours for an eight-hour period was approximately one-half the volume which was measured when the flowers were sampled only once after eight hours. The mean nectar volume secreted was 8.55$\pm8.3ml$(n = 30) between 08:31 to 10:30, 4.38$\pm$6.1 ml (n = 30) between 10:31 to 12:30, 4.6$\pm5.4ml$(n = 30) between 12;31 to 14:30, and 4.02$\pm3.5ml$(n = 30) between 14:31 to 16:30 hours. During the day, Japanese Camellia flowers were principally visited by the Japanese white-eye (Zosterops erythropleura erythropleura 5.), a native bird, although insects and squirrels also visited to a lesser degree.

Effects of Insects on Pollination in Angelica gigas Nakai and Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (방화 곤충에 의한 당귀의 화분매개 효과)

  • Kim, Dong-Hwi;Park, Hee-Woon;Park, Chun-Geun;Sung, Jung-Sook;Seong, Nak-Sul
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.217-220
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    • 2006
  • It is known that the process of variety development and maintenance of original plant is difficult in Angelica gigas and Angelica acutiloba because they are allogamous plants. The contents like this are stand in the way of theirs breeding. This study was conducted to investigate the foraging activity and pollinational efficacy by insects to flowers of A. gigas and A. acutiloba. Foraging activity by pollinators was observed every day from 10:00 to 10:30 during 3 days after September 21. Honey bee and fly were major pollinators. The rate of hymenoptera and diptera to total numbers of insects was the 56.5% and 40.6% in A. gigas, respectively. It was also 46.3% and 51.8% in A. acutiloba, respectively. The other insects were lepidoptera, coleoptera and hemiptera. The numbers of hymenoptera and diptera were more in flowers of A. gigas was 49.2% with bee, 36.0% with fly, 15.3% with human, 0.9% without anything in the nethouse and 76.6% in the open field. That of A. acutiloba was 43.6% with bee, 27.9% with fly, 20.3% with human, 0.6% without anything in the nethouse and 46.9% in the open field. Excepting open field, seed setting rate of with bee in the nethouse was the highest of all the others. However, we concluded that the use of fly was the most effective method for pollination of A. gigas and A. acutiloba considering low cost and convenient handling.

Flowering Process and Pollination Mechanism of Genus Tilia in Korea (한국산 피나무속 식물의 개화와정과 수분기작)

  • Chung, Yung Ho
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.107-127
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    • 1984
  • An anthecological study of Tilia in Korea was undertaken for six native and one introduced species. Flowers are protoandrous with anther and stigma opening during the day-time in section(sect) Anastraea and the night-time in sect Astrophilyra. Nectar production was coincided with anther and stigma opening. It is revealed that the primary role of floral bracts was attracting pollinators especially in sect Astrophilyra. The peak of stamen and stigma function, and the production of nectar and odor were closely related with pollinator attraction. Forthy-three species of insects in 30 families were identified for the pollination studies; bees were the most commonly observed visitors in sect Anastraea, while moths were the primary visitors in sect Astrophilyra. Pollination study indicate that it is section specific. But within a section, pollination is not species specific thus interspecific hybridization occurs.

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A Study on Jugendstill through Designers (작가연구를 통한 유겐트스틸)

  • 조숙경
    • Journal of the Korea Furniture Society
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.63-72
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    • 2004
  • This study explored furniture and furniture designers in Art Nouveau which was called as Jugendstill in Germany. Jugendstill was developed on the center of Munchen, Darmstadt, and Berlin from the late 19th century to the early 20th century. And it was developed differently from Art Nouveau in the rest of European countries as the Rococo style and the Baroque style of Germany were done so. The furniture designers of Art Nouveau pronounced their use of decorative motifs from nature with birds, flowers, insects, fish, even landscape represented, but the designers in Jugendstill made the elaborate curvilinear design simply stylized and abstract: the design of Art Nouveau was seen as the superfluity of the ornament but the design of Jugendstill was seen as the simplified lines and restrain of the ornament. Hence, Jugendstill was deeply related with the scientific and rational thought of Germany, and then, it was based on the Deutscher Werkbund found by Hermann Muthesius.

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Studies on Chemical Components of Cephalotaxus koreana Nakai (개비자나무 Cephalotaxus koreana Nakai 잎의 성분 연구 (I))

  • 육창수;정진환;이종일
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.89-94
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    • 2000
  • Cephalotaxus koreana Nakai is endemic species of Korea. Since old days, the fruits have been used as a parasiticide and leaves have been used for a pierced wound by insects. The essential oil components from its aerial parts and stem bark by steam distillation were investigated. Several compounds were characterized by GC-Mass spectra. It was found that the leaves, stembark and flowers contain the compounds of essential oils, 1-octene-3-ol, hexadecanoic acid; $\alpha$-pinene, $\Delta^3$-carene mainly, linalylacetate, $\beta$-cubebene, 3,4-octadine-7-methyl , ferruginol(stem bark) and $\alpha$-pinene mainly, $\beta$-pinene , cyclopropane-1,1-dimethyl-2-(3-methyl-1,3-butadienyl), etc. This Cephalotaxus spp. contains the first components of ferruginol(M.W.286.03, $C_{20}H_{30}O)$ which belong to diterpene.

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Characteristics of Planting Design according to Parking Lots Type in Multi-family Housing Complex (공동주택단지의 주차장 유형에 따른 식재특성)

  • Hong, Seong-Rae;Jeong, Dae-Young;Shim, Sang-Ryul
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.43-49
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    • 2009
  • The number of registered vehicles increased to one million in 1985 and ten million in 1997, and the parking lots in multi-family housing complex that had been mainly constructed on the ground level began to be constructed in underground levels. Therefore, planting design in such complex were greatly changed. This study classifies the parking lots in multi-family housing complexes located in Cheongju into three categories: above-ground, mixture of above-ground and underground, and underground. The characteristics of planting design in each were then analyzed. The rate of parking per family increased by two or more in the type of mixture when compared to in the type of above-ground. As underground parking lots became dominant, the rate of parking per family increased to one car or more. The green area ratio did not change considerably when above-ground parking was combined with underground parking, but the green area per total floor space was reduced, which indicates the quality of green area became lower. Most of the parking lots in multi-family housing complexes since 2000 have been constructed underground, and the green area became larger. As for the species of trees used in planting design, trees that are vulnerable to damage by blight and harmful insects and may be repugnant have been reduced and replaced by trees whose shapes are beautiful and whose flowers and fruits can be appreciated, such as Chionanthus retusa, Malus floribunda, Styrax japonicus, Prunus mume, Lagerstroemia indica. Pine trees are variously planted with diversified standards, and, in particular, tall pine trees are being utilized as focal points. Herbaceous flowers began to be planted in underground parking lots constructed since 2000, and they are expected to be planted even more due to the appreciation of their flowers and their splendid appearance.

Characteristics of Natural Prints Design in Fashion Collections - Paris, Milan & New York from 2011 SS to 2012 SS - (패션 컬렉션에 나타난 자연문양디자인의 특성 - 2011 S/S ~2012 S/S 파리, 밀란, 뉴욕 컬렉션을 중심으로 -)

  • Kwon, Hae-Sook
    • Journal of the Korea Fashion and Costume Design Association
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.91-109
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    • 2013
  • The main objective of this research was to understand the latest trends of natural print design through the quantitative & qualitative analysis of fashion appeared in contemporary female collections. The research criteria was defined as 3 seasons from 2011 S/S to 2012 S/S. Data collection of 726 was done through review of 'pr$\hat{e}$t-$\grave{a}$-porter Collections' of three major fashion cities; Paris, Milan and NY. Statistical analysis of frequency with chi-square test was conducted. Also qualitative interpretation of natural print design' characteristics was completed. The main findings were as follows.; The average occurrence rate of natural print design from 2011SS to 2012 SS in three collections were 6.4% in Milan 6.4%, 5.5% in Paris and 6.8% in N.Y. The five source types of natural prints in contemporary women's fashion collections were identified and the order of their appearance were as follows: flowers, plants, animals, insects & marine organisms and compound one. The plant prints were expressed by stylized or realistic touch. Flower patterns showed more variables than plants, however, there were no big difference in their image and major characteristics. The animal prints demonstrated two aspects. First one used typical animal print of fur or skin, but the other one draw the animal figure like paintings. The compound source type presented the most interesting and fresh pattern design ideas. In the insects & marine organisms, mainly butterfly and seashell & starfish, etc. appeared as real shapes or sometimes were stylized.

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Pollination Mechanism of Bupleurum latissimum (Apiaceae) (멸종위기종인 섬시호(Bupleurum latissimum, 산형과)의 수분기작)

  • So, Soonku;Han, Kyeongsuk;Kim, Muyeol;Park, Hyerim;Seo, Eunkyoung;Kim, Yang-Pyo;Kim, Tae-Heung
    • Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.43-50
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    • 2008
  • The pollination system of Bupleurum latissimum Nakai (Apiaceae) was investigated in the natural population of Korea. The various insects of 19 species, 11 families, 5 orders visited the flowers of B. latissimum. Episyrphus balteatus and Lasioglossum occidens were considered as the most effective pollen vector which have associated specially with B. latissimum. The visitation frequency peaked at 10 AM - 13 PM and no visitor was recognized during night time. The flowers of B. latissimum last during only three days and they are protandry. It is also confirmed that the flower of B. latissimum is self-compatible and cross-pollination by vectors is critical for successful seed setting.