• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fluoride

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Allylic fluorination

  • Park, Oee-Sook;Son, Hoe-Joo;Lee, Woo-Young
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.239-244
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    • 1987
  • An efficient and inexpensive method for the substitution of allylic hydroxyl group with fluoride, without allylic rearrangement, and elimination was developed. This method consists of treating an allylic alcohol with methylithium, followed by p-toluene sulfonyl fluoride, lithium fluoride and 12-Crown-4. This methodology was proved to be efficient by preparting geranyl fluoride, neryl fluoride, cinnamyl fluoride, E, E-farnesyl fluoride, retinyl fluoride and 4-fluoro-2-methyl-6-(ptolyl)-2-heptene.

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Development of diverse fluorides source for applicable F-18 radiofluorination method

  • Park, Su Hong;Kim, Dong Wook
    • Journal of Radiopharmaceuticals and Molecular Probes
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.17-21
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    • 2016
  • Alkali metal fluoride sources (MFs) such as potassium fluoride (KF) have been widely used as a fluoride source in the nucleophilic displacement reaction. However, they have low solubility and nucleophilicity in most of the organic solvents. Bulky fluoride sources such as tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) were substituted for MFs to improve these properties. However, hygroscopic property of TBAF makes it less convenient for handling as well as its strong basic property can make the side-reaction occur. Recently, novel fluoride sources have been developed to solve these problems. In this paper, we would like to introduce coordinated fluoride sources as a new fluoride sources such as tetrabutylammonium tetra(t-butyl alcohol)-coordinated fluoride, crown ether metal complex fluoride, and various bulky alcohols coordinated fluoride complexes. In particular, bulky alcohol coordinated fluoride source could generated by the controlled hydrogen-bonded of fluoride with alcohols and these fluoride sources have better stability and reactivity with showing low hygroscopic property. The study of these fluoride sources will help to understand the characteristic of [$^{18}F$]fluoride for increasing the radiochemical yield in the [$^{18}F$]radiofluorination.

A Study on Awareness for Fluoride of a Christian Church (일부 교인들의 불소 인식도에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Jae-Keun
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.39-48
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    • 2009
  • This paper investigated an overview of awareness for fluoride in the young christian association. 30% of men and 70% of women knew well the prevention of caries for fluoride and water fluoridation program and showed of 90% in 20's, 10% in 30's and 0.00% in 40's. 54%-known people for fluoride had each 37% of men and 63% of woman, then 46%-unknown people for fluoride had each 56.52% of man and 43.48% of women. This showed women knew well awareness for fluoride than men. This showed high level above 50% awareness for fluoride as 54% of comprehension for fluoride and 50% of water fluoridation program. Awareness of fluoride of the subjects known for fluoride, prevention of caries, effects of tooth and water fluoridation program appeared above 50% level as 54%, 47%, 45% and 50%, individually. Thus, tooth management in christian showed high level. But, awareness for fluoride of women in third condition 'unknown for mottled tooth' showed each 38%, 34% and 37%. The mottled tooth from an excessive fluoride appeared low level awareness for fluoride of women. It suggested hard scientific contents made woman subjects unknown the effects of fluoride for tooth.

THE EFFECT OF ND:YAG LASER IRRADIATION ON THE FORMATION OF CALCIUM FLUORIDE AND ACID RESISTANCE OF TOOTH ENAMEL (Nd:YAG 레이저 조사가 Calcium Fluoride 형성 및 치아 내산성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jae-Ho;Sohn, Heung-Kyu;Kim, Seong-Oh;Park, Kwang-Kyun;Choi, Byung-Jai
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.377-398
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    • 1999
  • Calcium fluoride, created by topical fluoride application, is the reservoir for fluoride ion regulated by pH in the oral environment. Therefore, the amount and the maintenance of calcium fluoride have an important role in preventing dental caries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation on the generation of calcium fluoride and the acid resistance of tooth enamel. The bovine anterior permanent teeth were prepared (n=276), and divided into following groups : no treatment (control) fluoride application alone, laser irradiation alone, laser irradiation after fluoride application, and fluoride application after laser irradiation. And each group was subdivided based on the application time of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) (5 min and 30 min) and the irradiation energy of Nd:YAG laser ($20J/cm^2\;and\;40J/cm^2$). In case of fluoride application, each group was divided according to KOH treatment. Twenty three treatment conditions were made for this experiment and twelve specimens were assigned to each treatment condition. In each treatment condition, ten specimens were used for chemical analysis and two specimens were observed under SEM. In groups without treating KOH, fluoride content and the depth of enamel dissolved were measured using enamel biopsy technique. In groups with treating KOH, the amount of calcium fluoride was measured by the treatment with 1 M KOH for 24 hours and enamel biopsy was performed after KOH treatment. The results were analyzed by the fluoride content and the depth of enamel dissolved by enamel biopsy, amount and thickness of calcium fluoride, and the surface structures of enamel. The results are as follows: 1. In groups without treating KOH, the fluoride content of removed enamel showed a positive relationship with the energy density of laser when the laser irradiated before fluoride application 2. In groups without treating KOH, the depth of enamel dissolved decreased more with the combined laser and fluoride treatment than with laser or fluoride treatment, except for the case of $20J/cm^2$ laser irradiation after 5 minute fluoride application (p<0.05). 3. The amount of calcium fluoride did not increased by laser treatment with no statistical significance(p>0.05). 4. The particle size of calcium fluoride increased in case of fluoride treatment after laser irradiation, compared with fluoride application alone. In case of laser treatment after fluoride application, the particle size of calcium fluoride increased and some of the particles fused as well. 5. There were no significant differences in the fluoride content of dissolved enamel between groups without treating KOH and control group, except for the case of laser irradiation after treatment of APF for 30 minutes (p>0.05). 6. In groups with treating KOH, depth of removed enamel in the groups of combined treatment with laser and fluoride was shallower than that in fluoride application groups (p<0.05). 7. In groups without treating KOH, the relationship between fluoride content and the depth of enamel dissolved showed more negative (Spearman correlation coefficient: -0.6281) than in groups with treating KOH (Spearman correlation coefficient: -0.3792). The greater amount of calcium fluoride could be found in case where there was a significant differences of the depth of enamel dissolved between groups with and without treating KOH. From these results, it can be concluded that laser seems to be a little effects on the amount of calcium fluoride formation, but has some effect on the lowering the solubility of calcium fluoride. As the combined treatment of laser and fluoride application showed more effective acid-resistant property, more extended recall period for fluoride application can be achieved with this combined treatment in the clinic.

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Effect of Topical Fluoride Agents on Synthetic Hydroxyapatite and Enamel (합성수산화인회석과 법랑질에 대한 불화물의 도포효과에 관한 비교연구)

  • Sang-Dae Lee;Suk-Jin Hong;Woo-Cheon Kee
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.115-122
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    • 1996
  • This study was performed to compare the anticarious effect of the different fluoride adsorbed(Naf, $NH_4F, Na_2PO_3F, SnF_2, TiF_4$) on synthetic hydroxyapatite and enamel. The amount of fluoride adsorbed in synthetic hydroxyapatite under various concentrations and pH of these fluoride solutions was measured by specific electrode. Enamel samples treated with 5 kinds of 1,000ppm fluoride solutions for 10 minutes were evaluated for fluoride uptake and enamel soubility. The results were as follows. 1. The adsorption of fluoride on synthetic hydroxyapatite increased gradually by the concentration of the fluoride solution, In 1,000ppm fluoride solution, the adsorption of fluoride on synthetic hydroxyapatite treated with NH4F and NaF solutions at pH 4.0 was relatively higher than that of other fluoride solutions. In NH4F and NaF solutions, the adsorption of fluoride on powdered enamel was higher at pH 4.0 solution than at pH 7.0 solution. 2. Fluoride uptake from NH4F solution was relatively high. But that from $Na_2PO_3F$ solution was lower than those from other fluoride solutions. 3. Fluoride solutions were significantly effective on enhancing acid resistance. $NH_4F$ solution was relatively more effective than others on enhancing acid resistance. 4. $SnF_2 and TiF_4$ solutions had the same effect on fluoride adsorption, fluoride uptake, and enamel solubility.

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About naked fluoride

  • Lee, Eunsung
    • Journal of Radiopharmaceuticals and Molecular Probes
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.121-123
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    • 2018
  • Fluoride is one of most important atoms for both clinical and pharmaceutical usage. Associated with such a strong need, $^{18}F$-fluoride has been widely used as an essential radioisotope. The fluoride always suffers from strong solvation effects through strong hydrogen bonding, which reduce the reactivity of fluoride anion. To enhance the reactivity, the concept of naked fluoride was introduced in the fluorination field. In this essay, I will briefly describe the history of naked fluoride concept and development of naked fluoride sources.

ANTICARIOGENIC EFFECT OF FLUORIDE RELEASED FROM SEALANT COMPARED TO TOPICAL FLUORIDE APPLICATION METHODS (국소적인 불소도포제재와 불소유리 치면열구전색재의 내산성 효과)

  • Park, Ki-Tae;Shon, Heung-Kyu;Chai, Byung-Jai;Park, Kwang-Kyun;Shon, Dong-Su;Lee, Jong-Gap
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.148-172
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    • 1997
  • Sixty human premolar teeth were used for this in vitro study. After each tooth was sectioned mesiodistally, one half was used for the experimental group and the other half for the control. Three groups were made for each fluoride applying method and twenthy teeth were assigned to each group. Ten teeth were used for evaluating total fluoride amount and the other ten were used for firmly-bound fluoride. Fluorshield was used for fluoride-releasing sealant and 1.23% APF, 0.05% NaF were used for topical application fluorides. Each tooth was cleaned with a tooth brush using nonfluoride containing pumice before the experiment. In the sealant group, fluoroshield was applied to the enamel surface without etching procedure and stored in $37^{\circ}C$ saline for 30 days. After 30 days, sealant was removed with explorer without scratching the enamel surface and washed with distilled water and dried. In the APF group, each tooth was immersed in 1.23% APF for 30 min then washed and dried in the same manner. In the NaF group, each tooth was immersed in 0.05% NaF for 24 hours then washed and dried as described above. After each fluoride regimen was applied, ten teeth were randomly selected from each group and immersed in 1M KOH solution for 24 hours to remove loosely-bound fluoride possibly deposited by the three different fluorides applied. In each group, total fluoride amount deposited and the amount of enamel removed by acid biopsy were calculated. After loosely-bound fluoride was removed, firmly-bound fluoride deposited and the amount of enamel removed by acid biopsy were also calculated. Total fluoride amount deposition was significantly increased in the APF and NaF groups, but not in the sealant group. Amount of enamel removed by acid-biopsy was also significantly diminished in the APF and NaF groups, but not in the sealant groups. After loosely-bound fluoride was removed from each groups, no statistical difference was found in the amount of firmly-bound fluoride in any groups. Also no effect of firmly-bound fluoride on enamel dissolution was shown in any groups after loosely-bound fluoride was removed from each group. In conclusion, topical application method of APF or NaF is more effective than fluoride-releasing sealant application to make $CaF_2$ coating on enamel surface and $CaF_2$ coating is the main source for anticariogenic effect of fluoride. However, longterm anticariogenic effect of fluoride-releasing sealant should be further evaluated.

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An Effect of Fluoride Recharging on Fluoride Release and Surface Change of Fluoride-Releasing Restorative Materials (불소방출성 수복재의 불소 재충전에 따른 불소유리와 표면변화)

  • Moon, Jang-Won;Yu, Mi-Kyung;Lee, Kwang-Won
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to examine an effect of fluoride recharging on fluoride release and surface change of fluoride-releasing restorative materials. Six commercially available fluoride releasing restorative materials (Fuji II LC Improved: FL, Compoglass F: CF, Dyract AP: DA, F2000: FT, Gradia Direct: GD, and Tetric Ceram: TC) were selected as experimental materials. Disk specimens were fabricated with split teflon mold to the final dimensions of 15 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness. Ten samples of each material were fabricated and stored in deionized water at $37^{\circ}C{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ for 3 months. Before fluoride recharging, all specimens were polished sequentially from #800 to #2000 emery papers. Fluoride recharging was done at 5-day interval using 2.0% NaF gel. The release of fluoride into the storage water was monitored using a fluoride ion electrode. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple range test. The results obtained were summarized as follows; 1. Fluoride recharge capability were FL > CF > DA and TC group after 12 times exposure to 2.0% NaF gel (P<0.05). 2. All the experimental materials, except for FT group, showed the increase of fluoride release and surface roughness. 3. Fluoride-releasing rates returned to base line within 3 days.

A Study of the Effect of Fluoride to Dental Hard Tissue (불소가 치아 경조직에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 이승우
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.1-4
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    • 1980
  • Caries free anterior teeth were rinsed for 10 minutes with 1%, 5% sodium fluoride and 1% stannous fluoride solution three times a day for the period of experiment. And the author measured the concentration of enamel fluoride by means of Mc Cann's Technique. And the results were as follows : 1. There were little difference of enamel fluoride concentration between the teeth treated with 5% sodium fluoride solution. 2. The enamel fluoride concentration shows a tendency of direct proportion in lower concentration of fluoride solution for the period of 10 days. 3. The Enamel fluoride concentration in the group treated with stannous fluoride solution reveals acute elevation in the 5th day of experiment but the trend was not direct proportional in the 10th day of experiment.

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Fluoride Wastewater Treatment using Waste Concrete Powder (폐콘크리트분말을 이용한 불산폐수 처리)

  • Kim, Eun-I;Kang, Wan-Hyup;Park, Joo-Yang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.125-134
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    • 2005
  • Waste concrete powder was used to remove fluoride ions in highly concentrated fluoride wastewater. 92.6% of fluoride in 100 mg F/L wastewater was removed by 1% dose of the cement paste powder that represents characteristics of waste concrete powder, whereas the removal efficiencies of raw cement and lime were 47.3% and 96.4%, respectively. The cement paste powder was competitive to lime, common fluoride removal agent. Various Ca-bearing hydrates such as portlandite, calcium silicate hydrate, and ettringite in cement paste slurry can remove fluoride by precipitating $CaF_2$ and absorbing $F^-$ ions. In the experiments using both cement paste and lime, 50~67% of lime can be substituted by cement paste to satisfy fluoride effluent limitation of 15 mg/L. Since cement paste has higher acid neutralization capacity than lime, it can be recycled to neutralize more acid and to remove more fluoride. Therefore waste concrete powder can be more economical and viable alternative for lime in fluoride wastewater treatment.