• Title, Summary, Keyword: Follicles

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Numerical and morphologic changes of ovarian follicles in each stage of estrus cycle in rats (Rat의 성주기에 따른 난포의 수와 형태변화)

  • Lee, Yoi-joo;Kwak, Soo-dong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.455-462
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    • 1999
  • This study was designed to investigate the number of the growing and mature follicles in each stage of estrus cycle in mature rats. Eighteen mature rats(Sprague-Dawley, initially 190~230gm) were randomly alloted into 4 groups(proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus) according to estrus cycles. The uteri and ovaries of rats were collected and then alternative sections of paraffin embedding ovaries were stained with H-E. Numbers of large, middle and small follicles or only large and middle follicles from secondary and tertiary follicles were investigated by LM photography of preparations. Small follicles were defined as secondary follicles with 2~5 cell layers of granulosa cells surrounding the oocyte, and middle follicles were defined as secondary follicles with more than 5 cell layers or with early signs of antral cavity or with more than one small cleft on either side of the oocytes and large follicles were defined as tertiary follicles with a single medium or large antral cavity. The number of follicles in a pair ovary per rat was appeared to be ranged from 207 to 370 and the mean number of these follicles was $270.4{\pm}52.6$ and the mean number of follicles per ovary was $134.9{\pm}32.0$. The mean number of large, middle and small follicles per ovary was appeared to be $16.4{\pm}4.4$($12.2{\pm}3.3%$), $36.2{\pm}8.6$($26.8{\pm}6.4%$), and $82.7{\pm}24.0$($61.3{\pm}17.8%$), respectively. The mean number of large and middle follicles in each stage group of estrus cycle was appeared to be $17.8{\pm}2.1$ and $38.3{\pm}7.4$ at proestrus stage group, $15.7{\pm}5.2$ and $38.0{\pm}10.0$ at estrus stage group, $16.5{\pm}3.5$ and $33.8{\pm}7.0$ at metestrus stage group, $16.7{\pm}5.8$ and $29.7{\pm}5.5$ at diestrus group, respectively. In histological findings of large follicles during each estrus cycle, the large follicles in proestrus group contain single small antrum, thick granulosa cell layers, and were $300{\sim}500{\mu}m$ in diameter and were growing follicles with PCNA-positive cells in the granulosa cell layers, and other luteinizing follicles of proestrus cycle stage were decreased in size and were thicker in wall thickness and more luteinized than those in metestrus and diestrus stage groups. The large follicles in estrus stage group contain thick granulosa cell layers and nonprominent cumulus-oocyte complexes in antrum, and were $400{\sim}700{\mu}m$ in diameter and were growing follicles with PCNA-positive cells in the granulosa cell layers. The large follicles in metestrus and diestrus stage groups contain enlarged antrums, thinner layers of walls and prominent cumulus-oocyte complexes, and were $700-950{\mu}m$ in diameter, and were nongrowing follicles without PCNA-positive cells or another large follicles contain cells with dark stainability and distinct boundary.

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Immunohistochemical observation on the functions of follicles developed in ovaries of pregnant cows (임신우에서 발생된 난포의 기능에 대한 면역조직화학적 관찰)

  • Kwak, Soo-Dong;Koh, Phil-Ok;Yang, Je-Hoon;Won, Chung-Kil;Kang, Chung-Boo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.555-561
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    • 2003
  • Incidence of estrum or abortions in pregnant cows may be affected by large follicles developed together with corpus luteum in pair ovaries of pregnant cows. But the follicles of pregnant phase were not assessed about histological findings. Determination of the healthy and atretic follicles by presence of proliferative cells or apoptotic cells and histological compositions of follicles would be used as important data on measurements of ovarian functions. This study was focussed mainly to investigate macroscopical, histological and immunohistochemical findings of ovarian follicles of pregnant Korean native cows and dairy cows (Holstein). In immunohistochemical methods, assessments of proliferative cells using PCNA antibody and apoptotic cells using TUNEL methods were performed. The follicles were observed on all 24 pregnant cows (17 Korean native cows and 7 Holstein cows). Follicles of greater than 10 mm in daimeter were developed in 37.5% (9/24 heads) of these pregnant cows. largest follicles from in these cows were $16.0{\times}15.0mm$ in diameter in a Korean native cow(l20 days of gestation), $13.4{\times}10.1mm$ in a Korean native cow(50 days of gestation), $12.9{\times}11.5mm$ in a Holstein cow (120 days of gestation). 40.5% among all follicles having diameter of greater than 1.0 mm in pregnant cows were assessed as atretic follicles and in addition, healthy follicles also showed less in number and smaller in size and thinner in wall layer compared with those of cyclic phase ovaries. In immunohistochemical findings, also proliferative positive cells and apoptotic positive cells on the granulosa cell layers in the healthy follicles of pregnant cows appeared less than on those of cyclic follicles. So these follicles were assessed as weakly active follicles. In large follicles, above positive cells were not nearly appeared but granulosa cell debris were more appeared among the granulosa cells. So these large follicles were assessed as inactvie or atretic follicles. The above findings suggest that small follicles of pregnant phase were weakly active or atretic and large follicles were inactive or atretic.

Immunohistochemical study on the atretic and the growing follicles after experimental superovulation in rats 2. Atresia and growing of follicles (과배란 유기된 rat 난소에 퇴축난포와 성장난포에 대한 면역조직화학적 연구 2. 동원된 난포의 퇴축과 성장에 대하여)

  • Kwak, Soo-dong;Koh, Phil-ok;Kim, Chong-sup
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.79-86
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    • 1997
  • This study was designed to investigate the effects of superovulation on the growing and mature follicles following gonadotrophin treatments in mature rat by immunohistochemical methods. Eighteen mature rats (Sprague-Duwely, 190~230gm) were randomly alloted into 3 groups. One group was control group, another FSH-treated group was injected intramuscularly with 0.5 units of follicular stimulating hormone(FSH) / rat, and third PMS and HCG-treated group was injected intramuscularly with 20~25IU of pregnant mare serum(PMS) / rat and then at the 48 hrs later, with 20~25IU of human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG) / rat. Half the number of rats were administrated intraperitoneally with bromodeoxyuridine(Brdur, 0.2mg/gm BW once) at 2 hours before exanguination and the remainder of rats were sacrified without Brdur administration. The investigation by immunohistochemical methods using paraffin sections of ovaries was performed by using anti-Brdur antibody and PCNA(proliferating cell nuclear antigen) antibody for labeling proliferating cells in follicles. In immunohistochemical findings, follicles squeezed by peripheral corpus luteum or follicles large follicles with loosly and irregularly distributed granulosa cells and although with compacted granulosa cells, middle follicles with dilated round or oval follicular antrum were confirmed as atretic follicles. The proportions of atretic follicles in control group were 29.8%, 21.7% and 14.2% respectivley at large, middle and small follicles and mean proportions of these all 3 grade follicles were 26.7%. The proportions of atretic follicles in FSH-treated group were 35.4%, 24.9% and 10.4% respectively at large, middle and small follicles and mean proportions of these all 3 grade follicles were 28.1%. The proportions of atretic follicles in PMS and HCG-treated group were 44.7%, 24.0% and 12.7% respectively at large, middle and small follicles, and mean proportions of these all 3 grade follicles were 29.7%. The above findings reveal that the group with higher proportion of atretic follicles were ordered as large, middle and small follicles in size, and these proportions were increased in hormone treated two groups with more number of more growing and mature follicles when compared with control group.

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Comparison of Mechanical and Enzymatic Methods for the Isolation of Bovine Ovarian Follicles

  • Lim, Hyun-Joo;Kim, Dong-Hoon;Im, Gi-Sun;Lim, Jeong-Mook
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.93-96
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    • 2010
  • The isolation of preantral follicles from the ovaries of bovine was performed under mechanical and enzymatic methods. A significant increase in the total number of follicles retrieved was detected when tissue chopper was used. Micro-dissection could supply good quality, larger sized follicles (400 to $700{\mu}m$) but with the lowest yield ($9.0{\pm}1.0$). The isolated preantral and early antral follicles were cultured for 14 days. Follicles isolated by the mechanical method had a greater growth during a culture period than follicles collected enzymatically. Morphologically normal bovine oocytes from early antral follicles after 14 days culture were 59.6% after culture and after 24 h of maturation culture, 12.9% of in vitro-grown oocytes reached the second metaphase. In conclusion, this study showed that mechanical method can be used effectively to isolate intact preantral follicles from bovine ovaries.

Effect of Removal of Follicles through Repeated Transvaginal Follicle Aspiration on Subsequent Follicular Populations in Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

  • Akshey, Y.S.;Palta, P.;Manik, R.S.;Vivekananad, Vivekananad;Chauhan, M.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.632-636
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of removal of all ovarian follicles through repeated transvaginal follicle aspiration (TVFA) on the subsequent follicular populations in buffaloes. This information is crucial for determining the optimum time interval between successive aspirations for recovering oocytes from live buffaloes through Transvaginal Oocyte Retrieval (TVOR). The oestrus of cycling buffaloes (n=5) were synchronized by a single PGF injection schedule. All the ovarian follicles were removed once every 7 days for 6 weeks through TVFA, starting from Day 7 of the oestrous cycle (Day 0 = day of oestrus). The number and size of individual ovarian follicles was recorded at Day 3 and Day 5 (Day 0 = day of TVFA) through transrectal ultrasonography. The follicles were classified on the basis of their diameter as small (3-5 mm), medium (6-9 mm) and large ($\geq$10 mm). There was no difference in the number of small and medium follicles, and the number of total follicles between Day 3 and Day 5. However, the number of large follicles was significantly higher (p<0.05) at Day 5 than that at Day 3. There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the proportion of small follicles and an increase (p<0.05) in the proportion of large follicles from Day 3 to Day 5, with no change in the proportion of medium follicles. The number of total follicles at Day 3 or Day 5 did not differ during the 6 TVFA sessions. It can be concluded that an interval of 3 days is more suitable than that of 5 days between successive aspirations for recovering oocytes through TVOR in a twice weekly schedule and that repeated removal of follicles through TVFA does not adversely affect the number of total follicles 3 or 5 days after TVFA.

Antrum Formation and Growth of Mouse Pre-antral Follicles Cultured in Two Different Culture Media without Hormones

  • Kim, Ju-Hwan;Kim, Hwan-Tae;Park, Kee-Sang;Song, Hai-Bum;Chun, Sang-Sik
    • Proceedings of the KSAR Conference
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    • pp.8-8
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    • 2001
  • Mouse follicles require the addition of gonadotropins (Gns) to complete maturation and ovulation of oocyte and antrum formation of follicles in vitro. However, we tried examination of in vitro growth of mouse pre-antral follicles in medium without Gns and physiological factors. And also, pre-antral follicles were isolated from ovaries by mechanical method. Our present studies were conducted to evaluate on the growth of follicles and intra-follicular oocytes and antrum formation in vitro of mouse pre-antral follicles in two different media. Pre-antral follicles (91-120${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$) were isolated mechanically by fine 30G needles not using enzymes from ovary of 3-6 weeks old female ICR mice. Isolated pre-antral follicles were cultured in 20 ${mu}ell$ droplets of TCM (n=17; follicles: 107.8 $\pm$ 1.58 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$; oocytes: 59.9$\pm$1.2 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$) or MEM (n=12; follicles: 109.3$\pm$2.53 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$; oocytes: 55.4 $\pm$1.6${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$) under mineral oil on the 60mm culture dish. All experimental media was supplemented with 10% FBS but without Gns and/or physiological factors. Pre-antral follicles were individually cultured in drops for 8 days. Antrum formation and growth of pre-antral follicles and intra-follicular oocytes were evaluated using a precalibrated ocular micrometer at $\times$200 magnifications during in vitro culture. Results between different groups were analyzed using combination of Student's t-test and Chi-square, and considered statistically significant when P<0.05. Antrum formation of pre-antral follicles had started in two culture media on day-2. On day-8, antrum formation had occurred in 58.3%(7/12) of pre-antral follicles cultured in MEM, but only in 23.5% (4/17) of those cultured in TCM (P=0.0364). Growth of pre-antral follicles and intra-follicular oocytes were observed on day-4 and -8. On day-4, follicular diameters was similar (P=0.1338) in TCM (119.4$\pm$2.58 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$) and MEM (125.4$\pm$4.52 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$). However, on day-8, diameters of pre-antral follicles cultured in MEM (168.9$\pm$17.29 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$) was significantly (P=0.0248) bigger than that in TCM (126.7$\pm$4.28 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$). On day-4 and -8, diameters of intra-follicular oocytes were similar TCM (67.1$\pm$1.3 and 72.4$\pm$0.9${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$) and MEM (65.2$\pm$1.7 and 73.3$\pm$1.5 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$), respectively. We can conform that medium not supplemented with Gns and/or physiological factors can be used for in vitro antrum formation and growth of mouse pre-antral follicles and intra-follicular oocytes. In conclusion, MEM supplemented with FBS can be used for growth in vitro of mouse pre-antral follicles isolated mechanically.

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In vitro-growth and Gene Expression of Porcine Preantral Follicles Retrieved by Different Protocols

  • Ahn, J.I.;Lee, S.T.;Park, J.H.;Kim, J.Y.;Park, J.H.;Choi, J.K.;Lee, G.;Lee, E.S.;Lim, J.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.7
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    • pp.950-955
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to determine how the isolation method of the porcine preantral follicles influenced the following follicular growth in vitro. Mechanical and enzymatical isolations were used for retrieving the follicles from prepubertal porcine ovaries, and in vitro-growth of the follicles and the expression of folliculogenesis-related genes were subsequently monitored. The enzymatic retrieval with collagenase treatment returned more follicles than the mechanical retrieval, while the percentage of morphologically normal follicles was higher with mechanical retrieval than with enzymatic retrieval. After 4 days of culture, mechanically retrieved, preantral follicles yielded more follicles with normal morphology than enzymatically retrieved follicles, which resulted in improved follicular growth. The mRNA expression of FSHR, LHR Cx43, DNMT1 and FGFR2 genes was significantly higher after culture of the follicles retrieved mechanically. These results suggest that mechanical isolation is a better method of isolating porcine preantral follicles that will develop into competent oocytes in in vitro culture.

In vitro Follicular Growth and Ovulation of Mouse Preantral Follicles Cryopreserved by Vitrification (초자화동결된 생쥐 Preantral Follicle의 체외성장과 배란)

  • Park, Ji-Kwon;Paik, Won Young
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.91-99
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    • 2005
  • Objective: To define an appropriate vitrification condition of preantral follicle that yields high survival and to evaluate growth and ovulation rate of mouse follicles during in vitro culture after vitrification. Methods: Preantral follicles were isolated mechanically from mouse ovaries that were surgically recovered from mice aged 14 days. Retrieved preantral follicles were placed in EG (Ethylene Glycol) for 2, 5, 10 minutes and transferred to EFS-40 (40% EG, 18% Ficoll-70, 0.5 M sucrose) for 0.5, 1, 2 minutes. And then, preantral follicles were placed onto an EM grid and submerged immediately in liquid nitrogen. Thawing was carried out at room temperature. After defining the most appropriate vitrification condition that yields high survival, in vitro growth and ovulation rate of follicles were evaluated. Results: Appropriate vitrification condition that yield high survival rate ($83.2{\pm}2.1%$) of preantral follicle was EG for 5 minutes and EFS-40 for 0.5 minutes. In vitro survival rate of the vitrified preantral follicles were $85.5{\pm}0.5%$, $67.9{\pm}0.8%$ and $40.2{\pm}0.5%$ on day 2, 6 and 10. And in vitro growth of the vitrified preantral follicles were $107.1{\pm}16.1{\mu}m$, $117.1{\pm}18.4{\mu}m$, $178.4{\pm}45.6{\mu}m$ and $325.4{\pm}54.4{\mu}m$ on day 0, 2, 6 and 10. Although in vitro survival rate and growth of vitrified preantral follicles were lower than that of non-vitrified preantral follicles, the patterns of survival and growth were similar in vitrified and non-vitrified preantral follicles. The ovulation rate of antral follicles that was grown from vitrified preantral follicles was $32.6{\pm}1.2%$. Conclusion: Vitrified preantral follicles could be grown to antral sizes, and mature oocytes that can be used for IVF-ET programs were produced successfully. These data suggest that cryopreservation of preantral follicle by vitrification can be used for the preservation of the fertility.

Immunohistochemical Study on the Superovulation Effected by Repeat of PMSG Administration in Rats 2. Healthy and Atretic Follicles Following Frequency of PMSG Administrations (PMSG 반복투여가 Rat의 과배란에 미치는 영향에 대한 면역조직화학적 연구 2. 투여회수에 따른 정상난포와 퇴축난포의 차이)

  • 곽수동;고필옥;김종섭
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.265-274
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study was attempted to investigate the a, pp.arences of healthy or artretic follicles in ovaries following repeats of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin(PMSG) treatments for superovulation in nulliparous rats. Thirty two rats(Sprague-Dawely, about 200-250 gm) were randomized into 4 groups. Control group rats were sacrified at estrus phase confirmed by vaginal smear. PMSG-treated group 1 rats, PMSG-treated group 2 rats and PMSG-treated group 3 rats were sacrified at 48 hrs after injection once with PMSG 25 IU, after 2 repeated injection by a week interval, and 3 repeated injection, respectively. The ovaires of rats were removed and then sections by paraffin embedding were stained with H-E or immunohistochemical staining using proliferating cell nuclear antigen monoclonal antibody (PCNA m Ab) and apoptotic kit. The criteria of follicle classification was based as small follicles with preantral follicles with 2~4 layers of granulosa cells surrounding the oocyte, as secondary follicles with more than 5 layers of granulosa cells and early signs of antral cavity or with small clefts on either side of the oocytes, and as tirtiary follicles with a single medium sized antral cavity or large well-formed antral cavity, respectively. The proportions of atretic follicles from small and middle follicles in immunohistochemical staining using PCNA m Ab were 17.9% and 21.3% in control group, 15.5% and 23.5% in PMSG-treated group 1, 24.3% and 26.7% in PMSG-treated group 2, 18.1% and 30.2% in PMSG-treated group 3, respectively. Groups with atretic follicles of higher proportion were ordered as PMSG-treated group 3, PMSG-treated group 2, PMSG-treated group 1 and control group. The proportions of positive cells in small, middle and large follicles were 31.1%, 33.5% and 28.5% respectively. The follicles with positive cells of higher proportion were ordered middle, small and large follicles. In immunohischemical staining using apoptotic kits, small follicles in all 4 groups did not contain positive cells, and proportions of atretic follicles from middle and large follicles were 24.9, 30.7, 33.8 and 40.1% in control, PMSG-treated gruop 1, PMSG-treated group 2 and PMSG-treated group 3, respectively. These results suggested that repeats of PMSG treatment increased proportion of atretic follicles in ovaries, and middle follicles are more quickly developing than small or large follicles.

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Interrelationships Between Follicular Size, Estradiol-17β, Progesterone and Testosterone Concentrations in Individual Buffalo Overian Follicles

  • Palta, P.;Bansal, N.;Manik, R.S.;Prakash, B.S.;Madan, M.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.293-299
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    • 1998
  • This study was undertaken to measure the concentrations of estradiol-$17{\beta}$, progesterone and testosterone, and to study their relationship with each other and with follicular size in individual buffalo ovarian follicles categorized as small (4 to 5 mm diameter), medium (6 to 9 mm diameter) and large (${\geq}10mm$ diameter). Steroid hormone concentrations varied markedly within follicles of each size category. Estradiol-$17{\beta}$ concentrations (pmol/ml) were positively related to follicular diameter (R = 0.34, n = 308, p < 0.001) and were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in large (1$118.46{\pm}30.25$), compared to those in medium follicles ($50.32{\pm}8.29$) which, in turn were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than those in small follicles ($19.70{\pm}$5.57). Progesterone and testosterone concentrations (pmol/ml) were not related to follicular diameter and were not different among small ($330.99{\pm}27.32$ and $17.68{\pm}2.44$ respectively), medium ($384.84{\pm}26.20$ and $36.47{\pm}4.55$, respectively) and large follicles ($253.25{\pm}32.23$ and $22.57{\pm}4.48$, respectively). Estradiol-$17{\beta}$ and progesterone concentrations were positively related (R = 0.39, n = 47, p < 0.01) in small, unrelated in medium and negatively related in large follicles (R = -0.59, n = 23, p < 0.01). There was no relationship between estradiol-$17{\beta}$ and testosterone concentrations in follicles of all the three size categories. Progesterone and testosterone concentrations were positively related in large follicles (R = 0.57, n = 18, p < 0.02). There was no relationship between the two hormones in small and medium sized follicles. When the follicles with estradiol-$17{\beta}$/progesterone molar ratios of > 1.00 were considered non-atretic, and the rest at different stages of atresia, 197/208(95%) follicles were found to be atretic.