• Title, Summary, Keyword: Forage Production and Quality

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Studies of Organic Forage Production System for Animal Production in Korea (한국의 가축 생산성 향상을 위한 유기조사료 생산체계에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Kim, Jong-Kwan;Kwon, Chan-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.155-166
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    • 2014
  • Organic forage production system is one of the most important aspects in organic livestock production. Animals in the organic farming system are also essential for manure to be used for organic forage production. Both organic forage and animals are essential to maintain the cycle of organic agriculture system. In this paper we introduce the organic forage production system in Korea. Summer and winter crops are getting popular in Korea because of their high forage yield and cultivation in double cropping systems. Common cropping system for forage production in Korea is the double cropping system with legume and grass mixture. Forage sorghum and sudangrass are the most popular ones of annual summer forage corps because of their high production with low cost in the double cropping systems. In the mixture of forage crops, inter cropping is more suitable in the corn and sorghum cropping system because of high lodging resistance and forage yield, and low weed population. Forage sorghum and sudangrass are difficult to preserve as direct-cut silage due to the fact that its high moisture content causes excessive fermentation during ensiling. Corn grain addition to sorghum silage could be recommended as the most effective treatment for increasing quality and reducing production cost. It is recommended that corn grain could be added up to 10% of total amount of silage. And agriculture by-products also can be added at the time of ensiling to minimize losses of effluent and have the additional advantage of increasing quality. Agriculture by-products as silage supplements increased DM content and quality, and decreased the production cost of sorghum silage. Field pre-wilting treatment of forage crops also increased DM content and quality of the silage. Wilting sorghum${\times}$sudangrass hybrid before ensiling was the effective method for reducing effluent and increasing pH and forage quality more than direct cut silage. Optimum prewilting period of sudangrass silage was 1 or 2 days. In organic forage, the most important factor is the enhancement of organic forage sufficiency in relation to the environmental-friendly and organic livestock. Consequently, there are many possibilities for animal production and organic forage production in Korea. No forages no cattle concept should be emphasized in organic farming system.

Effect of Location, Year and Variety on Winter Cereal Forage Yield and Quality in the Southern Plateau of the Spain

  • Otal, J.;Quiles, A.;Quiles, A.;Perez-Sempere, J.I.;Ramirez, A.;Fuentes, F.;Hevia, M.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.10
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    • pp.1416-1424
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this research was to study the production and quality of forage at three different times of the year (April, June and July) of six winter cereals in the southern plateau of the Iberian Peninsula. The cereals studied were Triticale (xTriticosecale wittm) cv. "Tritano", Oat (Avena sativa L.) cv. "Prevision" and cv. "Saia; Rye (Secale cereale L.) cv. "Giganton", Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. "Cameo" and cv. "Albacete". The study was carried out in three different locations and over three successive years of harvesting. The three variables considered were location, year and cereal. The % dry matter (DM), % crude protein (CP), % acid detergent fiber (ADF), % neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and % ash content were determined for the three sampling periods and the quality was calculated in milk forage units (MFU/kg DM), the production in kg DM/ha, MFU/ha and kg CP/ha. In all three sampling periods the quality of the cereals was significantly influenced only by the year and by species. However, for production of dry matter (kg DM/ha), milk forage units (MFU/ha) and gross protein (kg CP/ha) all three variables were of significant influence as were their interactions. In the April sampling, the species which showed a significantly higher production ($p{\leq}0.05$) was rye (1,693 kg DM/ha), which, along with its forage quality (16.56% CP, 0.886 MFU/kg DM) meant that the same occurred in MFU/ha and kg CP/ha. Significant differences between species were also found for the June sampling. The most productive cereal was again rye with 2,656 kg DM/ha, although its sharp fall in forage quality meant that barley cv Albacete (2,513 kg DM/ha) returned the highest production in forage units (1,934 vs. 1,951 MFU/ha) and barley cv. Cameo (2,413 kg DM/ha) in gross protein production (242 vs. 264 kg CP/ha). The significantly highest cereal production for July was barley cv. Albacete (4,923 kg DM/ha, 9.11% CP 0.722 MFU/kg DM). As a consequence of the results, we conclude that from the viewpoint of nutritional quality and production, rye is the most suitable for use in early spring in whatever year and location. However, barley cv. "Albacete" is the most appropriate for utilisation in later spring or early summer.

Effect of Location, Season, and Variety on Yield and Quality of Forage Oat

  • Kim, J.D.;Kim, S.G.;Abue, S.J.;Kwon, C.H.;Shin, C.N.;Ko, K.H.;Park, B.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.7
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    • pp.970-977
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    • 2006
  • Forage oat (Avena sativa L.) is grown extensively in a double-cropping system on dairy farms. Four oat varieties ('Swan', 'Targa', 'Foothill', and 'Nugene') were evaluated for forage production and forage quality during two growing seasons (spring and autumn) at two locations (central and southern region) in South Korea. The heading stage of four oat varieties was observed during spring, but the autumn season did not produce heading until harvest time except for the 'Swan' variety (early-maturing variety). The heading stage of 'Swan' in both locations was earlier compared to other varieties. The four varieties were resistant to both foliar disease and insects. Lodging resistance was higher during autumn except in 2002 at the central region, and late-maturing varieties ('Foothill' and 'Nugene') have lower lodging resistance. Dry matter (DM) content was significantly different between varieties (p<0.001). Comparing different varieties, 'Swan', an early-maturing variety, was highest in DM content. In DM, total digestible nutrients (TDN) and crude protein (CP) yield, the yield of oat varieties in the southern region was higher than in the central region, and forage yield of the oat varieties in the spring season was higher than during the autumn season. The DM and TDN yield showed significant differences between oat varieties. The CP content of oats grown in the central region (Cheonan) was lower than oats grown in the southern region (Daegu), and the spring season produced oats with lower CP compared to the autumn season. Among the four oat varieties, the CP content of late-maturing varieties was higher than the Swan variety (early-maturing variety). The acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents were higher for the varieties grown in Cheonan and during the spring season. The ADF and NDF contents of late-maturing varieties were lower than the early-maturing variety. TDN and relative feed value (RFV) were higher for the varieties grown in Daegu and during the autumn season. Late-maturing variety had higher TDN and RFV than early-maturing variety. Our study showed differences in forage production and forage quality of oats grown in different locations, seasons and varieties. Forage quality as well as forage production was better in the southern region than in the central region. Forage quality was better during autumn, but forage production was better during spring. Late-maturing variety had better forage quality than the early-maturing variety. Therefore, late-maturing varieties are more suitable for use in the southern region.

Effect of Location, Year and Variety on Forage Yield and Quality of Winter Rye

  • Kim, J.D.;Kwon, C.H.;Shin, C.N.;Kim, C.H.;Kim, D.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.997-1002
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    • 2005
  • The objective of this experiment was to determine agronomic characteristics, and forge yield and quality responses of rye variety to location and year for a double-cropping system in South Korea. Five forage rye varieties ('Koolgrazer', 'Jlee select', '9909', 'Homill22', 'Danko') were evaluated for forage quality and yields during the two growing years (the First year; 2001-2002, and the Second year; 2002-2003) at two locations (the central and southern zone). The heading date of rye in the central zone (Cheonan) was 15 April, and that of the southern zone (Daegu) was 10 April. The heading dates of 'Koolgrazer', 'Jlee select' and '9909' were earlier than those of the others. Although the five varieties had resistance to foliar diseases and insects, these had less lodging resistance. Dry matter (DM) content, DM and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yields had significant differences among rye varieties. DM and TDN yields of the rye varieties at the second year were higher than the first year in the central zone. In the southern zone, DM and TDN yields at the first year were lower than the second year. 'Jlee select' and '9909' had higher DM and TDN yields than the other varieties in both location and year except the first year of the central zone (p<0.001). The crude protein (CP) contents of rye grown in Cheonan were higher than Daegu. The CP content of 'Danko' variety was highest among tested varieties. The acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents were greater for the varieties grown in Cheonan and in the second year. The ADF and NDF contents of 'Danko' were lowest, while 'Danko' in TDN and relative feed value (RFV) was highest among rye varieties. Our study showed that there are differences in forage production and quality from location to location, year to year and variety to variety. Therefore, forage quality and forage production are an important factor for screening forage rye varieties. Early maturing varieties should be recommended as high-yielding forage in a double-cropping system because their production of forage was greatest early in the season.

FORAGE BREEDING IN TAIWAN - Review -

  • Cheng, Y.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.203-209
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    • 1991
  • Collection, evaluation and preservation of tropical forage grasses, napier grass breeding, tissue culture of pangola grass and alfalfa selection were conducted in Taiwan. The results showed that some species such as pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) with good performance and wide adaptability were selected and released. Forage yield and quality of napier grass have been improved and have good results in animal performance. Embryogenic callus cultures from young inflorescences and stem segments of pangola grass could provide an alternative method for rapid propagation and improvement. Three better varieties of alfalfa were selected. They maintain satisfactory stands for two or three years on well-drained sand loam and loam soil, and used only as annual crop in flat area and acid soil. However, more studies in forage breeding for acid soil arc required to maximise the forage quality and animal production. Thus, animal fed with forages of high quality and a few grains supplement will be the future achivement in livestock industry.

An Overview of Teff (Eragrostis teff Zuccagni) Trotter) as a Potential Summer Forage Crop in Temperate Systems

  • Habte, Ermias;Muktar, Meki S.;Negawo, Alemayehu T.;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Lee, Ki-Won;Jones, Chris S.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.185-188
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    • 2019
  • The production of traditional cool season grasses in temperate regions is becoming hampered during summer seasons due to water deficit. Thus, incorporating water use efficient warm season annual grasses are generally considered to fill the gap of summer season forage reduction that would offer considerable flexibility and adaptability to respond to forage demand. Teff (Eragrostis teff Zuccagni) Trotter) is, a C4 drought tolerant warm season annual grass primarily grown for grain production, recently gaining interest for forage production particularly during summer season. Previous reports have showed that teff is palatable and has comparable forage biomass and feed quality as compared to other warm season annual grasses which would make it an alternative forage. However, the available data are not comprehensive to explore the potential of teff as forage, hence further assessment of genotype variability and performance along with compatibility study of teff with forage production system of specific environment is key for future utilization.

Studies on the Forage Production and Utilization on Paddy Field in Korea (한국에 있어서 답리작을 이용한 양질 조사료 생산기술)

  • Seo, Sung;Yook, W.B.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Grassland Science Conference
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    • pp.5-56
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    • 2002
  • The problems in the current domestic forage production were evaluated, and the prospective improvement was suggested in this paper. Grassland development in forest, production of high quality forages in upland and paddy land, efficient utilization of rice straw, development of new varieties of forages suitable for our environmental conditions and imported forages were described Among them, preferential production and utilization of forages using paddy field after rice harvest . should be enlarged for domestic supply of forages in Korea. Several studies were carried out to select the promising forage crops and barley cultivars for whole crop silage production, to determine productivity, nutritive value and production cost of forages produced in paddy field, and feeding effect of forages with Hanuwoo and milking cow for whole crop silage with forages produced in paddy field, 1999 to 2001, and also discussed restraint factors and activation plans for enlargement of forage production in paddy land. The promising forage crops in paddy field were rye and barley for Middle region, and rye, barley, early maturing Italian ryegrass and wheat for Southern region. The promising barley cultivars for whole crop silage in paddy field were Albori in Suwon, Keunalbori, Milyang 92, Saessalbori, and Naehanssalbori in Iksan, and Keunalbori, Albori, Naehanssalbori, and Saegangbori in Milyang, respectively. Silage production, quality and animal palatability of silage by trench and round bale were also compared. The production yields of whole crop barley silage(WBS) were 17,135kg as a fresh matter, and 6,011kg as a dry matter per ha, and the quality of WBS was 2∼3 grade, while that of rice straw silage was 4 grade as a farm basis. The production cost of WBS per kg was 83won as a fresh matter, and 238won as a dry matter. Feeding of WBS as forages on Hanwoo was very desirable for the improvement of live-weight gain, beef quality and farm income, particularly in growing stage of Hanwoo. Milk production and income were also increased, and feed cost was decreased by feeding of WBS. The daily voluntary intake of WBS in milking cow was 26.3kg as a fresh matter(DM 7.7kg) per head. Milk production when WBS was fed, was very similar to that of imported hay feeding such as Kentucky bluegrass or domestic corn silage. The issues to be solved in near future f3r stable forage production and supply in paddy land are sustainable livestock-forages policy, development & seed production of new varieties of barley, rye, Italian ryegrass and other promising forages, efficient demand & supply system of forages, solidification for mass production and utilization of forages, efficient application management of animal slurry on paddy field considering environmental agriculture/livestock industry, and break k development of bottleneck technique in production field. Domestic production & supply of high cost agricultural machine (round baler, wrapper, handler and so on), plastic wrapping film, and silage additives are also important.

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Studies of Cultivation Model of Rye (Secale cereale L.) as a Forage Crop I. Effects of harvesting time on forage production and quality of rye(Secale cereale L.) silage on paddies (호맥 ( Secale cereale L. ) 의 청예이용을 위한 재배모형에 관한 연구 I. 답리작호맥의 수확시기별 청예사료생산 및 Silage품질)

  • 송진달;임근발;양종성
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.165-168
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    • 1988
  • This study was conducted at the rice field of Livestock Experiment station, Suweon to investigate the effects of harvesting time on forage production and quality of rye (Secale cereale L.) on paddies. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1. Fresh matter yield was peaked at the 10 days (May 10) after heading, however, dry matter yield was increased in proportion to maturity. 2. Digestibility (in vitro) showed the 83-77% by heading stage (Apr. 25-30) but decreased to 66-58% after heading stage. 3. Digestible yield reached to maximum level, 619.2 kg/lOa at the 10 days after heading (May 10). 4. The content of crude protein and crude fat in forage rye was decreased with advancing the maturity. 5. The lactic acid content of rye silage ranged from 1.3% to 2.0%.

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effect of Pasture ages on the Dry Matter Yield , Botanical Composition and Forage Quality of Pasture Mixtures (초지경년이 건물수량 , 식생비율 및 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • 한인규;김동암;조무환;이필상
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.264-270
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    • 1994
  • This experiment was undertaken to determine the effect of pasture ages on the total production and seasonal yield trends, botanical composition and forage quality of pasture mixtures. This experiment was conducted at the Livestock Experiment Station, RDA, Suweon. The results obtained were as follows : 1. Total dry matterDM) yield of pasture mixtures was the highest in the first year, and thereafter no significant reduction in the 2nd through the 4th year, but decreased by 30% in the 5th year. 2. The 34.4% of total DM yield was produced at the first cut, and decreased from then on. Total DM yield of pasture mixtures varied by year and climatic facton. In 1992, Total DM and TDN yields of pasture mixtures were 13.4 and 8.5 IvlT/ha, respectively. 3. The content of crude protein(CP), in virro DM digestibility(IVDMD) and TDN of pasture mixtures were 12-14, 70-80, and 62-65%, respectively. The highest forage quality was obtained at the 4th cutting. 4. The botanical compositions of legumes and weeds were increased as the year of establishment advanced, and highly increased at the 3rd cut after summer growth. 5. Based on the results of this study it appears that economic forage production could be expended to the 4th year with proper management, and the special renovation techniques may be needed for maintenance of pasture yield from the 5th year.

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Effect of Drought Conditions on Growth, Forage Production and Quality of Silage Corn at Paddy Field (가뭄에 따른 논 재배 사일리지용 옥수수의 생육특성, 생산성 및 품질 비교)

  • Ji, Hee-Chung;Cho, Jung-Ho;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Won-Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.47-54
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    • 2011
  • This experiment was carried out to know adaptability and forage production and quality of corn hybrid for silage at paddy field of Jeonnam and Cheonan region. The growth, forage production and quality of silage corn in normal condition showed much better than drought condition at paddy field. Among the growth characteristics, 'Kangdaok' hybrids was somewhat strong for drought stress, then and good at stem diameter, drought stress, sugar content, stay green, disease and insect resistance. Fresh yield of 'Kwangpyongok' and 'Kangdaok' hybrid at drought paddy field were the highest as 9,714kg and 9,126 kg/ha per ha among corn hybrids. Among the ten hybrids, dry yield of 'Kangdaok' hybrid at drought paddy field was the highest as 5,548 kg per ha. The result of this study showed that 'Kangdaok' hybrid had good growth characters and forage productivity at drought condition and dry matter yield and TDN yield also were 21.6% and 19.3% level compared with normal paddy field.