• Title, Summary, Keyword: Forced swimming

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Effect of Guibitang and Ascorbic Acid on the Regional Brain Catecholamines contents of Heat or Forced Swimming stressed Guinea Pig (귀비탕(歸脾湯)과 Ascorbic Acid가 열(熱) 및 유영(遊泳) Stress Guinea Pig의 뇌(腦) Catecholamine 함량(含量)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Ryu Jae-Gyu;Whang Wei-Wan
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 1995
  • This study aimed to compare the anti-stress effect of Guibitang with Ascorbic Acid on the guinea pigs in heat or forced swimming stress. the experimental animals were heated in hot room$(34{\pm}2^{\circ}C)$ for 2 hours in a day during 7 days. Forced swimming stress was loaded by forcing guinea pigs to swim in a oval tub for 2 minutes in a day during 7days. And administered 1.0mg/100g of Ascorbic Acid or 86.0mg/100g of Guibitang extract formonce befor stress. 1. In brain, the contents of norepinephrine in group of the heat of forced swimming stress, in case administered Ascorbic Acid and in case administered Guibitang extract with Ascorbic Acid significantly decreases as compared with these in case administered non Ascoric Acid. 2. In brain, the contents of epinephrine in group of the forced swimming stress, in case administered Guibitang extract with Ascorbic Acid significantly decreases as compared with these in case administered non Ascorbic Acid. 3. In brain, the contents of dopamine in group of the heating stress, in case administered Guibitang extract with Ascorbic Acid significantly decreases as compared with these in case administered non Ascorbic Acid, and these in group of the forced swimming stress in case administered Ascorbic Acid and in case administered Guibitang extract without Ascorbic Acid and in case administered Guibitang extract with Ascorbic Acid significantly decreases as compared with these in case administered non Ascorbic Acid.

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Keum-Ryung-Ja-San, an Traditional Herbal Prescription, Ameliorates Depressive Behaviors in Mice

  • Jung Ji-Wook;Lee Seung-Joo;Yoon Byung-Hoon;Kim Dong-Hyun;Ryu Jong-Hoon
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.114-118
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    • 2006
  • Depression is a very difficult disease to be cured because several nervous systems are involved. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of Keum-Ryung-Ja-San (KRJS), a traditional herbal prescription, on depressive behaviors in mice using the forced swimming test. KRJS was given 1 h prior to the forced swimming test (50, 100, 200, an400 mg/kg, p.o.). The duration of immobility time in the forced swimming test was significantly reduced by KRJS treatment (200 mg/kg, P<0.05) and similar effects were observed with a classical antidepressant, imipramine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). With subchronic administrations of KRJS and its constituents at several doses for 1 week, a decreased duration of immobility time was observed with KRJS and Corydalis ternata (200 mg/kg, p.o. P<0.05). These results suggest that KRJS may have antidedpressive activities and CT may contribute to the antidepressive activity of KRJS.

Effects of Moutan Cortex on Corticotropin-Releasing Factor, c-Fos and Tyrosine Hydroxylase in Forced Swimming Test (목단피(牧丹皮)가 강제수영부하시험에서 Corticotropin-Releasing Factor, c-Fos 와 Tyrosine Hydroxylase에 미치는 영향)

  • Sung, Young-Suk;Lee, Tae-Hee
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.129-140
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of Moutan Cortex as antidepressant in forced swimming test(FST) model. Methods : The expressions of corticotropin-releasing Factor(CRF), c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase(TH) were measured with immunohistochemical method at paraventricular nucleus (PVN), locus coeruleus(LC) and ventral tegmental area(VTA). Results : The duration of immobility in the forced swimming test was significantly decreased in the Moutan Cortex 100 mg/kg treated group in comparison with the control group(p<0.01). CRF and c-Fos expressions at PVN were decreased in the Moutan Cortex 100mg/kg treated group in comparison with the control group. But only the expression of c-Fos was shown the significance(p<0.05). TH expressions at LC and VTA were significantly decreased in the Moutan Cortex 100mg/kg and 400mg/kg treated group in comparison with the control group(p<0.001). Conclusion : According to the results, Moutan Cortex has the antidepressant effect by showing the reduced immobility through the reduction of c-Fos expression at PVN and the reduction of TH expression at LC and VTA.

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Anti-stress effects of Sihoueokgantang in the passive avoidance test and the forced swimming test (시호억간탕(柴胡抑肝湯)이 스트레스로 인한 기억저하와 우울행동에 미치는 영향)

  • Jo, Yong-Kook;Lee, Tae-Hee
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.147-160
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    • 2007
  • Objectives: This study is carried out to investigate the anti-stress effects of the sihoueokgantang in rats. Methods: we performed the passive avoidance test and the forced swimming test. The degrees of TH were also measured with immunohistochemical method in the regions of VTA and LC. Results: 1. As the results of the passive avoidance test. the sihoueokgantang showed tendency to improvement in compared with control group. 2. As the results of the forced swimming test, immobility of rats was significantly decreased in sihoueokgantang in compared with control group. 3. As the results of TH expression in the region of the LC, TH-immunoreactive cells were significantly decreased in the sihoueokgantang 100 mg/kg. As the results of TH expression in the region of the VTA. TH-immunoreactive cells were significantly decreased in the sihoueokgantang 400 mg/kg. Conclusion: As the results above, it can be considered that sihoueokgantang has the effects of preventing depression and memory decrease caused by stress.

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Effects of Yukmijihwang-tang on Maximal Exercise Performance (육미지황탕 투여가 운동 지구력 향상에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae, Gi Sang;Park, Jin Han
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.498-502
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    • 2015
  • Yukmijihwang-tang (YM) is a well-known prescription to treat kidney inflammation on Korea. However, the effects of YM on maximal exercise performance (MEP) is not-well investigated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of YM on MEP using forced swimming test (FST) model. Mice were largely divided into three group; a non-swimming group, saline treated-swimming load test group, and YM treated-swimming load group. Swimming load test groups were re-divided into swimming control group (Control), YM fed group (YM). YM was administrated orally for 2 weeks before FST. After FST, immobility time, oxygen consumption was measured by physiological test, and serum was collected for biochemical analysis. FST induced MEP identified by increased immobility, oxygen consumption, and biochemical factors. Immobility time was significantly reduced by YM treatment compared with control group. Oxygen consumption was also significantly reduced by YM treatment. The increase on lactic acid and lactate dehydrogenase after FST was inhibited by YM treatment. In addition, consumption of energy source (free fatty acid, and triglyceride) and recovery of energy was enhanced by YM treatment after FST. In conclusion, YM inhibited the elevation of immobility time, oxygen consumption, and biochemical factors after FST. YM could be used as a beneficial agents to enhance maximal endurance exercise performance and an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training.

Effects of Yeast Fermented Ganoderma Lucidum Extract on the Recovery of Exercise Fatigue in Forced Swimming Rats (효모를 이용한 발효영지 추출물이 흰쥐의 유영 운동 피로에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Ji-Hun;Kim, Ho-Jun;Lee, Myeong-Jong
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.17-31
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : Ganoderma Lucidum has been used in traditional oriental medicine to treat various conditions including chronic fatigue and cough. This experimental study was designed to investigate the effects of yeast-fermented Ganoderma Lucidum extract on the fatigue of rats elicited by forced swimming. Materials and methods : The rat subjects were divided into 4 groups: normal group, control group administered with 0.9% normal saline, experimental I(Exp I) group administered with yeast-fermented Ganoderma lucidum extract and experimental II(Exp II) group administered with Ganoderma lucidum extract for 4 weeks. All the serum samples collected by heart puncture were used to measure biochemical factors such as glucose, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), creatine kinase(CK), inorganic phosphorus, ammonia, total cholesterol(TC), triglycerides(TG), high-density lipoprotein(HDL), low-density lipoprotein(LDL), aspartate transaminase(AST), alanine transaminase(ALT). Results : 1. Weight change and swimming time were not significantly different in the experimental groups as compared with control group. 2. Lactate was significantly decreased in the experimental groups as compared with control group. Inorganic phosphorus was also significantly decreased in the Exp I group as compared with control group(p<0.05). 3. Serum lipid concentration was not significantly different in the experimental groups as compared with control group. 4. AST and ALT were significantly decrease in the experimental groups as compared with control group. Conclusions : Yeast-fermented Ganoderma lucidum in forced swimming rats would appear to reduce fatigue-related factors, AST, ALT of serum and promote anti-fatigue effect.

Anti-Fatigue Properties of Cultivated Wild Ginseng Distilled Extract and Its Active Component Panaxydol in Rats

  • Shin, Il-Soo;Kim, Do-Hee;Jang, Eun Young;Kim, Hee Young;Yoo, Hwa-Seung
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.68-74
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: Cultivated wild ginseng (cWG), called SanYangSanSam, has been used clinically in patients with chronic fatigue in Korea. Little is known about effects of the ginseng distilled (volatile) components produced during evaporizaiton. Recently, we first identified one major component from cWG distilled extract, panaxydol, by using mass spectrometry. However, functional properties of cWG distilled extract and panaxydol remains elusive. Therefore, the present study evaluated the effect of cWG distilled extract or panaxydol on exercise-induced fatigue in rats. Methods: Fatigue was induced by forced swimming and the immobility time was analyzed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals received intraperitoneally either vehicle, cWG distilled extract, or panaxydol 10 min prior to beginning of the forced swimming test (FST) once daily for 5 days. After the FST on day 5, we also analyzed fatigue-related biochemical levels including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), lactate acid (LAC), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum and levels of glycogen in liver and soleus muscle. Results: The forced swimming time in cWG distilled extract (0.6 mL/kg)-treated group was significantly longer than that of control group on day 4 and 5. Panaxydol (0.1 and 0.25 mg/kg)-treated groups showed significantly enhanced performance in the forced swimming, compared to control. In addition, a significant decrease in serum LDH level was found in panaxydol-treated group, while there were no alternations in levels of serum BUN and LAC and glycogen in liver or soleus muscle. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated cWG distilled extract and its active component panaxydol have a function of anti-fatigue.

Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Two Tonic Formula on the Forced-Swimming Capacity of Rats (자양강장용 기능성 식품이 흰쥐의 강제수영 능력에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Tae-Cheol;Han, Dae-Seok;Lee, Chang-Ho;Kim, Young-Eon;Jung, Kyung-Ah;Kim, Hae-Yeong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.648-655
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    • 2005
  • Effects of two types of formula designed for commercial product on forced-swimming capacity and related biochemical parameters of Sprague-Dawley rats were evaluated. Treatment groups were fed diet supplemented with 4.56% formula A (EFA: exercise-trained and formula A-supplemented group) or B (EFB: exercise-trained and formula B-supplemented group) for 4 weeks. All groups were regularly trained twice a week to be accustomed to swimming. After 4 weeks, each group was divided into two subgroups: 90 min swimming (90-min subgroups) and swimming until exhaustion (all-out subgroups). Serum was collected, and skeletal muscles were dissected out after swimming. Forced-swimming time until exhaustion was significantly longer (p<0.05) in EFA and EFB groups than that of exercised control group. Among 90-min subgroups, serum ammonia level of EFB group was significantly lower than that of exercised control group (p<0.05). Among all-out subgroups, serum lactate levels were not significantly different among exercised control and treatment groups, whereas serum-free fatty acid levels of EFA and EFB groups were significantly lower than that of exercised control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, EFA and EFB groups enhanced forced swimming capacity of rats by increasing fat utilization and delaying accumulation of serum fatigue factor.

Anti-depressant Effect of Chilbokum under the Forced Swimming Test in Rats

  • Shim, In-Sop;Kim, Jung-Ki;Koo, Byung-Soo
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.191-197
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-depressant effect of Chilbokum on rats under the forced swimming test (FST) Methods : The rats were treated with the herbal extract, Chilbokum. In order to induce depression-like symptoms, the FST was conducted afterwards. The immobility time was measured during a 5-min experimental session. The alterations of the 5-HT level in the hypothalamus and hippocampus and the change of corticosterone level in the blood induced by FST were determined in the rats. Results : The results were as follows: 1. The immobility time during 5 min of FST in the drug administration group showed significant decreases compared with the control group (p<0.05). 2. The FST+Chilbokum group had significantly increased 5-HT levels of the hypothalamus and hippocampus, compared with the control group (p<0.05, respectively). 3. The FST+Chilbokum group had significantly decreased corticosterone levels, compared with the control group (p<0.05). Conclusions : These results demonstrate that the reduced immobility time by Chilbokum may be mediated by the increase in 5-HT level in the hypothalamus and hippocampus, suggesting that Chilbokum has a potential therapeutic efficacy for human depression.

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Sogeunjung-tang improves depressive-like behavior decreased by forced-swimming test

  • Jeong, Hyun-Ja;Moon, A Rim;Kim, Na-Hyung;Chung, Cha-kwon
    • CELLMED
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.4.1-4.4
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    • 2017
  • Sogeunjung-tang (S-tang) is a traditional Korean medicine that has been used for the therapy of anxiety disorder in a variety of clinical situations. However, no study has investigated this effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of S-tang for reducing depression in animal model. The anti-depressant effect of S-tang was investigated in ICR mice by using forced swimming test (FST). After FST, we analyzed the blood biochemical parameters from blood. The immobility time was significantly decreased in the S-tang oral administration or pharmaceutical acupuncture group compared with the control group at 14 days (p < 0.05). The anti-depressant effect of S-tang was higher than that of fluoxetine (a classical anti-depressant). S-tang or fluoxetine significantly decreased the creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase level compared with the control group (p < 0.05) but not glucose, protein, and blood urea nitrogen level. Further investigation of S-tang as a potential pharmacologic agent in the management of depression related anxiety is warranted.