• Title, Summary, Keyword: Formic Acid

Search Result 493, Processing Time 0.083 seconds

Effect of Formic acid and Caproic acids on the Quality and Aerobic Deterioration of Reed Canarygrass Silage (Formic acid와 Caproic acid 첨가가 Reed Canarygrass Silage의 품질과 호기적 변패에 미치는 영향)

  • 김재황;고영두
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.14 no.2
    • /
    • pp.132-141
    • /
    • 1994
  • In order to study the effects of silage additive on the quality and in preventing aerobic deterioration, reed canarygrass silages were made with various levels of formic acid, caproic acid and a mixture of the two acids. Preparation of silages cutted into about 1.5 cm length with the forage cutter and packed in vinyl bags(50 kg of capacity, 0.1 mrn of thickness), and it also divided nine types of experimental treatments. Aerobic deterioration in the silages were investigated for 7 days of aerobic exposure periods, and the plastic vessel of diameter 25 cm, a height 30 cm used as a tool. The results obtained from this experiment are summarized as fellow. 1. Crude protein and NFE contents at the time if opening were increased in the silage with mixture of formic and caproic acids(P<0.01). Crude fiber and ADF contents during the 7 days of aerobic exposure periods were the decreased in the sslages with mixture of two acods treatment(P<0.01). 2. Temperature of the silage treated with fromic acid alone during the 2 days of aerobic exposure period reached$34.4^{\circ}C$, while that of the silage with caproic acid and mixture formic and caproic acids were not rapidly increased resulting by reduced aerobic deteriorarion. 3. The pH of silages treated with formic acid alone during 7 days of aerobic exposure was not effectively changed, while solages treated with caproic acid were effectively stabilized. 4. The ratio of amminia nitrogen to total nitrogen was significantly decreased in silages with formic acid>caproic acid>mixture of both in the order(P<0.01). 5. Microbiological population of the silage were positively changed during the 7 days of aerobic exposure period. Solages with formic acid were deteriorated at ensiling observed, while applicarion of 1.2% caproic acid was partially reduced deteriorarion by precenting of the growth moulds.

  • PDF

Formic Acid Oxidation Depending on Rotating Speed of Smooth Pt Disk Electrode

  • Shin, Dongwan;Kim, Young-Rae;Choi, Mihwa;Rhee, Choong Kyun
    • Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.5 no.3
    • /
    • pp.82-86
    • /
    • 2014
  • This work presents the variation of formic acid oxidation on Pt depending on hydrodynamic condition using a rotating disk electrode. As the rotating speed increases, the oxidation rate of formic acid decreases under voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements. The coverages of poison formed from formic acid during the chronoamperomertric investigations decrease when the rotating speed increases. As the roughness factor of Pt electrode surface increases, on the other hand, the current density of formic acid oxidation increases. These observations are discussed in terms of the tangential flow along Pt electrode surfaces generated by the rotating disk electrode, which reduces a contact time between formic acid and a Pt site, thus the formic acid adsorption.

Protein Hydrolysis with Formic Acid and Analysis of Amino Acid Using Butylthiocarbamyl - trimethylsilyl (BTC - TMS) Derivatives by Gas Chromatography

  • 우강융;이동선;김민철
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.32 no.3
    • /
    • pp.320-324
    • /
    • 2003
  • The protein hydrolysis with 6 M formic acid containing 0.3% tryptamine was a superior method for amino acid analysis of standard amino acid and protein than 6 M HCI containing 0.3% tryptamine. The recoveries of standard amino acid after acid hydrolysis were more accurate in the 6 M formic acid hydrolysis than 6 M HCI hydrolysis, especially recovery of tryptophan showed higher values of 1.5 times than that of 6 M HCI hydrolysis. The results of analysis on the standard protein, bovine serum albumin, showed very similar values compared to the sequence analysis reported in the literature for the 6 M formic acid hydrolysis than 6 M HCI hydrolysis, especially in the tryptophan recovery as standard amino acid recovery. Butylthiocarbamyl - trimethylsilyl (BTC - TMS) derivatives of 22 standard amino acids were successfully resolved DB-17 capillary column. Excellent reproducibility of standard amino acid recovery and composition of bovine serum albumin were obtained with BTC-TMS derivatives.

Measurement of Autoignition Temperature of n-Propanol and Formic acid System (n-Propanol과 Formic acid계의 최소자연발화온도의 측정)

  • Cho, Young-Se;Ha, Dong-Myeong
    • Fire Science and Engineering
    • /
    • v.27 no.5
    • /
    • pp.64-69
    • /
    • 2013
  • The autoignition temperatures (AITs) of solvent mixture was important index for the safe handling of flammable liquids which constitute the solvent mixtures. This study measured the AITs and ignition delay time for n-propanol and formic acid system by using ASTM E659 apparatus. The AITs of n-Propanol and Formic acid which constituted binary system were $435^{\circ}C$ and $498^{\circ}C$, respectively. The experimental AITs of n-propanol and formic acid system were a good agreement with the calculated AITs by the proposed equations with a few A.A.D. (average absolute deviation). And n- Propanol and formic acid system was shown the minimum autoignition temperature behavior (MAITB).

Effect of Formic Acid Addition on the Quality of Barley Silage in Accordance with Growth Stage (Formic Acid 첨가가 보리의 생육단계별 Silage 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 박남배;곽종형;고영두
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.4 no.3
    • /
    • pp.214-219
    • /
    • 1984
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of formic acid addition(0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% levels) and wilt on the quality of barley silage in accordance with growth stage, and pH and organic acid content were also analyzed. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. In the chemical composition of raw barley, moisture, crude protein and crude fat were decreased with advancing the maturity, but crude fiber and NFE were reversely increased. The water soluble carbohydrate content was 12.7% in the milky stage and was the highest among growth stages. It was also decreased with advancing the maturity. 2. The crude protein content of barley silage was increased by addition of formic acid and wilt treatment. ADF and NDF content were increased with advancing the maturity. ADF content was decreased in proportion to addition of formic acid. 3. pH tended to a little increase with advancing the maturity and was a little low by increasing the level of formic acid. The lactic acid content was the highest in the milky stage and in the 0.6% formic acid addition. Based on the above results, it would be suggested that the superior quality of barley can be produced from the heading stage to the milky stage from 0.4% to 0.6% in the level of formic acid for the making of barley silage.

  • PDF

Experimental Determination of Closed Cup Flash Point of Binary Flammable Solutions, 2-Propanol+Propionic acid and n-Hexanol+Formic Acid Solutions (가연성 이성분계 용액인 2-Propanol+Propionic acid 와 n-Hexanol+Formic acid 용액의 밀폐식 인화점의 실험적 결정)

  • Ha, Dong-Myeong;Lee, Sungjin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
    • /
    • v.19 no.3
    • /
    • pp.18-24
    • /
    • 2015
  • The flash point is one of the most important indicators of the flammabiliy of liquid solutions. The flash point is the lowest temperature at which there is enough concentration of flammable vapor to form an ignitable mixture with air. In this study the flash points of binary flammable solutions, 2-propanol+propionic acid and n-hexanol+formic acid systems, were measured using Seta flash closed cup tester. Particularly n-hexanol+formic acid system exhibited minimum flash point behavior. The measured values were compared with the calculated values using Raoult's law and optimization method. The calculated data by optimization method described the measured values more effectively than those calculated by Raoult's law.

Using Varying Levels of Formic Acid to Limit Growth of Salmonella gallinarum in Contaminated Broiler Feed

  • Al-Natour, Mohammad Q.;Alshawabkeh, Khalil M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.18 no.3
    • /
    • pp.390-395
    • /
    • 2005
  • Reported here are the effects of added formic acid on inhibitory effect of Salmonella gallinarum in poultry feed. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the viability of S. gallinarum and pH of poultry feed using different dietary formic acid levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) on inhibitory effect of S. gallinarum in broiler feed. Experiment one was conducted to investigate the viability of S. gallinarum and pH of artificially contaminated diet at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after treatment in vitro. Formic acid showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the viability for all treatments with time after treatment. Various formic acid levels in vitro showed a reduction in the pH of the diet depending upon the concentration of treated acid, and the diet remained acidic below the growth range of S. gallinarum. This meant that the bacterial cells were exposed to stressful conditions that made them unable to grow. Experiment two was conducted to find out the effect of dietary formic acid levels on S. gallinarum colonization and pH in the contents of crop, small intestine, large intestine and ceca and mortality rate of broiler chicks at 7, 14 and 21 days of age when fed artificially contaminated diet with S. gallinarum. The numbers of S. gallinarum re-isolated from all treated groups except in groups treated with 0.5% formic acid, decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared with the control group. The treatment significantly (p<0.05) lowered the pH of the crop, small intestine, large intestine and ceca contents in all groups except the groups treated with 0.5% formic acid compared with the control. All treated groups showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in overall mortality rate during the experimental period (3 to 21 days) compared with the control. The results indicate that addition of formic acid in a total concentration of 1.5% to the diet of newly hatched broiler chicks significantly decreases the contamination of diet with S. gallinarum.

Pretreatment on Corn Stover with Low Concentration of Formic Acid

  • Xu, Jian;Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard;Thomsen, Anne Belinda
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.19 no.8
    • /
    • pp.845-850
    • /
    • 2009
  • Bioethanol derived from lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to replace gasoline. Cellulose is naturally recalcitrant to enzymatic attack, and it also surrounded by the matrix of xylan and lignin, which enhances the recalcitrance. Therefore, lignocellulosic materials must be pretreated to make the cellulose easily degraded into sugars and further fermented to ethanol. In this work, hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover at $195^{\circ}C$ for 15 min with and without lower concentration of formic acid was compared in terms of sugar recoveries and ethanol fermentation. For pretreatment with formic acid, the overall glucan recovery was 89% and pretreatment without formic acid yielded the recovery of 94%. Compared with glucan, xylan was more sensitive to the pretreatment condition. The lowest xylan recovery of 55% was obtained after pretreatment with formic acid and the highest of 75% found following pretreatment without formic acid. Toxicity tests of liquor parts showed that there were no inhibitions found for both pretreatment conditions. After simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the pretreated corn stover with Baker's yeast, the highest ethanol yield of 76.5% of the theoretical was observed from corn stover pretreated at $195^{\circ}C$ for 15 min with formic acid.

Proteomic Evaluation of Cellular Responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Formic Acid Stress

  • Lee, Sung-Eun;Park, Byeoung-Soo;Yoon, Jeong-Jun
    • Mycobiology
    • /
    • v.38 no.4
    • /
    • pp.302-309
    • /
    • 2010
  • Formic acid is a representative carboxylic acid that inhibits bacterial cell growth, and thus it is generally considered to constitute an obstacle to the reuse of renewable biomass. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to elucidate changes in protein levels in response to formic acid. Fifty-seven differentially expressed proteins in response to formic acid toxicity in S. cerevisiae were identified by 1D-PAGE and nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) analyses. Among the 28 proteins increased in expression, four were involved in the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway and one in the oxidative stress-induced pathway. A dramatic increase was observed in the number of ion transporters related to maintenance of acid-base balance. Regarding the 29 proteins decreased in expression, they were found to participate in transcription during cell division. Heat shock protein 70, glutathione reductase, and cytochrome c oxidase were measured by LC-MS/MS analysis. Taken together, the inhibitory action of formic acid on S. cerevisiae cells might disrupt the acidbase balance across the cell membrane and generate oxidative stress, leading to repressed cell division and death. S. cerevisiae also induced expression of ion transporters, which may be required to maintain the acid-base balance when yeast cells are exposed to high concentrations of formic acid in growth medium.

Esophageal Stricture and Acute Renal Failure after Formic Acid Poisoning: - A Case Report - (식도협착과 급성신부전이 합병된 개미산 중독 1례)

  • Song, Kyung-Il
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
    • /
    • v.7 no.1
    • /
    • pp.32-37
    • /
    • 2009
  • Formic acid or formate is a common industrial compound used in the production of ensilage, disinfectants, decalcifying agents and mainly as a precursor in industrial chemical synthesis. It is also a well-known toxic metabolite produced in methanol poisoning. Thus, formate is a potential source of both accidental and deliberate poisoning. Very few reports have been published thus far, on the toxicology of direct formic acid poisoning. Here, we report a case of a 74-year-old man without a history of depression, who ingested about 30 gm of formic acid. The patient presented with profound high anion gap metabolic acidosis, acute renal failure and esophageal stricture. The patient was successfully treated with hemodialysis and supportive measures. But permanent esophageal stricture was complicated by formic acid burns in the gastrointestinal tract. We discuss the pathophysiology and treatment of this case.

  • PDF