Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the importance and priority arising from the relationship between MRO-office supplies franchisor ("franchisor") and franchisees through an in-depth investigation. In particular, with respect to the MRO-Office franchise industry, we would like to make meaningful contributions in the decision-making process by comparing and contrasting factors that affect the importance and priority of communication, conflict, support and satisfaction through AHP analysis. Research design, data, and methodology: After completion of AHP analysis, the study will also identify factors in order of priority and factors of importance between the franchisor and franchisees. Another purpose of this study is to evaluate and propose business relationship strategies between the franchisor and franchisees. Through AHP analysis, this study will facilitate the relationship between the franchisor and franchise, and determine the factors of importance and factors in order of priority. Result: This study evaluates the differences and priorities of the two groups arising from the relationship between the franchisor and the franchisees through AHP analysis after separately analyzing the franchisor. In this study, the franchisees find that communication is the most important factor, then support as the second most important factor between the two groups. In contrast, the franchisor finds that support is the most important factor followed by communication between the two groups. Conclusions: This analysis demonstrates the discrepancy in evaluating important factors from the perspectives of the franchisor and the franchisees. The largest discrepancy between the franchisor and franchisees comes from an information system related to communication factors. This effectively means that the franchisor has an understanding of this inadequate information system on the part of franchisees but this understanding is not deemed an important factor. The franchisees recognize and focus on the need to obtain feedback from the franchisor regarding management improvement as the most important factor rather than the ability of the franchisor to guide them through the franchisees' operations. To this end, the franchisor should be more flexible in dealing with the problem of improving the work required by the franchisees. For this study, a survey was conducted on employees of MRO-office supplies franchisor, franchisees, and employees and completed based on AHP analysis.
Purpose - Nowadays, more than ever before, fierce competition, deep market segmentation, short product life cycles, and intensifying customer needs are putting increasing pressure on franchise's organizations to satisfy their customers by creating market-oriented relationships with and enhancing their market knowledge of them. One way that this might be achieved is by establishing deep ties (i.e., job commitment and job satisfaction) with their employees. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine how two important constructs of franchises' strategic efforts, LO (learning orientation) and RMO (relationship marketing orientation), affect job satisfaction, given the mediating role of job commitment. A franchise system comprises a set of contractual arrangements by which mutual obligations are performed. An organizational learning goal motivates employees to improve their abilities and master the tasks they perform. Relationship marketing, in addition, is to identify, establish, maintain, and enhance relationships with customers and other stakeholders to ensure that the objectives of all parties are met and this is done through the mutual exchange of promises. In a relationship marketing orientation, then, a firm creates, maintains, and enhances a strong relationship with its customers by sustaining long-term ties. This study was designed to examine the evolution of various theoretical approaches to franchise systems in order to determine whether theories about firms have significantly affected the franchise system. To this end, the authors developed a structural model consisting of several constructs. Previous studies have suggested that franchises' learning and relationship marketing orientations are important occupational immersion dimensions driving job satisfaction. Research design, data, methodology - We empirically tested a process of how the learning orientation and the relationship marketing orientation influence job commitment and job satisfaction using survey data drawn from 150 responding franchisees who were interviewed about their individual tendencies. Results - The results of this study provide empirical evidence that learning orientation, relationship marketing orientation, and job commitment all influence franchisees' job satisfaction. The results of this study indicate that, first, learning orientation had a significant effect on job satisfaction; second, relationship marketing orientation was positively related to job commitment; third, job commitment had a significant effect on job satisfaction. We also found that relationship marketing orientation and job satisfaction were mediated by job commitment. Conclusions - The findings of this study confirm the importance of learning orientation and relationship marketing orientation in maintaining a positive marketing relationship between franchiser and franchisee from to the perspective of the market. This indicates that franchiser support such as educational programs provided by the franchiser will help franchisees attain higher business management achievement and satisfaction. Moreover, a positive relationship between franchisees and consumers can be maintained through tie effects. Our findings also suggest that learning orientation plays a critical role in job satisfaction within the franchise system.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
This study investigates the effects of franchisors' characteristics including brand reputation, training and product related support, franchisees' characteristics including store location and management on the performance and recontract intention of franchisees in bakery franchise industry. Also, this study examine the moderating effect of CEO experience of franchisees among the franchisors' and franchisees' characteristics, and performance. To empirically test these relationships, data were collected from 386 respondents who are franchisees in the bakery franchise sector. In the verification of hypotheses, the structure equation modeling(SEM) is used. The results of this study are as follows. First, franchisors' brand reputation, training support, and franchisees' locational factor have significant effects on the financial performance of franchisees positively. However, franchisors' product related support and franchisees' management of the store have not significant effects on the performance. Second, the performance of franchisees has positive effect on the recontract intention. Third, the moderating effect of CEO experience is only significant in the relationship between franchisors' training support and the performance. Based on the findings, this study suggest the importance of building a good brand image and superior training system for franchisors to improve mutual ongoing growth. Also, franchisors should determine whether nascent franchisee entrepreneurs have CEO experiences to further improve performance. If they do not have related experiences, both opening and ongoing training supports of franchisors and the efforts of franchisees towards learning are required. Finally, this study suggest that both franchisors and franchisees should accurately analyze the conditions of possible locations and establish strategies to select beneficial location before starting a franchise business.
Chae H. S.;Yoo Y. M.;Ahn C. N.;Ham J. S.;Jeong S. G.;Lee J. M.;Choi Y. I.
Korean Journal of Poultry Science
This study was conducted to establish a comprehensive guideline for grading system of poultry meat cuts. Slaughter and further processed houses were divided into large(>70,000 heads/day), middle($50,000\~25,000$ heads/day), and small scale(<25,000 heads/day), and the production managers were asked by the Questionnaire. Most poultry meat cuts produced by larger- and middle-slaughter house were consumed by dealers, franchisee and department store in increasing order, whereas further processed poultry meat cuts(small scale) provided meals for the students in the high amount. The packaging step was best f3r the determination of grading in the large slaughter house. This survey indicated that two or more grades were proper to determine the grading in the middle slaughter house, however only two grades were proper for the others. Freshness, bruise, wound, trimming and the inclusion of foreign materials affected to the grading. Poultry meat cuts were accepted for the grading in large-slaughter house, but whole poultry carcass was accepted for the grading in the others. Most managers agreed with that the grading system was only applied for the amounts requested. They also suggested that the grading system of poultry meat cuts were necessary in near future, even though it was not urgent to apply.
Chi, I hyun;Han, Kyu won;Choi, Yae jin;Son, Jeong Sook;Kim, Ji-Hern
The Korean Journal of Franchise Management
This research was conducted on the purpose of seeking the measures of how to cope with the changing industry of Topokki franchises. Despite of the fact the number of Kukdae Topokki's stores is quite smaller than that of its competitors, such as Jaws Topokki and Addal Topokki, Kukdae Topokki is recognized as one of the front-runners in the industry. But the competition in the topokki industry has become fiercer, as the market became saturated. To find a desirable solutions, this study analyzes past-to-current status of the Topokki industry by dividing it into 4 stages and provides few strategies that Kukdae Topokki can apply to the 4th stage where 'brand awareness' is very important. To this end, few drawbacks of Kukdae Topokki are proposed as the following. First, the brand image that Kukdae Topokki pursue does not correspondent with the image in consumer's mind. Second, Kukdae Topokki has selected the wrong targeting group. It aims for the image of 'retro' to target people in their 30-40s. However, most of the consumers are people in their 20-30s. Third, the taste of Kukdae Topokki is not uniform among franchises. Fourth, the awareness and accessability are low. To provide a proactive actions for the next stages, several solutions are proposed as following. First, By managing consistent Kukdae Topokki's Brand Touch point, consumers may have a strong image on the brand by communicating with consumers consistently at all touch points. Second, instead of the existing guide from the head office(franchiser), a standardized criteria for the usage of materials and periodical education for franchisee are needed. Third, to raise the awareness of Kukdae Topokki, open many branches in the area where the main consumers(20-30s women) are mostly spread out.
Franchising is one of the fastest growing types of business. It is already popular and well-known in the U.S., and has been growing in many other countries including Korea. Furthermore, many Korean franchising companies have expanded their business overseas actively. According to the data by the Ministry of Industry and Resource, 82 companies out of a sample of 500 franchising companies are already operating in many foreign countries and 48% of them have started their foreign business since 2006. This clearly indicates the fast growing current trend of foreign operation by Korean franchising companies. In spite of the fast growing trend of foreign expansion in the industry, academic research on internationalization of franchising companies is extremely difficult to find. Accordingly, academic research on the issue is necessary and urgent in Korea. Among the various research questions on internationalization of franchising business, this study intends to investigate the difference in organizational factors between the franchising companies doing foreign operation and those doing business only domestically. More specifically, this research has the following purposes. First, considering the lack of theoretical basis of previous studies, resource-based theory and agency theory are employed as the theoretical bases. Second, this study explains the difference in internationalization based on organizational factors such as company size, history and growth rate. Third, the five hypotheses regarding the difference in organizational factors are presented and tested empirically, which is the first attempt in the area of this topic. Finally, the study attempts to clarify the conflicting implications among theories regarding some organizational factos such as growth rate. As the theoretical background, resource-based theory and agency theory are discussed. According to resource-based theory, a firm can grow continuously when it has competence and resource, and also the ability to develop them. The competence and resource can include capital, human resource, management skill, market information, ability to manage risk, etc. Meanwhile, agency theory views the relationship between franchisor and franchisee as an agency relationship. In agency theory, bonding capability and monitoring capability are the two key factors which promote internationalization of franchising companies. Based on the two theories, a conceptual model is designed. The model consists of two groups of variables. One is organizational factors including size, history, growth rate, price bonding and geographic dispersion. The other is whether a franchising company is operating overseas or not. We developed the following five research hypotheses basically describing the relationship between organizational factors and internationalization of franchising companies. H1: The size of franchising companies operating overseas is larger than that of franchising companies operating domestically. H2: The history of franchising companies operating overseas is longer than that of franchising companies operating domestically. H3: The growth rate of franchising companies operating overseas is higher than that of franchising companies operating domestically. H4: The price bonding of franchising companies operating overseas is higher than that of franchising companies operating domestically. H5: The geographic dispersion of franchising companies operating overseas is wider than that of franchising companies operating domestically. Data for the analyses are obtained from 2005 Korea Franchise Survey data co-generated by Ministry of Industry and Resource, GS1 Korea, and Korea Franchise Association. Out of 2,804 population companies, 2,489 companies are excluded for various reasons and 315 companies are selected as the final sample. Prior to hypotheses tests, validity and reliability of the measures of size, history, growth rate and price bonding are examined for further analyses. Geographic dispersion is not validated since it is measured using nominal data. A series of independent sample T-tests is used to find out whether there exists any significant difference between the companies internationalized and those operating only domestically for each organizational factor. Among the five factors, size and geographic dispersion show significant difference, growth rate and price bonding do not reveal any difference and, finally, history factor shows conflicting results in the difference depending on how to measure it.
shows the summary statistics for hypotheses testing. In conclusion, the results show that the size and history, which are the key variables in resource-based theory, have a significant relationship with internationalization and that geographic area, which belongs to agency theory, also has a strong relationship with internationalization. The results support the findings of extant research and, therefore, prove the usefulness of resource-based theory and agency theory in explaining internationalization of franchising companies. However, growth rate and price-bonding do not show a clear difference between the two types of companies. Accordingly, these two factors need further attention in the future research. Although this study shows meaningful findings theoretically and practically, it has several limitations. First, only organizational factors are considered even if there are various environmental factors influencing franchising firm's internationalization. Second, only being internationalized or not is considered. That is, modes of entry and the size of foreign operations are not included in the study. Third, internationalization strategy is often determined based on the desire for business expansion and higher profitability and egoistical reasons of the CEOs. However, this type of factors belonging to behavioral science is not discussed in the study. Finally, organizational ecology perspective is usefully applicable in explaining the survival and performance of internationally operating companies. Accordingly, research propositions based on this perspective need to be developed and tested.
A franchise system develops competitive products for a franchise store through the system established by the franchise head office. Therefore, it has advantages of expanding the marketing effect since the risk of failure is reduced for a founder and the franchise head office supports the overall sales, advertisement and promotional activities. Also, a franchise store has advantages of fulfilling necessary facilities and tools on advantageous terms, reducing expenses by purchasing in bulk, and getting a supply of products with stable qualities. However, aside from such advantages, franchise head offices are forcing franchise stores to make unnecessary investments in equipments and remodel the interior. Also, franchise business operators are being made to share the cost of marketing and multiple franchise stores are being approved within the same business district, and franchise business operators are suffering damages. Therefore, cases of shutting down a franchise store or not renewing the contract are frequent. From the position of a franchise head office, profits that are generated from franchise fees, interior remodeling fees and supplying facilities and materials will increase as the number of new franchise stores increases. However, franchise stores are faced with difficulties due to excessive competitions between similar types of businesses and the overlapping of business districts that come from increases in the number of stores, and they eventually end up shutting down. Therefore, in order for a franchise business operator and franchise head office to grow and develop continuously, opening new stores is important, but successfully renewing the contract by maintaining a relationship with an existing franchise business operator is desirable. In this aspect, a study that examines the elements that can affect the relationship between a franchise business operator and franchise head office is believed to be important for the development of the franchise industry and creating safe jobs for the public. With an emphasis on the relationship between a franchise head office and franchise store, this study attempted to examine the effect of characteristics of a franchise head office and franchise business operator on the bilateral relationship such as the faith and immersion, and wished to review the effects of such faith and immersion on the satisfaction of a franchise store, including an intention of renewing the contract. In particular, in the current situation of great uncertainties in the market, this study also wished to examine how uncertain market elements will affect the relationship between the characteristics of a franchise head office and franchise business operator, and the faith and immersion. The study revealed that among the characteristics of a franchise head office, the standardization management of a franchise head office hinders a franchise store's faith and immersion in a franchise head office. Also, a franchise head office's support was shown to increase a franchise store's faith and immersion. However, it was revealed that a franchise head office's regulation and incentive policies for a franchise store do not affect a franchise store's faith and immersion. Among characteristics of a franchise business operator, a franchise store's healthy financial status and entrepreneur spirits were shown to enhance the faith and immersion in a franchise head office. However, it was shown that excellent business abilities of a franchise business operator actually reduce the immersion for a franchise head office. Also, the faith and immersion in a franchise head office were shown to enhance the intention of renewing the contract by increasing the satisfaction for a franchise head office. In addition, it was originally believed that the effects of a franchise business operator's characteristics on the faith and immersion in a franchise head office will vary depending on the market uncertainty, but the effect of a franchise business operator's characteristics depending on the recognition of uncertainties was shown to be insignificant. Such findings show that instead of making a franchise store pay for equipment investments and marketing and obtaining profits by force, a franchise head office should actively support a franchise store so that a franchise store's business activities can be conducted well, which will bring profits to a franchise store and ultimately to a franchise head office. This is a more desirable direction for the development of both parties. Implications of such findings are summarized as follows. First, it was shown that a franchise head office's standardization management actually reduces a franchise store's faith and immersion. Therefore, it is believed that instead of conducting standardization managements for regulating and managing franchise stores, measures should be developed so that franchise stores can actually participate voluntarily. For this, a head office should put in efforts to develop and provide standardized manuals, and make sure that a self-review system takes root. Second, a franchise head office's incentives did not have significant effects on the faith and immersion, but the support was shown to be effective. Therefore, it can be seen that instead of taking post-measures for a franchise store, taking pre-measures of actively supporting is more effective in maintaining a franchise store. Third, among characteristics of a franchise head office, it was shown that a franchise store's healthy financial status increased the faith and immersion in a franchise head office. Therefore, when selecting a franchise business operator, instead of thoughtlessly opening up franchise stores for the profit of a head office, it is believed that reviewing a franchise business operator's financial firepower and credit status is necessary. As for academic implications, previous studies examined the relationship by focusing on the characteristics of a franchise head office and franchise store, but this study focused on the characteristics of a franchise business operator. Therefore, this study dealt with the importance of a franchise business operator's competence, and is significant because it revealed the fact that a franchise business operator's excellent commercialization ability can become an element that hinders the immersion in a franchise head office. It was originally believed that a franchise store's characteristics will have different effects on the faith and immersion depending on the market uncertainty, but it was shown that the effect of a franchise store's characteristics depending on the recognition of uncertainties was insignificant, and that is the limitation of this study.
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