• Title/Summary/Keyword: Franchisee

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A Study on the Effect of Delivery App Usage Properties of Food service Franchisee on the Satisfaction, Business Performance and Intention of Reusing

  • Song, Ji-Hyun;Jo, Gye-Beom
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.25 no.12
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    • pp.305-313
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    • 2020
  • In this paper, We Propose a ways how franchise service of delivery app should be made by analyzing the effect of delivery app usage properties of food service franchisee on satisfaction, business performance and intention of reusing, and suggest support plan of delivery app for franchise by food service franchisee. This study conducted survey on 212 franchises that have experience using delivery app among food service franchisees. To verify the hypothesis of the study, single regression and multiple regression analysis were conducted for verifying the relationship between variables. Key results of the study are as follows. First, it was found that the delivery app usage properties of food service franchisee had a positive relationship with satisfaction. Second, it was found that the delivery app usage properties of food service franchisee had positive relationship with business performance. Third, the satisfaction was found to affect business performance. Fourth, it was found that the satisfaction didn't affect the intention of reusing, and business performance was found to have a positive effect on the intention of reusing. It is necessary to increase the satisfaction of using of franchises through continuous management and reasonable pricing policies, and the headquarter of franchisee should be able to contribute to energetic sales of franchises through effective cooperation with delivery app companies.

The Effects of Fast-Food Franchisor's Proactiveness, Innovation, Risk-taking on Affective Commitment, Franchisee's External Representation and Service Delivery (프랜차이즈 본사의 기업가 지향성이 본사와 가맹점 간의 정서적 결속과 가맹점의 외부대표와 서비스이행에 미치는 영향: 패스트푸드를 중심으로)

  • Hong, Hee-Jeong;Ha, Dong-Hyun
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.191-209
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to identify whether franchisee-perceived franchisor's proactiveness, innovativeness and risk-taking affect franchisee-perceived affective commitment with franchisor, and the affective commitment affects franchisee-perceived external representation and service delivery. Based on total 280 samples obtained from owners or managers of franchise fast-food restaurants in located in Yeongnam province, the research findings are as follows. Firstly, the innovativeness and risk-taking positively affect the affective commitment. Secondly, the affective commitment positively affects external representation and service delivery. But proactiveness does not affect the affective commitment significantly. These findings imply that firstly, franchisor should investigate consumer trends periodically and develop new successful menus and services more than competitors do, and implement new marketing techniques innovatively towards these menus and services. Secondly, franchisor had better adopt high return/risk strategies because of deepened competition and do bold decisions of price change etc. Also, in order to increase proactiveness, franchisor needs to launch new menus and services earlier than competitors and occupy market in advance, which strengthens affective commitment with franchisees. Thirdly, in order to increase affective commitment with franchisees, franchisor needs to match franchisor's value with franchisee's value and same value means same objective. Lastly, limitations and further research directions are also discussed.

The Effects of Goal Incongruity between Franchisor and Franchisee on Regulatory Focus, Performance, and Opportunism of Franchisee (프랜차이즈 본부와 가맹점 간 목표불일치가 가맹점의 조절초점, 성과, 그리고 기회주의에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Byong-Kwan Steven;Oh, Sejo;Kim, Sang-Duck
    • Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.39-47
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    • 2014
  • Purpose - The ultimate goal of a franchise system comes from its win-win strategy. Agency theory uses goal incongruity to examine complex contracting problems between buyers and suppliers. Goal incongruity within a contractual relationship can be defined as the agent's desire not to cooperate. It is the degree to which the contractual terms do not satisfy the agent's goals. The greater the goal incongruity between the agent and the contract, the more likely it is that the agent will meet the terms of the contract. Thus, goal incongruity between buyers and suppliers has close relationships with both behavioral and financial performance. This study tries to examine these relationships in the franchise context using a model including related variables, such as regulatory foci, financial performance, and opportunism, to explain the reasons that not all franchisees perform their best. In particular, the study examines the effects of goal incongruity on regulatory focus, and the effects of regulatory focus on performance and opportunism. In short, the objective is to determine goal incongruity's effect on regulatory foci, and the effect of regulatory focus on performance and opportunism. Research design, data, and methodology - This study used data collected from the franchisee managers of 104 franchisors in South Korea. The franchisors include more than 10 franchisees, the majority of whom have been in business for more than five years. The study also surveyed 104 franchisees, matched with their franchisors for the sake of a dyadic approach. The study used regression analysis to test the hypotheses. Results - H1 and H2 predicted that goal incongruity would decrease promotion focus and increase prevention focus. Supporting H1, the result indicates goal incongruity had a positive effect on promotion focus. However, H2 was not supported. Goal incongruity had no significant effect on prevention focus (β = -.375, t = -4.331 and β = -.145, t = -1.950, respectively). H3 and H4 predicted that promotion focus would increase financial performance and decrease opportunism. Supporting these hypotheses, the results indicate that promotion focus had a positive effect on financial performance and a negative effect on opportunism (β = .771, t = 7.899 and β = -.765, t = -6.778, respectively). H5 and H6 predicted that prevention focus would decrease financial performance and increase opportunism. However, the results do not support these hypotheses. The results indicate that prevention focus had no effects on opportunism or financial performance (β = -.130, t = -1.070 and β = .090, t = .641, respectively). Overall, the evidence generally supported the hypotheses. Conclusion - Goal incongruity between a franchisor and a franchisee increases the franchisee's financial performance and opportunism, and the relationship is mediated by promotion focus. Interestingly, however, prevention focus has no mediating effect between goal incongruity and performance. Even though no significant relation exists between goal incongruity and prevention focus, the results have two implications. First, decreasing goal incongruity can improve financial performance and suppress franchisee opportunism. Second, the relationship between goal incongruity and performance affects promotion-focused franchisees.

Impacts of Economic Satisfaction and Social Satisfaction of Franchisee on Commitment and Loyalty to Franchisor (가맹점의 경제적 만족과 사회적 만족이 몰입과 충성도에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Ho-Seok
    • The Korean Journal of Franchise Management
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.21-31
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    • 2018
  • Purpose - Recently, the franchise business has made remarkable progress, but many conflicts have occurred. From this perspective, this paper explains how to improve the long - term relationship between franchisor and franchisee by integrating the relationship between franchisor of franchise business and franchisee. This study aims to identify the franchisee's economic and social satisfaction and to examine their influences on calculative and affective commitment, and loyalty. At the end of this paper, theoretical and managerial implication were suggested. Research design, data, and methodology - The data were collected from owners and store managers in franchisees located in Seoul, Korea. The trained researchers contacted owners and managers of the franchise stores. The questionaires were distributed to owners and managers consented to respond. The collected questionnaires were used for the final analysis of 324 copies(243 store owners and 81 store managers), except for 26 copies of the untrustworthy response out of 350 copies. The data were analyzed with SPSS, 21.0 and SmartPls 3.0 Result - The results of the study are as follows. First, economic satisfaction effects both calculative and affective commitment, but social satisfaction does not. Second, both calculative and affective commitment have positive effects on loyalty. Third, economic satisfaction has a positive impact on loyalty, but social satisfaction does not. Conclusions - The implications of this study are following as: From the theoretical perspective, this study analyze the satisfaction and commitment of the franchisee from the multidimensional perspective by analyzing the effects of the franchisee on two dimensions of economic and social satisfaction and on calculative and affective commitment. That is, this study explains the trade-off between economica and social satisfaction, and between calculative and affective commitment. From the managerial perspective, the results of this study suggest that the economic satisfaction of the franchise headquarters felt by franchisees should be prioritized over social satisfaction. Especially at the early stage of the contract, economic satisfaction should be given priority over social satisfaction. However, since affective and calculative commitment have a significant effect on loyalty, social satisfaction factors should not be excluded by focusing on only economic ones. In other words, the franchisors should not only think of franchisees as a source of sales and profits, but should respect franchisees and maintain loyal relationships with friends.

A Study on Mediating Effects of the Dimension of Justice in the Influence of Relational Norm to Commitment (프랜차이즈산업에서 관계규범이 결속에 미치는 영향에 있어서 공정성 차원의 매개효과에 관한 연구)

  • Shen, Feng-Hua;Oh, Se-Jo;Jung, Yeon-Sung
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.1-27
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    • 2008
  • In a power-asymmetry relationship like franchise system, a high dependent franchisee must often rely on its powerful partner. Therefore, in order to build up 'win-win' systems, therefore channel members should increase trust and commitment each other to enhance the relationship quality to sustain long-term cooperative relationships. First of all, to increase the relationship quality in franchise system, franchisor should increase franchisee's perception of the powerful franchisor's justice. The point of this research, I established basic hypotheses and comparative hypotheses to examine franchisor's behavior what franchisee expected which influences on franchisee's attitude and behavior in power - asymmetry relationship in franchise system. For the purpose of the empirical testing, managers of franchisee in the food service industry of Korea had been selected and analyzed, and major findings in this study as follow: First, the relational norm between franchisor and franchisee increased both distributive justice and procedural justice, especially relational norm had more effect on procedural justice than distributive justice. Second, distributive justice increased both economic commitment and social commitment while procedural justice just increased social commitment only but economic commitment. So, on the relational commitment, distributive justice was more important element than procedural justice. On the other hand, procedural justice had indirect effect on economic commitment through distributive and social commitment.

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An Empirical Study on B2B Governance Mechanisms and Relationship Outcomes in Franchise Systems (B2B 거래관계에서 통제메커니즘과 관계성과에 대한 연구 : 프랜차이즈 채널을 중심으로)

  • Yi, Ho-Taek
    • Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 2018
  • Purpose - The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of ex ante governance mechanisms that can be exercised by franchisers on franchise contract compliance and various relationship outcomes. There are many previous studies on control mechanisms in inter-firm relationship, however, most studies focus on ex post governance mechanisms and identify the effects of behavior control and outcome control on performances. Based on transaction cost theory and agency theory, this study defines the ex ante governance mechanisms of franchisers as contractual completeness and extra contractual incentives. The author have examined the two ex ante control mechanisms on contract compliance, recontract intention, multi-shop running intention and opportunistic behaviors of franchisee. Research design, data, and methodology - In this study, 137 questionnaires of food and beverage franchise stores were collected through a specialized research company. The reliability and validity of the variables were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0 programs and hypotheses were verified through the structural equation modeling. Results - As a result of hypothesis testing, contractual completeness and extra contractual incentives have a positive effect on the contract compliance of the franchisee. It is shown that franchisee's contract compliance has a positive effect on recontract intention and multi-shop running intention and has a negative effect on opportunistic behaviors. Conclusions - This study examines the ex ante governance mechanisms such as contractual completeness and extra contractual incentives, which is relatively rare compared to ex post governance mechanism in B2B relationship. According to the results of this research, these two tools can be used as ex ante control mechanisms for franchise headquarters to use their franchisees. In addition, franchisee's contract compliance affects various relationship outcomes between franchisor and franchisees.

A Case Study on "Control" of the Franchisor (가맹본부의 통제의무에 관한 판례연구)

  • Min, Joo-hee
    • Korea Trade Review
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2017
  • This study focuses on the recent case held as to control in franchising. On the basis of analysis of the recent case, it examines the validity of the decision and suggests practical advice. The extensive judicial precedent has held that the franchisor and the franchisee possess the independent contractor relationship. But Williams v. Jani-king of Philadelphia Inc. suggest the conversion of the franchisee's status to an employees instead of an independent contractor. Franchisees allege that they were wrongly classified as independent contractors instead of employees because Jani-King had the ability to control the manner in which franchisees perform their day-to-day tasks. The appeal court held that Pennsylvania law does not distinguish between controls put in place to protect a franchise's intellectual property and controls for other purposes, and a franchisee may be an employee or an independent contractor depending on the nature of the franchise system controls. However, some degree of controls by the franchisor over the franchisee is inherent in the franchise and may even be mandated by the federal and state laws. Moreover, the appeal court affirmed that the franchise agreement, policies manual, and training manual alone could be sufficient to resolve the employment status. But it seems appropriate that the right to control on the documents is considered with the actual control.

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Franchisees' Entrepreneurship and Business Performance (프랜차이즈 가맹점주의 기업가정신과 성과)

  • Jeon, Yoonchul;Choo, Seungyoup;Limb, Seong-Joon
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.408-420
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    • 2017
  • A franchisee owner, as an entrepreneur who is independent from a franchisor, has the greatest influence on the success of franchisee business. The effect of the franchisees' entrepreneurship on their performance can be different from that of self-employed business owners, due to the fundamental nature that the franchisor and franchisees share a standardized operation and business risks. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to demonstrate whether or not the relationship between the entrepreneurship and the performance, which has been popularized in general, is displayed in franchised stores as well. The current study analyzed the influence of innovativeness, risk-taking, and proactiveness on franchisees' performance based on the samples from 109 Small Size Educational Services franchisees. The results show that the franchisees' proactiveness is the only variable that affects the performance while the effect of the other variables was not significant. These results make implications that, for their business success, franchisee owners should be proactive in their target market, without compromising the quality of franchisor's standardized products and services by being innovative and risk-tolerant.

The Effect of Franchisors' Gapjil on Economic Satisfaction, Social Satisfaction, and Recontract Intention

  • HUR, Soon-Beom;LEE, Yong-Ki
    • The Korean Journal of Franchise Management
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.35-49
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    • 2021
  • Purpose: The major objective of this study is to develop a model for the impact of franchisors' Gapjil (verbal·nonverbal Gapjil, abusing bargaining position, refusing transaction, false or exaggerated information, restrictive practices, unfair damage compensation) on franchisee's recontract intention. We also examine the mediating role of economic satisfaction and social satisfaction in the relationship between franchisors' Gapjil and franchisee's contract intention. Research design, data, and methodology: Data were collected from franchisee owners located nationwide in Korea. Out of 256 questionaires distributed, a total of 256 questionnaires were returned. After excluding 10 invalid respondent questionnaires, we coded and analyzed 246 valid questionnaires (effective response rate of 96.09%) using frequency, confirmatory factor analysis, correlations analysis, and structural equation modeling with SPSS 22.O and SmartPLS 3.0. Results: The findings of this study are summarized as follows: First, among the Gapjil of the franchisors, restrictive practices and unfair damage compensation had negative effects on economic and social satisfaction, but verbal and nonverbal Gapjil for economic and social satisfaction was not significant. Second, abusing bargaining positions and false or exaggerated information had negative effects on social satisfaction, but for economic satisfaction, found to be insignificant. Third, economic and social satisfaction had positive effects on the franchisee's recontract intention to the franchisor. Conclusion: The following implications of this study are as follows. First, the construct of Gapjil that occurs between the franchisors and the franchisees was first presented, and the franchisors' Gapjil is divided into interpersonal Gapjil and structural Gapjil. Second, the Gapjil of the franchisors can be an important predictor variable in maintaining and developing a long-term relationship between the franchisors and the franchisees. Third, solving conflict due to the Gapjil problem between franchisors and franchisees can be an important factor for franchisors and franchisees to co-survive and thrive in Korean franchise system. Fourth, this study suggest that managing the Gapjil of the franchisors was a important antecedent factor in maintaining long-term relationship between the franchisors and the franchisees. Therefore, this study will help franchisors formulate effective symbiotic marketing strategies to satisfy relationships with franchisees and consequently enhance long-term orientation.

Conflicts between Protected Franchise Territory and Unrestricted Delivery Trading Area

  • LEE, Soo-Duck
    • The Korean Journal of Franchise Management
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.45-60
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    • 2020
  • Propose: The expansion of the delivery market in franchise business is a positive means of advertising and promotion for franchisees and contributes to substantial sales growth for stores. However, unrestricted and uncontrolled delivery sales and business activity of franchisee directly lead to encroachment of business territory between franchisees, resulting in increased operating costs of franchisees and conflicts between franchisees over rights and interests on franchise business. Moreover, in relation to the restrictions on the opening of competitors, it is incapacitating the law intent of prohibiting unfair encroachment of business territory, in the issue of the Fair Franchise Act in regard to guarantee of exclusive sales and business activity rights of franchisee. This study aims to point out major problems arising out of franchisee's infinite competition on delivery sales and business activity that are not restricted or controlled and then suggest legal supplements, policy tasks, and practical implications for improvement on the issues. Literature Review: In franchising business transactions, vertical restraints are associated with the exclusive territory establishment, control of transaction area, restriction of intangible sales and business activity of franchisee. Therefore, in the franchise business, it is necessary to take positive interpretation and application on e-commerce, the area of e-commerce, and delivery trading area and find proper and practical ways, by virtue of constructive attitude of each actor, to reduce the encroachment of business territory and various conflicts caused by unrestricted delivery trading area. Conclusion and suggestion: The finding shows that unrestricted or uncontrolled delivery sales and business activity of franchisees cause encroachment of business territory and many conflicts among franchisees. And this matters also weaken the legislation of the law on the protection of the business territory and can be negative factors that disrupt the protection of identity and sound development of the franchise industry in the long run. Therefore, in the franchise business, it is necessary to take positive interpretation and application on e-commerce, the area of e-commerce, and delivery trading area and find proper and practical ways, by virtue of constructive attitude of each actor, to reduce the encroachment of business territory and various conflicts caused by unrestricted delivery trading area.