Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
In this paper, We Propose a ways how franchise service of delivery app should be made by analyzing the effect of delivery app usage properties of food service franchisee on satisfaction, business performance and intention of reusing, and suggest support plan of delivery app for franchise by food service franchisee. This study conducted survey on 212 franchises that have experience using delivery app among food service franchisees. To verify the hypothesis of the study, single regression and multiple regression analysis were conducted for verifying the relationship between variables. Key results of the study are as follows. First, it was found that the delivery app usage properties of food service franchisee had a positive relationship with satisfaction. Second, it was found that the delivery app usage properties of food service franchisee had positive relationship with business performance. Third, the satisfaction was found to affect business performance. Fourth, it was found that the satisfaction didn't affect the intention of reusing, and business performance was found to have a positive effect on the intention of reusing. It is necessary to increase the satisfaction of using of franchises through continuous management and reasonable pricing policies, and the headquarter of franchisee should be able to contribute to energetic sales of franchises through effective cooperation with delivery app companies.
The purpose of this study is to identify whether franchisee-perceived franchisor's proactiveness, innovativeness and risk-taking affect franchisee-perceived affective commitment with franchisor, and the affective commitment affects franchisee-perceived external representation and service delivery. Based on total 280 samples obtained from owners or managers of franchise fast-food restaurants in located in Yeongnam province, the research findings are as follows. Firstly, the innovativeness and risk-taking positively affect the affective commitment. Secondly, the affective commitment positively affects external representation and service delivery. But proactiveness does not affect the affective commitment significantly. These findings imply that firstly, franchisor should investigate consumer trends periodically and develop new successful menus and services more than competitors do, and implement new marketing techniques innovatively towards these menus and services. Secondly, franchisor had better adopt high return/risk strategies because of deepened competition and do bold decisions of price change etc. Also, in order to increase proactiveness, franchisor needs to launch new menus and services earlier than competitors and occupy market in advance, which strengthens affective commitment with franchisees. Thirdly, in order to increase affective commitment with franchisees, franchisor needs to match franchisor's value with franchisee's value and same value means same objective. Lastly, limitations and further research directions are also discussed.
Purpose - The ultimate goal of a franchise system comes from its win-win strategy. Agency theory uses goal incongruity to examine complex contracting problems between buyers and suppliers. Goal incongruity within a contractual relationship can be defined as the agent's desire not to cooperate. It is the degree to which the contractual terms do not satisfy the agent's goals. The greater the goal incongruity between the agent and the contract, the more likely it is that the agent will meet the terms of the contract. Thus, goal incongruity between buyers and suppliers has close relationships with both behavioral and financial performance. This study tries to examine these relationships in the franchise context using a model including related variables, such as regulatory foci, financial performance, and opportunism, to explain the reasons that not all franchisees perform their best. In particular, the study examines the effects of goal incongruity on regulatory focus, and the effects of regulatory focus on performance and opportunism. In short, the objective is to determine goal incongruity's effect on regulatory foci, and the effect of regulatory focus on performance and opportunism. Research design, data, and methodology - This study used data collected from the franchisee managers of 104 franchisors in South Korea. The franchisors include more than 10 franchisees, the majority of whom have been in business for more than five years. The study also surveyed 104 franchisees, matched with their franchisors for the sake of a dyadic approach. The study used regression analysis to test the hypotheses. Results - H1 and H2 predicted that goal incongruity would decrease promotion focus and increase prevention focus. Supporting H1, the result indicates goal incongruity had a positive effect on promotion focus. However, H2 was not supported. Goal incongruity had no significant effect on prevention focus (β = -.375, t = -4.331 and β = -.145, t = -1.950, respectively). H3 and H4 predicted that promotion focus would increase financial performance and decrease opportunism. Supporting these hypotheses, the results indicate that promotion focus had a positive effect on financial performance and a negative effect on opportunism (β = .771, t = 7.899 and β = -.765, t = -6.778, respectively). H5 and H6 predicted that prevention focus would decrease financial performance and increase opportunism. However, the results do not support these hypotheses. The results indicate that prevention focus had no effects on opportunism or financial performance (β = -.130, t = -1.070 and β = .090, t = .641, respectively). Overall, the evidence generally supported the hypotheses. Conclusion - Goal incongruity between a franchisor and a franchisee increases the franchisee's financial performance and opportunism, and the relationship is mediated by promotion focus. Interestingly, however, prevention focus has no mediating effect between goal incongruity and performance. Even though no significant relation exists between goal incongruity and prevention focus, the results have two implications. First, decreasing goal incongruity can improve financial performance and suppress franchisee opportunism. Second, the relationship between goal incongruity and performance affects promotion-focused franchisees.
Purpose - Recently, the franchise business has made remarkable progress, but many conflicts have occurred. From this perspective, this paper explains how to improve the long - term relationship between franchisor and franchisee by integrating the relationship between franchisor of franchise business and franchisee. This study aims to identify the franchisee's economic and social satisfaction and to examine their influences on calculative and affective commitment, and loyalty. At the end of this paper, theoretical and managerial implication were suggested. Research design, data, and methodology - The data were collected from owners and store managers in franchisees located in Seoul, Korea. The trained researchers contacted owners and managers of the franchise stores. The questionaires were distributed to owners and managers consented to respond. The collected questionnaires were used for the final analysis of 324 copies(243 store owners and 81 store managers), except for 26 copies of the untrustworthy response out of 350 copies. The data were analyzed with SPSS, 21.0 and SmartPls 3.0 Result - The results of the study are as follows. First, economic satisfaction effects both calculative and affective commitment, but social satisfaction does not. Second, both calculative and affective commitment have positive effects on loyalty. Third, economic satisfaction has a positive impact on loyalty, but social satisfaction does not. Conclusions - The implications of this study are following as: From the theoretical perspective, this study analyze the satisfaction and commitment of the franchisee from the multidimensional perspective by analyzing the effects of the franchisee on two dimensions of economic and social satisfaction and on calculative and affective commitment. That is, this study explains the trade-off between economica and social satisfaction, and between calculative and affective commitment. From the managerial perspective, the results of this study suggest that the economic satisfaction of the franchise headquarters felt by franchisees should be prioritized over social satisfaction. Especially at the early stage of the contract, economic satisfaction should be given priority over social satisfaction. However, since affective and calculative commitment have a significant effect on loyalty, social satisfaction factors should not be excluded by focusing on only economic ones. In other words, the franchisors should not only think of franchisees as a source of sales and profits, but should respect franchisees and maintain loyal relationships with friends.
In a power-asymmetry relationship like franchise system, a high dependent franchisee must often rely on its powerful partner. Therefore, in order to build up 'win-win' systems, therefore channel members should increase trust and commitment each other to enhance the relationship quality to sustain long-term cooperative relationships. First of all, to increase the relationship quality in franchise system, franchisor should increase franchisee's perception of the powerful franchisor's justice. The point of this research, I established basic hypotheses and comparative hypotheses to examine franchisor's behavior what franchisee expected which influences on franchisee's attitude and behavior in power - asymmetry relationship in franchise system. For the purpose of the empirical testing, managers of franchisee in the food service industry of Korea had been selected and analyzed, and major findings in this study as follow: First, the relational norm between franchisor and franchisee increased both distributive justice and procedural justice, especially relational norm had more effect on procedural justice than distributive justice. Second, distributive justice increased both economic commitment and social commitment while procedural justice just increased social commitment only but economic commitment. So, on the relational commitment, distributive justice was more important element than procedural justice. On the other hand, procedural justice had indirect effect on economic commitment through distributive and social commitment.
Purpose - The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of ex ante governance mechanisms that can be exercised by franchisers on franchise contract compliance and various relationship outcomes. There are many previous studies on control mechanisms in inter-firm relationship, however, most studies focus on ex post governance mechanisms and identify the effects of behavior control and outcome control on performances. Based on transaction cost theory and agency theory, this study defines the ex ante governance mechanisms of franchisers as contractual completeness and extra contractual incentives. The author have examined the two ex ante control mechanisms on contract compliance, recontract intention, multi-shop running intention and opportunistic behaviors of franchisee. Research design, data, and methodology - In this study, 137 questionnaires of food and beverage franchise stores were collected through a specialized research company. The reliability and validity of the variables were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0 programs and hypotheses were verified through the structural equation modeling. Results - As a result of hypothesis testing, contractual completeness and extra contractual incentives have a positive effect on the contract compliance of the franchisee. It is shown that franchisee's contract compliance has a positive effect on recontract intention and multi-shop running intention and has a negative effect on opportunistic behaviors. Conclusions - This study examines the ex ante governance mechanisms such as contractual completeness and extra contractual incentives, which is relatively rare compared to ex post governance mechanism in B2B relationship. According to the results of this research, these two tools can be used as ex ante control mechanisms for franchise headquarters to use their franchisees. In addition, franchisee's contract compliance affects various relationship outcomes between franchisor and franchisees.
This study focuses on the recent case held as to control in franchising. On the basis of analysis of the recent case, it examines the validity of the decision and suggests practical advice. The extensive judicial precedent has held that the franchisor and the franchisee possess the independent contractor relationship. But Williams v. Jani-king of Philadelphia Inc. suggest the conversion of the franchisee's status to an employees instead of an independent contractor. Franchisees allege that they were wrongly classified as independent contractors instead of employees because Jani-King had the ability to control the manner in which franchisees perform their day-to-day tasks. The appeal court held that Pennsylvania law does not distinguish between controls put in place to protect a franchise's intellectual property and controls for other purposes, and a franchisee may be an employee or an independent contractor depending on the nature of the franchise system controls. However, some degree of controls by the franchisor over the franchisee is inherent in the franchise and may even be mandated by the federal and state laws. Moreover, the appeal court affirmed that the franchise agreement, policies manual, and training manual alone could be sufficient to resolve the employment status. But it seems appropriate that the right to control on the documents is considered with the actual control.
A franchisee owner, as an entrepreneur who is independent from a franchisor, has the greatest influence on the success of franchisee business. The effect of the franchisees' entrepreneurship on their performance can be different from that of self-employed business owners, due to the fundamental nature that the franchisor and franchisees share a standardized operation and business risks. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to demonstrate whether or not the relationship between the entrepreneurship and the performance, which has been popularized in general, is displayed in franchised stores as well. The current study analyzed the influence of innovativeness, risk-taking, and proactiveness on franchisees' performance based on the samples from 109 Small Size Educational Services franchisees. The results show that the franchisees' proactiveness is the only variable that affects the performance while the effect of the other variables was not significant. These results make implications that, for their business success, franchisee owners should be proactive in their target market, without compromising the quality of franchisor's standardized products and services by being innovative and risk-tolerant.
Purpose: The major objective of this study is to develop a model for the impact of franchisors' Gapjil (verbal·nonverbal Gapjil, abusing bargaining position, refusing transaction, false or exaggerated information, restrictive practices, unfair damage compensation) on franchisee's recontract intention. We also examine the mediating role of economic satisfaction and social satisfaction in the relationship between franchisors' Gapjil and franchisee's contract intention. Research design, data, and methodology: Data were collected from franchisee owners located nationwide in Korea. Out of 256 questionaires distributed, a total of 256 questionnaires were returned. After excluding 10 invalid respondent questionnaires, we coded and analyzed 246 valid questionnaires (effective response rate of 96.09%) using frequency, confirmatory factor analysis, correlations analysis, and structural equation modeling with SPSS 22.O and SmartPLS 3.0. Results: The findings of this study are summarized as follows: First, among the Gapjil of the franchisors, restrictive practices and unfair damage compensation had negative effects on economic and social satisfaction, but verbal and nonverbal Gapjil for economic and social satisfaction was not significant. Second, abusing bargaining positions and false or exaggerated information had negative effects on social satisfaction, but for economic satisfaction, found to be insignificant. Third, economic and social satisfaction had positive effects on the franchisee's recontract intention to the franchisor. Conclusion: The following implications of this study are as follows. First, the construct of Gapjil that occurs between the franchisors and the franchisees was first presented, and the franchisors' Gapjil is divided into interpersonal Gapjil and structural Gapjil. Second, the Gapjil of the franchisors can be an important predictor variable in maintaining and developing a long-term relationship between the franchisors and the franchisees. Third, solving conflict due to the Gapjil problem between franchisors and franchisees can be an important factor for franchisors and franchisees to co-survive and thrive in Korean franchise system. Fourth, this study suggest that managing the Gapjil of the franchisors was a important antecedent factor in maintaining long-term relationship between the franchisors and the franchisees. Therefore, this study will help franchisors formulate effective symbiotic marketing strategies to satisfy relationships with franchisees and consequently enhance long-term orientation.
Propose: The expansion of the delivery market in franchise business is a positive means of advertising and promotion for franchisees and contributes to substantial sales growth for stores. However, unrestricted and uncontrolled delivery sales and business activity of franchisee directly lead to encroachment of business territory between franchisees, resulting in increased operating costs of franchisees and conflicts between franchisees over rights and interests on franchise business. Moreover, in relation to the restrictions on the opening of competitors, it is incapacitating the law intent of prohibiting unfair encroachment of business territory, in the issue of the Fair Franchise Act in regard to guarantee of exclusive sales and business activity rights of franchisee. This study aims to point out major problems arising out of franchisee's infinite competition on delivery sales and business activity that are not restricted or controlled and then suggest legal supplements, policy tasks, and practical implications for improvement on the issues. Literature Review: In franchising business transactions, vertical restraints are associated with the exclusive territory establishment, control of transaction area, restriction of intangible sales and business activity of franchisee. Therefore, in the franchise business, it is necessary to take positive interpretation and application on e-commerce, the area of e-commerce, and delivery trading area and find proper and practical ways, by virtue of constructive attitude of each actor, to reduce the encroachment of business territory and various conflicts caused by unrestricted delivery trading area. Conclusion and suggestion: The finding shows that unrestricted or uncontrolled delivery sales and business activity of franchisees cause encroachment of business territory and many conflicts among franchisees. And this matters also weaken the legislation of the law on the protection of the business territory and can be negative factors that disrupt the protection of identity and sound development of the franchise industry in the long run. Therefore, in the franchise business, it is necessary to take positive interpretation and application on e-commerce, the area of e-commerce, and delivery trading area and find proper and practical ways, by virtue of constructive attitude of each actor, to reduce the encroachment of business territory and various conflicts caused by unrestricted delivery trading area.
본 웹사이트에 게시된 이메일 주소가 전자우편 수집 프로그램이나
그 밖의 기술적 장치를 이용하여 무단으로 수집되는 것을 거부하며,
이를 위반시 정보통신망법에 의해 형사 처벌됨을 유념하시기 바랍니다.
[게시일 2004년 10월 1일]
제 1 장 총칙
제 1 조 (목적)
이 이용약관은 KoreaScience 홈페이지(이하 “당 사이트”)에서 제공하는 인터넷 서비스(이하 '서비스')의 가입조건 및 이용에 관한 제반 사항과 기타 필요한 사항을 구체적으로 규정함을 목적으로 합니다.
제 2 조 (용어의 정의)
① "이용자"라 함은 당 사이트에 접속하여 이 약관에 따라 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스를 받는 회원 및 비회원을
② "회원"이라 함은 서비스를 이용하기 위하여 당 사이트에 개인정보를 제공하여 아이디(ID)와 비밀번호를 부여
받은 자를 말합니다.
③ "회원 아이디(ID)"라 함은 회원의 식별 및 서비스 이용을 위하여 자신이 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을
④ "비밀번호(패스워드)"라 함은 회원이 자신의 비밀보호를 위하여 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을 말합니다.
제 3 조 (이용약관의 효력 및 변경)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트에 게시하거나 기타의 방법으로 회원에게 공지함으로써 효력이 발생합니다.
② 당 사이트는 이 약관을 개정할 경우에 적용일자 및 개정사유를 명시하여 현행 약관과 함께 당 사이트의
초기화면에 그 적용일자 7일 이전부터 적용일자 전일까지 공지합니다. 다만, 회원에게 불리하게 약관내용을
변경하는 경우에는 최소한 30일 이상의 사전 유예기간을 두고 공지합니다. 이 경우 당 사이트는 개정 전
내용과 개정 후 내용을 명확하게 비교하여 이용자가 알기 쉽도록 표시합니다.
제 4 조(약관 외 준칙)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스에 관한 이용안내와 함께 적용됩니다.
② 이 약관에 명시되지 아니한 사항은 관계법령의 규정이 적용됩니다.
제 2 장 이용계약의 체결
제 5 조 (이용계약의 성립 등)
① 이용계약은 이용고객이 당 사이트가 정한 약관에 「동의합니다」를 선택하고, 당 사이트가 정한
온라인신청양식을 작성하여 서비스 이용을 신청한 후, 당 사이트가 이를 승낙함으로써 성립합니다.
② 제1항의 승낙은 당 사이트가 제공하는 과학기술정보검색, 맞춤정보, 서지정보 등 다른 서비스의 이용승낙을
제 6 조 (회원가입)
서비스를 이용하고자 하는 고객은 당 사이트에서 정한 회원가입양식에 개인정보를 기재하여 가입을 하여야 합니다.
제 7 조 (개인정보의 보호 및 사용)
당 사이트는 관계법령이 정하는 바에 따라 회원 등록정보를 포함한 회원의 개인정보를 보호하기 위해 노력합니다. 회원 개인정보의 보호 및 사용에 대해서는 관련법령 및 당 사이트의 개인정보 보호정책이 적용됩니다.
제 8 조 (이용 신청의 승낙과 제한)
① 당 사이트는 제6조의 규정에 의한 이용신청고객에 대하여 서비스 이용을 승낙합니다.
② 당 사이트는 아래사항에 해당하는 경우에 대해서 승낙하지 아니 합니다.
- 이용계약 신청서의 내용을 허위로 기재한 경우
- 기타 규정한 제반사항을 위반하며 신청하는 경우
제 9 조 (회원 ID 부여 및 변경 등)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객에 대하여 약관에 정하는 바에 따라 자신이 선정한 회원 ID를 부여합니다.
② 회원 ID는 원칙적으로 변경이 불가하며 부득이한 사유로 인하여 변경 하고자 하는 경우에는 해당 ID를
해지하고 재가입해야 합니다.
③ 기타 회원 개인정보 관리 및 변경 등에 관한 사항은 서비스별 안내에 정하는 바에 의합니다.
제 3 장 계약 당사자의 의무
제 10 조 (KISTI의 의무)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객이 희망한 서비스 제공 개시일에 특별한 사정이 없는 한 서비스를 이용할 수 있도록
② 당 사이트는 개인정보 보호를 위해 보안시스템을 구축하며 개인정보 보호정책을 공시하고 준수합니다.
③ 당 사이트는 회원으로부터 제기되는 의견이나 불만이 정당하다고 객관적으로 인정될 경우에는 적절한 절차를
거쳐 즉시 처리하여야 합니다. 다만, 즉시 처리가 곤란한 경우는 회원에게 그 사유와 처리일정을 통보하여야
제 11 조 (회원의 의무)
① 이용자는 회원가입 신청 또는 회원정보 변경 시 실명으로 모든 사항을 사실에 근거하여 작성하여야 하며,
허위 또는 타인의 정보를 등록할 경우 일체의 권리를 주장할 수 없습니다.
② 당 사이트가 관계법령 및 개인정보 보호정책에 의거하여 그 책임을 지는 경우를 제외하고 회원에게 부여된
ID의 비밀번호 관리소홀, 부정사용에 의하여 발생하는 모든 결과에 대한 책임은 회원에게 있습니다.
③ 회원은 당 사이트 및 제 3자의 지적 재산권을 침해해서는 안 됩니다.
제 4 장 서비스의 이용
제 12 조 (서비스 이용 시간)
① 서비스 이용은 당 사이트의 업무상 또는 기술상 특별한 지장이 없는 한 연중무휴, 1일 24시간 운영을
원칙으로 합니다. 단, 당 사이트는 시스템 정기점검, 증설 및 교체를 위해 당 사이트가 정한 날이나 시간에
서비스를 일시 중단할 수 있으며, 예정되어 있는 작업으로 인한 서비스 일시중단은 당 사이트 홈페이지를
통해 사전에 공지합니다.
② 당 사이트는 서비스를 특정범위로 분할하여 각 범위별로 이용가능시간을 별도로 지정할 수 있습니다. 다만
이 경우 그 내용을 공지합니다.
제 13 조 (홈페이지 저작권)
① NDSL에서 제공하는 모든 저작물의 저작권은 원저작자에게 있으며, KISTI는 복제/배포/전송권을 확보하고
② NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 상업적 및 기타 영리목적으로 복제/배포/전송할 경우 사전에 KISTI의 허락을
③ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 보도, 비평, 교육, 연구 등을 위하여 정당한 범위 안에서 공정한 관행에
합치되게 인용할 수 있습니다.
④ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 무단 복제, 전송, 배포 기타 저작권법에 위반되는 방법으로 이용할 경우
저작권법 제136조에 따라 5년 이하의 징역 또는 5천만 원 이하의 벌금에 처해질 수 있습니다.
제 14 조 (유료서비스)
① 당 사이트 및 협력기관이 정한 유료서비스(원문복사 등)는 별도로 정해진 바에 따르며, 변경사항은 시행 전에
당 사이트 홈페이지를 통하여 회원에게 공지합니다.
② 유료서비스를 이용하려는 회원은 정해진 요금체계에 따라 요금을 납부해야 합니다.
제 5 장 계약 해지 및 이용 제한
제 15 조 (계약 해지)
회원이 이용계약을 해지하고자 하는 때에는 [가입해지] 메뉴를 이용해 직접 해지해야 합니다.
제 16 조 (서비스 이용제한)
① 당 사이트는 회원이 서비스 이용내용에 있어서 본 약관 제 11조 내용을 위반하거나, 다음 각 호에 해당하는
경우 서비스 이용을 제한할 수 있습니다.
- 2년 이상 서비스를 이용한 적이 없는 경우
- 기타 정상적인 서비스 운영에 방해가 될 경우
② 상기 이용제한 규정에 따라 서비스를 이용하는 회원에게 서비스 이용에 대하여 별도 공지 없이 서비스 이용의
일시정지, 이용계약 해지 할 수 있습니다.
제 17 조 (전자우편주소 수집 금지)
회원은 전자우편주소 추출기 등을 이용하여 전자우편주소를 수집 또는 제3자에게 제공할 수 없습니다.
제 6 장 손해배상 및 기타사항
제 18 조 (손해배상)
당 사이트는 무료로 제공되는 서비스와 관련하여 회원에게 어떠한 손해가 발생하더라도 당 사이트가 고의 또는 과실로 인한 손해발생을 제외하고는 이에 대하여 책임을 부담하지 아니합니다.
제 19 조 (관할 법원)
서비스 이용으로 발생한 분쟁에 대해 소송이 제기되는 경우 민사 소송법상의 관할 법원에 제기합니다.
1. (시행일) 이 약관은 2016년 9월 5일부터 적용되며, 종전 약관은 본 약관으로 대체되며, 개정된 약관의 적용일 이전 가입자도 개정된 약관의 적용을 받습니다.