• Title, Summary, Keyword: Frequency Auditory Feedback

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Stuttering Reduction Rate during Sentence Reading: Choral Speech and Altered Auditory Feedback (문장읽기에서의 말더듬 감소율: 합독과 변조청각피드백)

  • Park, Jin;Park, Heeyoung
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.109-115
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    • 2012
  • This paper mainly aims to investigate how differently choral speech and altered auditory feedback (i.e., delayed auditory feedback, frequency-altered feedback) enhance speech fluency during sentence reading. To do this, a stuttering reduction rate was used and measured how much stuttering in frequency was reduced during each of the fluency enhancing conditions (i.e, typical choral reading, DAF, FAF) relative to typical solo reading. The results showed that stuttering frequency was reduced in the three fluency enhancing conditions and the highest mean value in stuttering reduction rate was observed during typical choral reading. Some discussion was provided in relation to the stuttering reduction rate observed during typical choral reading and its further speculation.

A Study on Characteristics of the Stuttering according to Auditory Feedback Types (주파수 청각 피드백(FAF)에 따른 말더듬 특성 연구)

  • Chang, Hyun-Jin;Shin, Myung-Sun
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.9 no.12
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    • pp.940-947
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    • 2009
  • The study aims at investigating frequency of the stuttering of stutterers according to FAF pitch alternation level, examining a stuttering group. The study has collected spoken language samples by making each 10 people of a stuttering group carry out a reading and monologue task using NAF and FAF. The results of this study were as follows. In stuttering frequency, both reading and monologue task, there was significant difference of stuttering frequency according NAF and FAF pitch alternation level. But, There was significant difference of stuttering frequency according FAF pitch alternation level. NAF levels than FAF on type of stuttering decreased at the level of all the core behavior. The decrease was a lot of block, core behavior has changed as often repeated.

Clinical utility of auditory perceptual assessments in the discrimination of a diplophonic voice (이중음성 판별에 있어 청지각적 평가의 임상적 유용성)

  • Bae, Inho;Kwon, Soonbok
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.75-81
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    • 2018
  • Diplophonia is generally defined as the perception of more than one fundamental frequency component in a voice. Its perceptual aspect has traditionally been used to evaluate diplophonia because the perceptions can be easily evaluated, but there are limitations in the validity of the reliability of the intra- and inter-raters, examination situation, and variation of voice sample. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to confirm the reliability and accuracy of auditory perceptual evaluation by comparing non-invasive indirect assessment methods (sound waveform and EGG analysis), and to identify their usefulness with diplophonia. A total of 28 diplophonic voices and 39 non-periodic voices were assessed. Three raters assessed the diplophonia by performing an auditory perception evaluation and identifying the quasi-periodic perturbations of the acoustic waveform and EGG. Among the three discrimination methods, intra- and inter-rater reliability, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were examined, and the McNemar test was performed to compare the discriminant agreement. The accuracy of the auditory perceptual evaluation (86.57%) was not significantly different from that of sound waveform acoustic (88.06%), but it was significantly different from that of EGG (83.33%). The reading time (6.02 s) for the auditory perceptual evaluation was significantly different from that for sound waveform analysis (30.15 s) and EGG analysis (16.41 s). In the discrimination of diplophonia, auditory perceptual evaluation has sufficient reliability and accuracy as compared to sound waveform and EGG. Since immediate feedback is possible, auditory perceptual evaluation is more convenient. Therefore, it can continue to be used as a tool to discriminate diplophonia in clinical practice.

An Experimental Study of Comfortable Pitch and Loudness with Target Matching: Effects on Electroglottographic and Acoustic Measures

  • Choi, Seong Hee
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.139-146
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    • 2012
  • This study was designed to examine comfort levels of pitch and loudness with target matching and their effects on electroglottographic (EGG) and acoustic measures. Twelve speakers, six males and six females, were instructed to produce /a/ sustained vowel for three seconds at a comfortable pitch and loudness level without any instruction and with a target matching procedure of either a certain f0 or SPL separately with visual and auditory feedback. The range of pitch for females and males were presented by progressing up and down randomly at intervals of 5Hz from 150 Hz to 310 Hz (total 33 frequency targets) and from 85 Hz to 190 Hz (total 22 frequency targets), respectively. The loudness levels were 65, 75, 85, 95 dB (total of four intensity targets) for both males and females. Subjective estimations of comfortable levels were obtained using a 10-point equal-appearing interval rating scale following each phonation. The results showed that males and females demonstrated similar trends in loudness levels with greatest comfort at 75 dB, whereas pitch comfort ratings showed a greater variability with females having a wider range with target matching. In the comfort levels of individuals, most male and female speakers rated higher comfort at soft, rather than loud phonations. On the other hand, most male speakers perceived highest comfort levels below the comfort pitch levels they phonated under natural conditions. Higher frequency ranges, however, were perceived to be more comfortable than those of natural condition in most female speakers, although the comfortable pitch levels in spontaneous phonations were within the comfort level ranges determined by targeted phonations. When comparing acoustic (%jitter, %shimmer, SNR) and EGG measures (CQ%) between spontaneous comfortable phonations and targeted phonations produced by the same subject at similar f0 and intensity, no significant differences were observed (p>0.05). Thus, target matching procedures may be considered a compatible and alternative method to reduce the variability of comfortable pitch and loudness levels by eliciting consistent comfortable phonations.

The Effect of Graded Exercise-Induced Fatigue on Position Sense of the Knee (근피로를 유발하는 운동강도 변화가 슬관절의 위치감각 인지에 미치는 영향)

  • Yi, Chung-Hwi;Choi, Jong-Duk;Lee, Kang-Noh;Lee, Dong-Ryul;Choi, Jae-Myung
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.22-37
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    • 1999
  • It was recently reported that exercise-induced fatigue is related to joint position sense although some controversy remains. The purposes of this study were to examine the effect on the accuracy of reproducing the knee angles after a fatiguing isokinetic quadriceps exercise at four different levels (10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of maximal force) and to find the optimal exercise level without causing knee joint proprioception impairment. Forty healthy women, ages 19 to 27, were randomly assigned to four experimental groups. Before and after the exercise, accuracy of positioning with respect to auditory feedback for specific angles was estimated by calculating the mean errors between specific angles and reproduction angles. Fatigue was measured by EMG signals displayed by a frequency spectrum analysis during the quadriceps exercise. Results showed that there was no significant difference in accuracy of the knee joint positioning sense following the exercises in group 1, group 2, and group 3 (10%, 30%, and 50% of maximal force, respectively); the exception being group 4 (70%). Fatigue level was significantly increased in group 4 but there were no significant increases of fatigue level in group 1, group 2, or group 3. The results concluded that the optimal exercise level to acquire the therapeutic exercise effectiveness without position sense impairment was at 50% of maximal force. Further studies using large sample size and patient groups with poor knee joint proprioception would be needed to confirm this conclusion and to clarify the possibility of clinical applications.

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Development and Reliability of Intraoral Appliance for Diagnosis and Control of Bruxism (이갈이 진단 및 조절용 구내장치의 개발과 신뢰도 조사)

  • Kim, Seung-Won;Kim, Mee-Eun;Kim, Ki-Suk
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.69-77
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    • 2005
  • The purposes of this study were to develop and introduce a novel intraoral appliance for bruxism composed of power switch and biofeedback device and further to examine inter- and intra-reliability of the appliance prior to clinical tests. The newly-developed appliance consisted of detection sensors, a central processing unit (CPU), a reactor and a storage unit and a displayer. Compact-sized, waterproof switches were selected as bruxism detection sensor and any sensor activation by clenching or grinding event was processed at the CPU and transmitted, by radio wave, to the reactor and storage unit and triggered auditory or vibratory signal, subsequently producing biofeedback to the patient with bruxism. The data on bruxing event in the storage unit can be displayed on the computer, making it possible analyzing frequency, duration and nature of bruxism. Cast models were obtained from ten volunteers with normal occlusion to evaluate reliability of the appliances. For inter-operator reliability on the intraoral appliances, each operator of the two fabricated the appliance for the same subject and compared the minimal contact forces provoking auditory biofeedback reaction in vertical, lateral and central directions. Intra-operator reliability was also investigated on the appliances made by a single operator at two separate times with an interval of two days. Conclusively, the newly-developed appliance is compact and safe to use in oral circumstance and easy to make. Furthermore, it had to be proven reliability excellent enough to apply in clinical settings. Thus, it is assumed that this appliance with the processor and the storage of data and auditory or vibratory biofeedback function is available and useful to analyze and control bruxism.

Experimental Verification of Implantable Middle Ear System using the Differential Electromagnetic Type Transducer (차동 전자 트랜스듀서를 이용한 이식형 인공중이 시스템의 실험적 검증)

  • 송병섭;이기찬;원철호;박세광;이상흔;조진호
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.217-225
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    • 2002
  • The implantable middle ear(IME) system, which has good sound quality. superior sound intelligibility and wide frequency characteristics. can resolve the sound distortion and ringing effect by sound feedback at high gain operation those are the major problems of conventional hearing aid. In this paper, we have manufactured the IME system using differential electromagnetic transducer(DET) and verified the performance of the system by carrying out vibration and animal implanting experiment. The DET was manufactured using micro-machining technology and vibration experiment of the transducer was performed to inspect whether the transducer could vibrate in accordance with the applied sound signal or not. And the result of the loaded experiment using temporal bone sampled from cadaver showed that the transducer can drive the middle ear bone and transmit the signal to inner ear After the internal unit of IME system was implanted in a dog. the auditory brainstem response (ABR) test was carried out. The result of the test indicated the Proper behavior of the IME system in the living body From the results of the experiments, it is verified that the manufactured system ewll work well when it is applied to human and a basis of clinical experiment of IME system to real human hearing impaired was be arranged.