• Title, Summary, Keyword: Freund's

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Bayesian Tests for Independence and Symmetry in Freund's Bivariate Exponential Model

  • Cho, Jang-Sik;Kim, Dal-Ho;Kang, Sang-Gil
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.135-146
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    • 1999
  • In this paper, we consider the Bayesian hypotheses testing for independence and symmetry in Freund's bivariate exponential model. In Bayesian testing problem, we use the noninformative priors for parameters which are improper and are defined only up to arbitrary constants. And we use the recently proposed hypotheses testing criterion called the intrinsic Bayes factor. Also we derive the arithmetic and median intrinsic Bayes factors and use these results to analyze some data sets.

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The Effect of Angelica gigas NAKAI Pharmacopuncture at $ST_{36}$ and $BL_{23}$ on Freund's Adjuvant Arthritis in Rats (족삼리(足三里)($ST_{36}$).신수(腎兪)($BL_{23}$)에 대한 당귀약침이 Freund's Adjuvant로 유발된 백서(白鼠)의 관절염에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryu, Mi-Seon;Yun, Yeo-Choong;Kim, Jae-Hong
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate that effect of Angelica gigas NAKAI pharmacopuncture(AGN-Ph) by concentration at $ST_{36}$(足三里) and $BL_{23}$(腎兪) in Freund's adjuvant rats. Methods : The experimental model of arthritis was induced by injection of Freund's adjuvant into Sprague Dawley(SD) rats. After arthritis was induced, AGN-Ph was injected by concentration at $ST_{36}$ and $BL_{23}$ of rats every other day for 6 times. Thereafter, edema rate, body weight, IFN-${\gamma}$, TNF-${\alpha}$, hematologic assay were measured. Results : The results were as follows, 1. After 3 times AGN-Ph treatment, the mean of edema rate was significantly decreased in AGN-Ph group 3 than control group. And after 6 times AGN-Ph treatment, the mean of edema rate was significantly decreased in AGN-Ph group 1, 2, 3 than control group. 2. The mean of body weight was significantly increased in AGN-Ph group 1, 3 than control group and saline group. 3. The mean of IFN-${\gamma}$ was significantly increased in AGN-Ph group 3 than control group. 4. The mean of TNF-${\alpha}$ was significantly increased in saline group than control group. But the mean of TNF-${\alpha}$ in AGN-Ph group 2, 3 showed no significance compared with control group's. 5. In hematologic assay, levels of WBC, RBC, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit showed no significance in all groups. Conclusions : These results are suggest that the Angelica gigas NAKAI pharmacopuncture(AGN-Ph) at $ST_{36}$ and $BL_{23}$ has a suppressing inflammation effect on Freund's adjuvant arthritis in rats.

Estimation of Freund model under censored data

  • Cho, Kil-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.403-409
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    • 2012
  • We consider a life testing experiment in which several two-component shared parallel systems are put on test, and the test is terminated at a predesigned experiment time. In this thesis, the maximum likelihood estimators for parameters of Freund's bivariate exponential distribution under the system level life testing are obtained. Results of comparative studies based on Monte Carlo simulation are presented.

Effect of Strychni Semen Aqua - acupuncture in Rats with Arthritis induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant (마전자약침(馬錢子藥鍼)이 Adjuvant 관절염(關節炎)에 미치는 영향(影響)에 관한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Bae, Chul-Woo;Kim, Kee-Hyun;Hwang, Hyeun-Seo;Kim, Youn-Sub
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.217-225
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    • 2001
  • Objectives and Mtthods : In order to study on the Effect of Strychni Semen aqua-acupuncture on the arthritis induced by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant to the right posterior planta of rat's foot, rats were divided 5 groups equally, one group was not treated(Normal) and the other groups were induced arthritis by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant(Control, ST, SS, SST). Control was not treated after injecting of Freund's complete adjuvant. ST was 0.2cc Saline-injected Group at Chok-Samni(ST36) either days during 2 weeks after injecting of Freund's complete adjuvant. SS was 0.2cc Strychni Semen-subcutaneous injected group either days during 2 weeks after injecting of Freund's complete adjuvant. SST was 0.2cc Strychni Semen-injected group at Chok-Samni(ST36) either days during 2 week after injecting of Freund's complete adjuvant. And then effect of Strychni Semen aqua-acupuncture on the edema, numbers of blood WBC, platelet, hematocrit, contented quantities of total protein, albumin in rats with F.C.A were measured. Results : The following results have been obtained. 1. In effect of Strychni Semen aqua-acupuncture on plantar edema, SS showed significant decrease compared with control. 2. In effect of Strychni Semen aqua-acupuncture on WBC, SS and SST showed significant decrease compated with control. 3. In effect of Strychni Semen aqua-acupuncture on platelet, SS and SST did not show significant decrease. 4. In effect of Strychni Semen aqua-acupuncture on hematocrit, SST showed significant increase compared with control. 5. In effect of Strychni Semen aqus-acupuncture on the contents quantity of total protein and albumin, SS showed significant increase compared with control: Conclusions : Accoring to this result, Strychni Semen aqua-acupunture inserted into Chok-Samn i(ST36) appeared to have effect on Adjuvant arthritis of rats. Therefore it is oxpected that Strychni Semen aqua-acupunture may be available clinically.

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Effects of Sweet Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture and Low Level Laser Acupuncture on a Rat Model with Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced Arthritis (Sweet 봉약침과 저준위 레이저침이 Complete Freund's Adjuvant로 유발된 관절염 백서 모델에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jung Hun;Kim, Kyeong Ok;Kim, Kyeong Su;Park, Soo Yeon;Yang, Seung Joung;Choi, Chang Won;Na, Chang Su;Wei, Tung Shuen
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2015
  • Purpose : This research was conducted to investigate the effect of sweet bee venom pharmacopuncture and low level laser acupuncture on paw edema, pain index, anti-inflammatory factor, AST, ALT and complete blood cell count of a rat model with Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced arthritis. Methods : Five experimental groups were formed with each consisting of six rats: normal group, control group, sweet bee venom pharmacopuncture group, lower level laser acupuncture group, and sweet bee venom pharmacopuncture, lower level laser acupuncture group. The experimental model of arthritis was induced by two injections of Freund's adjuvant into the left knee joint of Sprague Dawley(SD) rats. The second injection of Freund's adjuvant was given ten days after the first one. Ten days later, sweet bee venom pharmacopuncture and low level laser acupuncture were administered separately or together by assigned groups at $GB_{34}$ and $GB_{39}$ of rats twice a week for a total of six times. Thereafter, edema rate, pain index, tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$, interleukin-6, aspartate aminortansferase, alanine aminotransferase and complete blood cell count were measured. Results : We noticed synergic effects of sweet bee venom pharmacopuncture and low level laser acupuncture according to the results of the paw edema and Von Frey pain index. The sweet bee venom pharmacopuncture(BVA) and sweet bee venom pharmacopuncture+ low level laser acupuncture(BVA+LLA) groups experienced a more significant effect when compared with the control group. Conclusions : These results suggest that Sweet Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture and low level laser acupuncture at GB34 and GB39 have a significant anti-inflammatory effect on Freund's adjuvant arthritis in rats.

The Effect of Swimming and Low Power Laser on the Healing of the Freund's Complete Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Rat (수영과 저출력 레이저 치료가 Freund's Complete Adjuvant 유발 흰쥐의 관절염 치유에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Mi-Hee;Kim, Jai-Young;Rho, Min-Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.47-58
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: This study was to find that what mechanism take effects that was Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Sprague-Dawley rat and then treated the swimming and low power laser. Methods: Adjuvant Induced Arthritis was induced 24 Sprague-Dawley rat by the subcutaneous injection of a 0.2ml Freund's Complete Adjuvant into the right hind paw and right knee joint. Second injection used of 0.05ml Freund's Complete Adjuvant by same method. Arthritic rat were divided 3 groups; arthritic swimming group, arthritic laser group and case control group. The author performed several experimental tests which were the hind paw thickness, step length, knee joint space, activity of enzyme. Results: Hind paw thickness decreased in swimming and laser group. Left step length and knee joint space increased in swimming and laser. Conclusion: Swimming and low power laser therapy on the Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in rats does effective for the rheumatic arthritis therapy by decrease of hind paw thickness, increase of opposite side step length, increase of activity of albumin and IgG and increase of knee joint space.

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The Effect of Swimming and Low Power Laser on the Healing of the Freund's Complete Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Rat (수영과 저출력 레이저 치료가 Freund's Complete Adjuvant 유발 흰쥐의 관절염 치유에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Mi-Hee;Rho, Min-Hee;Kim, Jai-Young
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.7-20
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: This study was to find that what mechanism take effects that was Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Sprague-Dawley rat and then treated the swimming and low power laser. Methods: Adjuvant Induced Arthritis was induced 24 Sprague-Dawley rat by the subcutaneous injection of a 0.2ml Freund's Complete Adjuvant into the right hind paw and right knee joint. Second injection used of 0.05ml Freund's Complete Adjuvant by same method. Arthritic rat were divided 3 groups; arthritic swimming group, arthritic laser group and case control group. The author performed several experimental tests which were the hind paw thickness, step length, knee joint space, activity of enzyme. Results: Hind paw thickness decreased in swimming and laser group. Left step length and knee joint space increased in swimming and laser. Conclusion: Swimming and low power laser therapy on the Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in rats does effective for the rheumatic arthritis therapy by decrease of hind paw thickness, increase of opposite side step length, increase of activity of albumin and IgG and increase of knee joint space.

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Effects of L-NAME on the Mechanical Hyperalgesia after the Development of Inflammation by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rat Paw (FCA에 의한 염증 유발 후 주입된 L-NAME이 기계적 통각과민에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Min-Kyung;Choi, Yoon;Kong, Hyun-Seok;Leem, Joong-Woo;Leem, Hang-Soo;Chung, Soo-Jin;Lee, Cheong
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.171-176
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    • 1999
  • Background: Effect of nitric oxide on the hyperalgesia induced by inflammation is controversial. From our previous experiment, NOS inhibitor, L-NAME given during the induction period decrease mechanical hyperalgesia occured by Freund's complete adjuvant induced inflammation. In addition, we attempted to analyze the effects of L-NAME on mechanical hyperalgesia after the development of inflammation by Freund's complete adjuvant in rat paw. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups; control (normal saline), and three different doses of L-NAME (0.1 mg, 1 mg, 10 mg). Inflammation was induced in rats by injecting 0.15 ml of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) intraplantarly. Rats showed typical hyperalgesia within twelve hours after injection and maintained this for about one week. Tests were done 2 days after injection of FCA. After the baseline test either L-NAME or saline was injected under light halothane anesthesia. Effect of L-NAME on hyperalgesia was assessed by measuring mechanical hyperalgesia at 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 minutes. Same experients were repeated on normal rats. Results: When injected at the site of inflammation, L-NAME caused dose dependent decrease in mechanical hyperalgesia. However, normal rats also showed increased mechanical threshold after L- NAME injection. Conclusions: Although L-NAME reduces FCA induced mechanical hyperalgesia, this result may solely be due to inhibition of nitric oxide production and need to be further determined.

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Bayesian multiple comparisons in Freund's bivariate exponential populations with type I censored data

  • Cho, Jang-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.569-574
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    • 2010
  • We consider two components system which have Freund's bivariate exponential model. In this case, Bayesian multiple comparisons procedure for failure rates is sug-gested in K Freund's bivariate exponential populations. Here we assume that the com-ponents enter the study at random over time and the analysis is carried out at some prespeci ed time. We derive fractional Bayes factor for all comparisons under non- informative priors for the parameters and calculate the posterior probabilities for all hypotheses. And we select a hypotheses which has the highest posterior probability as best model. Finally, we give a numerical examples to illustrate our procedure.

Effects of Ethanol Extract of Potato (Solanum tuberlosum) on Freund's Complete Adjuvant-induced Model of Chronic Arthritis in Mice

  • Choi, Eun-Mi;Lee, Kyung-Hee;Koo, Sung-Ja
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.228-232
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    • 2005
  • The effect of a potato ethanol extract was investigated on Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritis. The oral administration of the potato extract, at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg once a day for 21 days, significantly reduced hindpaw swelling and the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$ and IL-6). Treatment with the potato extract also decreased the plasma levels of creatinine, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol, and the activities of AST and ALT compared with those of a control group. These results suggest that the potato extract might be beneficial in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders.