• Title, Summary, Keyword: Freund's complete adjuvant(FCA)

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Effects of L-NAME on the Mechanical Hyperalgesia after the Development of Inflammation by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rat Paw (FCA에 의한 염증 유발 후 주입된 L-NAME이 기계적 통각과민에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Min-Kyung;Choi, Yoon;Kong, Hyun-Seok;Leem, Joong-Woo;Leem, Hang-Soo;Chung, Soo-Jin;Lee, Cheong
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.171-176
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    • 1999
  • Background: Effect of nitric oxide on the hyperalgesia induced by inflammation is controversial. From our previous experiment, NOS inhibitor, L-NAME given during the induction period decrease mechanical hyperalgesia occured by Freund's complete adjuvant induced inflammation. In addition, we attempted to analyze the effects of L-NAME on mechanical hyperalgesia after the development of inflammation by Freund's complete adjuvant in rat paw. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups; control (normal saline), and three different doses of L-NAME (0.1 mg, 1 mg, 10 mg). Inflammation was induced in rats by injecting 0.15 ml of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) intraplantarly. Rats showed typical hyperalgesia within twelve hours after injection and maintained this for about one week. Tests were done 2 days after injection of FCA. After the baseline test either L-NAME or saline was injected under light halothane anesthesia. Effect of L-NAME on hyperalgesia was assessed by measuring mechanical hyperalgesia at 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 minutes. Same experients were repeated on normal rats. Results: When injected at the site of inflammation, L-NAME caused dose dependent decrease in mechanical hyperalgesia. However, normal rats also showed increased mechanical threshold after L- NAME injection. Conclusions: Although L-NAME reduces FCA induced mechanical hyperalgesia, this result may solely be due to inhibition of nitric oxide production and need to be further determined.

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Effects of Ethanol Extract of Potato (Solanum tuberlosum) on Freund's Complete Adjuvant-induced Model of Chronic Arthritis in Mice

  • Choi, Eun-Mi;Lee, Kyung-Hee;Koo, Sung-Ja
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.228-232
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    • 2005
  • The effect of a potato ethanol extract was investigated on Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritis. The oral administration of the potato extract, at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg once a day for 21 days, significantly reduced hindpaw swelling and the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$ and IL-6). Treatment with the potato extract also decreased the plasma levels of creatinine, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol, and the activities of AST and ALT compared with those of a control group. These results suggest that the potato extract might be beneficial in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders.

L-NAME Inhibits Hyperalgesia Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rat Paw (L-NAME에 의한 쥐의 발바닥에서 Freund's Complete Adjuvant에 의해 유발된 통증 억제)

  • Lee, Cheong;Choi, Yoon;Song, Myung-Hee;Leem, Joong-Woo;Lee, Dong-Myung;Raja, Srinivasa N.
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.194-200
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    • 1998
  • Background: Effect of nitric oxide on the hyperalgesia induced by inflammation is controversial. We attempted to find out the peripheral effects of nitric oxide (NO) on hyperalgesia induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced inflammation. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups; control, low dose NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 500 ug), high dose L-NAME (5 mg). Inflammation was induced by injecting 0.1 ml of FCA intraplantarly, which shows typical hyperalgesia within twelve hours after injection and maintained for about one week. Drugs were injected 2 hours before, just before, and 3, 6, 9, 12 hours after the injection of FCA. Effect of L-NAME on hyperalgesia was assessed by measuring mechanical hyperalgesia and spontaneous pain for 3 days. Results: When injected at the site of inflammation, L-NAME caused dose dependent reduction of spontaneous hyperalgesia. Mechanical hyperalgesia was also reduced by high dose L-NAME (p<0.05). After systemic injection of high dose L-NAME in the back, no significant difference was noticed. Conclusions: This suggest that L-NAME reduces FCA induced hyperalgesia via peripheral action.

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Suppressing Effects of Sowhalrack-dan(Xiǎohuóluò-dān) on Freund's Complete Adjuvant Induced Arthritic Rats (Adjuvant 유발(誘發) 류마티스 관절염(關節炎)에 대한 소활락단(小活絡丹)의 억제(抑制) 효과(效果))

  • Yun, Sun-Mo;Jeong, Man-Jin;Kwon, O-Gon;Woo, Chang-Hoon;An, Hee-Duk
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.97-114
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : The object of this study is to observe the favorable anti arthritic effects of Sowhalrack-dan($Xi\check{a}ohu\acute{o}lu\grave{o}-d\bar{a}n$)(SWRD), which has been traditionally used in Korean medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis on Freund's complete adjuvant(FCA) induced arthritic Wistar rats. Methods : Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of FCA(10 mg in 1 ml paraffin oil 0.1 ml/rats). Each of 8 rats showing regular ankle circumferences per group were selected in 14 days after FCA treatment to confirm the induction of rheumatoid arthritis. 300, 150 or 75 mg/kg of SWRD was orally administered once a day for 14 days from 14 days after FCA treatments. Dexamethasone was intraperitoneally administered 15 mg/kg, once a day for 14 days from 14 days after FCA treatments. Rats were sacrificed after 14 days of continuous oral treatment of SWRD or intraperitoneal administration of dexamethasone, and changes were observed; the body weight, knee circumferences, gross arthritis score, inflammatory tissue $prostaglandin(PG)E_2$ levels and cartilage collagen, glucosaminoglycans compositions - chondroitin sulphate, heparin sulphate and hyaluronic acid in the present study. Results : As results of FCA treatment, classic rheumatoid arthritis featuring dramatical decreases on the body weights, cartilage collagen contents and bone glucosaminoglycans - chondroitin sulphate, heparin sulphate and hyaluronic acid contents. Also, it increases the knee circumferences, gross arthritis scores and inflammatory tissue $PGE_2$ levels. However, these changes from FCA induced rheumatoid arthritis were clearly reduced due to the dexamethasone and both two different dosages of SWRD, 300 and 150 mg/kg in the present study. Although FCA induced arthritis were more favorably inhibited by treatment of dexamethasone 15 mg/kg compared to SWRD 300 mg/kg, marked decreases of body weights were detected in dexamethasone 15 mg/kg treated rats. Conclusions : The results obtained in this study suggest that over 150 mg/kg of SWRD showed favorable anti-arthritic effects on the FCA induced arthritis mediated by suppression of $PGE_2$. However, detailed mechanism studies are needed with the screening of the biological active compounds in SWRD. Although FCA induced arthritis were more favorably inhibited by treatment of dexamethasone 15 mg/kg compared to SWRD 300 mg/kg, marked decreases of body weights were detected in dexamethasone 15 mg/kg treated rats, in the present study.

Therapeutic Effects of Binsosan(檳蘇散) on Adjuvant-induced Rheumatoid Rats (Freund's complete adjuvant로 유발시킨 rat 류마티스성 관절염에 대한 빈소산의 치료 효과)

  • An, Keun-Sang;Woo, Chang-Hoon;Kwon, O-Gon;An, Hee-Duk
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.115-131
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    • 2008
  • 실험목적 : 빈소산은 11가지 생약으로 구성된 복합 한약 처방으로 관절염을 포함한 다양한 염증성 질환의 치료제로 사용되어 왔으나, 관절염에 대한 직접적인 효력평가는 찾아 보기 힘들다. 따라서 본 실험에서는 빈소산 추출물이 Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)로 유발된 rat 류마티스성 관절염에 미치는 치료 효과를 dexamethasone (15mg/kg, 복강 투여) 의 효과와 비교 평가하였다. 실험방법 : 류마티스성 관절염은 FCA (10mg in 1ml paraffin oil 0.1ml/rats)를 좌측 후지에 피내 투여하여 유발하였다. 실험동물은 Wistar 랫트를 사용하였고, FCA 투여 14일 후 유사한 무릎관절 둘레를 나타내는 류마티스성 관절염 유발 rat와 정상 rat 및 실험군을 그룹당 9마리씩 나누었다. 실험동물은 100 또는 200mg/kg의 빈소산 추출물을 FCA 투여 14일 후부터 14일간 경구 투여하였으며, dexamethasone은 15mg/kg 농도로 복강 투여한 다음, 희생하여, 체중, 연골내 collagen 함량 및 chondroitin sulphate, heparin sulphate 및 hyaluronic acid와 같은 뼈내 glycosaminoglycan 함량의 변화를 각각 관찰하였다. 실험결과는 항염 효과가 이미 입증되어 있는 dexamethasone 15mg/kg 복강 투여군과 비교하였다. 결과 : FCA 투여는 현저한 체중, 연골내 collagen 함량 및 chondroitin sulphate, heparin sulphate 및 hyaluronic acid와 같은 뼈내 glycosaminoglycan 함량의 감소와 함께 유발 관절 둘레 및 조직내 prostaglandin $E_2$의 증가와 같은 전형적인 류마티스성 염증을 초래하였으나, 이러한 류마티스성 관절염 소견은 dexamethasone 및 모든 용량의 빈소산 추출물 투여에 의해 현저히 억제되었으며, 특히 빈소산 투여군에서는 투여 용량 의존적인 감소가 인정되었다. 결론 : 이상에서 빈소산 추출물은 투여 용량 의존적인 prostaglandin $E_2$ 억제를 매개하여 FCA 유발 류마티스성 관절염에 대한 치료 효과를 나타내는 것으로 관찰되었다. 따라서 새로운 관절염에 대한 치료제로서 개발 가능성이 있을 것으로 판단된다. 한편 빈소산 추출물은 주로 prostaglandin $E_2$ 억제작용에 의해 항염 효과를 나타내는 것으로 관찰되었으나, 금후 다른 작용기전에 대한 연구와 빈소산의 구성성분 중 유효 성분 규명을 위한 실험이 수행되어야 할 것으로 판단된다.

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The effects of adjuvants and vaccine against edwardsiellosis in tilapia, Oreochromis nioticus (틸라피아의 에드와드병에 대한 백신과 Adjuvant의 효과)

  • Lee, Joo-Seok;Park, Soo-Il
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.19-27
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    • 1992
  • A formalized bacterin(FKC) of Edwardsiella tarda, conjugated with/without Freund's complete adjuvant(FCA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant(FIA) and potassium aluminium sulfate(PAS), was administered by intraperitoneal injection to tilapia respectively. The tilapia were reared under indoor recirculating filter system. There were agglutinin titer increment in the tilapia which were administered not only FKC bacterin but also adjuvanted vaccines. But the producing time of the highest level of antibody in the immunized tilapia was different among vaccine preparation, i. e. FKC+FCA group and PAS+FKC group are between the 2nd and the 4th week, and FKC alone group is the 2nd week. In the challenge experiment with $2.5{\times}10^7\;CFU/ml$ or $2.5{\times}10^8\;CFU/ml$ of E. tarda T1123 to the tilapia immunized with vaccines, RPS above sixty was recorded both challenge dose in the tilapia which were 3 weeks after immunization with FKC+FCA, PAS+FKC and FKC alone, and the former dose 8 weeks after immunization with FCA+FKC and PAS+FKC. There were some resistance enhancement against E. tarda in the tilapia which were injected with adjuvant alone than that of control. As the results, the FCA or PAS adjuvanted vaccine is effective to sustain the defensible period against edwardsiellosis.

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Stimulatory Effects of Extracellular Products of Mycobacterium spp. and Various Adjuvants on Non-specific Immune Response of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis nilotica

  • Choi, Sang-Hoon;Oh, Chan-Ho
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.299-304
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    • 2000
  • In the present paper, the immunostimulatory effects of the extracellular products (ECP) from Mycobacterium spp. and various adjuvants on the non-specific immune responses of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis nilotica, were examined. Nile tilapia were immunized by injecting ECP of Mycobacterium spp. (strain TB40, TB267 or the type strain Mycobacterium marinum) into their swim bladders. A variety of adjuvants like as Freund s complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) and Titremax were similarly injected into additional groups of tilapia. The number of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)-positive cells observed in the swim bladder of the immunized fish was signigicantly increased by the fourth day post-immunization. By day 8, the numbers of NBT-positive cells were fewer in fish immunized with ECP from mycobacteria strains TB40 or TB267 than those immunized with ECP from M. marinum or fish injected with FCA or FIA. The level of Iysozyme activity detected in the serum of fish 40 alter immunization with ECP from various Mycobacterium spp. was also significantly higher than that found in the serum of the control fish. Head kidney macrophages showed enhanced reduction of NBT when cultured in vitro with 1 $\mu$ g/ml of ECP. Concentrations greater than this (10 or 100 $\mu$g/ml) were found to suppress the reduction of NBT by the macrophages. ECP from Mycobacterium spp. and the various adjuvants used in the study all appear to be good activators of the non-specific immune responses of Nile tilapia.

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Effects of Harpagophyti Radix Aqua-acupuncture in Rats with Arthritis induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant (천수근(天授根) 약침(藥鍼)이 Adjuvant 유발(誘發) 관절염(關節炎)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Yung-Tae;Kim, Kee-Hyun;Hwang, Hyeun-Seo;Kim, Youn-Sub
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 2001
  • Objectives : In order to study the effects of Harpagophyti Radix Aqua -acupuncture in rats with arthritis induced by Freund's complete adjuvant, performed several experimental items : that is edema rate, number of WBC, hemazocrit, platelet, total protein and albumin. Methods : In this study rats were divided into five groups : Normal group (non treated group), Control group (non-injected group in rats with arthritis induced by FCA), ST group (0.2cc normal Saline-injected group at right Chok-Samni(Zusanli,$ST_{36}$) once in every two days during the two weeks in rats with arthritis induced by FCA), HRS group (0.2cc Harpagophyti Radix-subcutaneous injected group once in every two days during the two weeks in rats with arthritis induced by FCA), HRST group (0.2cc Harpagophyti Radix-injected group at Chok-Samni($ST_{36}$) once in every two days during the two weeks in rats with arthritis induced by FCA). Results : 1. In the right plantar edema, HRS group showed a decrease with statistical significance on the 2 weeks and HRST group showed a decrease with statistical significance on the 1 weeks as compared with control group. 2. In the WBC, HRST group showed a meaningful decrease with statistical significance and also HRS group showed a decrease with statistical significanae as compared with control group. 3. In the platelet, HRST group showed a decrease with statistical significance as compared with control group. 4. In the hematocrit, HRS group showed a increase with statistical significance as compared with control group. 5. In the serum total protein and albumin, HRS group showed a increase with statistical significance as compared with control group. Conclusions : According to the above result, it is concluded that Harpagophyti Radix Aqua-acupuncture showed the therapeutic effect of antiinflammation in adjuvant arthritis and it is suggested that further studies and researchs for clinical use be needed.

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Experimental study of antigenicity test of Sweet Bee Venom in Guinea Pigs (기니픽을 이용한 Sweet Bee Venom의 항원성 평가)

  • Cho, Byung-Jun;Kwon, Ki-Rok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.23-32
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: This study was performed to examine the antigenic potential of pure melittin (Sweet Bee Venom - SBV) extracted from the bee venom by utilizing protein isolation method of gel filtration. Methods: All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech (Chungwon, Korea), authorized a non-clinical studies institution, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Antigenic potential of SBV was examined by active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA) and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in guinea pigs. SBV was subcutaneously administered at 0.07 and 0.28mg/kg and also as a suspension with adjuvant (Freund's complete adjuvant: FCA). Ovalbumin (OVA) as a suspension with adjuvant was used to induce positive control response ($5mg/m{\ell}$-FCA). Results: 1. In the ASA test, experimental groups showed some symptoms of anaphylaxis like piloerection, hyperpnea and staggering gait. 2. In the PCA test, low dosage group did not show any antibody responses, whereas high dosage group showed positive responses. 3. In the weight measurement and clinical observation, experimental groups didn't show any significant changes compared with control group. 4. In the autopsy of body, the abnormalities of lung were detected in the corpse. This means that the cause of death may induced anaphylactic shock. Conclusions: Above findings suggested that SBV had antigenic potential in guinea pig. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

Effects of High Frequency Electro-acupuncture ($ST_{36}$) on the Adjuvant-induced Arthritis in Rats (족삼리에 시술한 고빈도 전침자극이 류마토이드 관절염 동물모델에 미치는 영향)

  • Rho, Boo-Lae;Kim, Ee-Hwa;Lee, Eun-Yong
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.187-201
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    • 2007
  • Objectives: This study was to investigate the effect of high frequency electro-acupuncture (EA) at $ST_{36}$ acupoint on the Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritis in rats. Methods : Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of FCA into base of tail. Experimental groups were divided into 4 groups; Normal, Control, $ST_{36}$ and Non-Acupoint (NA). $ST_{36}$ group was treated by 120Hz EA at $ST_{36}$ acupoint. Body weight, paw edema volume and ankle joint thickness were measured after treatment. And we investigated the effects of 120Hz EA via WBC count, segmen neurophil, lymphocyte, PGE2 assay and NADPH-d histochemistry. Results and Conclusions : The mean of body weight and ankle joint thickness of $ST_{36}$ group was increased compared with control group. The mean of paw edema volume, WBC count, segment neutrophil and lymphocyte of were not decreased with control group. The mean of PGE2 concentration ($1,851.00{\pm}160.11$) and NADPH-d positive neurons ($13.12{\pm}1.23$) were changed significantly (p

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