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Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research: A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2014 (설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향: 2014년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Sa Ryang;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Dong-Seon;Park, Jun-Seok;Ihm, Pyeong Chan
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.380-394
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    • 2015
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2014. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) The research works on the thermal and fluid engineering have been reviewed as groups of heat and mass transfer, cooling and heating, and air-conditioning, the flow inside building rooms, and smoke control on fire. Research issues dealing with duct and pipe were reduced, but flows inside building rooms, and smoke controls were newly added in thermal and fluid engineering research area. (2) Research works on heat transfer area have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, pool boiling and condensing heat transfer and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included the results for thermal contact resistance measurement of metal interface, a fan coil with an oval-type heat exchanger, fouling characteristics of plate heat exchangers, effect of rib pitch in a two wall divergent channel, semi-empirical analysis in vertical mesoscale tubes, an integrated drying machine, microscale surface wrinkles, brazed plate heat exchangers, numerical analysis in printed circuit heat exchanger. In the area of pool boiling and condensing, non-uniform air flow, PCM applied thermal storage wall system, a new wavy cylindrical shape capsule, and HFC32/HFC152a mixtures on enhanced tubes, were actively studied. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, researches on solar water storage tank, effective design on the inserting part of refrigerator door gasket, impact of different boundary conditions in generating g-function, various construction of SCW type ground heat exchanger and a heat pump for closed cooling water heat recovery were performed. (3) In the field of refrigeration, various studies were carried out in the categories of refrigeration cycle, alternative refrigeration and modelling and controls including energy recoveries from industrial boilers and vehicles, improvement of dehumidification systems, novel defrost systems, fault diagnosis and optimum controls for heat pump systems. It is particularly notable that a substantial number of studies were dedicated for the development of air-conditioning and power recovery systems for electric vehicles in this year. (4) In building mechanical system research fields, seventeen studies were reported for achieving effective design of the mechanical systems, and also for maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. The topics of the studies included energy performance, HVAC system, ventilation, and renewable energies, piping in the buildings. Proposed designs, performance performance tests using numerical methods and experiments provide useful information and key data which can improve the energy efficiency of the buildings. (5) The field of architectural environment was mostly focused on indoor environment and building energy. The main researches of indoor environment were related to the evaluation of work noise in tunnel construction and the simulation and development of a light-shelf system. The subjects of building energy were worked on the energy saving of office building applied with window blind and phase change material(PCM), a method of existing building energy simulation using energy audit data, the estimation of thermal consumption unit of apartment building and its case studies, dynamic window performance, a writing method of energy consumption report and energy estimation of apartment building using district heating system. The remained studies were related to the improvement of architectural engineering education system for plant engineering industry, estimating cooling and heating degree days for variable base temperature, a prediction method of underground temperature, the comfort control algorithm of car air conditioner, the smoke control performance evaluation of high-rise building, evaluation of thermal energy systems of bio safety laboratory and a development of measuring device of solar heat gain coefficient of fenestration system.

Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research: A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2011 (설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향: 2011년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Han, Hwa-Taik;Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Seo-Young;Choi, Jong-Min;Paik, Yong-Kyoo;Kim, Su-Min
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.521-537
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    • 2012
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2011. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) Research trends of thermal and fluid engineering have been surveyed as groups of fluid machinery and fluid flow, thermodynamic cycle, and new and renewable energy. Various topics were presented in the field of fluid machinery and fluid flow. Research issues mainly focused on the rankine cycle in the field of thermodynamic cycle. In the new and renewable energy area, researches were presented on geothermal energy, fuel cell, biogas, reformer, solar water heating system, and metane hydration. (2) Research works on heat transfer area have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, pool boiling and condensing heat transfer, nanofluids and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included heat transfer above liquid helium surface in a cryostat, methane hydrate formation, heat and mass transfer in a liquid desiccant dehumidifier, thermoelectric air-cooling system, heat transfer in multiple slot impinging jet, and heat transfer enhancement by protrusion-in-dimples. In the area of pool boiling and condensing heat transfer, researches on pool boiling of water in low-fin and turbo-B surfaces, pool boiling of R245a, convective boiling two-phase flow in trapezoidal microchannels, condensing of FC-72 on pin-finned surfaces, and natural circulation vertical evaporator were actively performed. In the area of nanofluids, thermal characteristics of heat pipes using water-based MWCNT nanofluids and the thermal conductivity and viscosity were measured. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, researches on fin-tube heat exchangers for waste gas heat recovery and Chevron type plate heat exchanger were implemented. (3) Refrigeration systems with alternative refrigerants such as $CO_2$, hydrocarbons, and mixed refrigerants were studied. Heating performance improvement of heat pump systems were tried applying supplementary components such as a refrigerant heater or a solar collector. The effects of frost growth were studied on the operation characteristic of refrigeration systems and the energy performance of various defrost methods were evaluated. The current situation of the domestic cold storage facilities was analyzed and the future demand was predicted. (4) In building mechanical system fields, a variety of studies were conducted to achieve effective consumption of heat and maximize efficiency of heat in buildings. Various researches were performed to maximize performance of mechanical devices and optimize the operation of HVAC systems. (5) In the fields of architectural environment and energy, diverse purposes of studies were conducted such as indoor environment, building energy, and renewable energy. In particular, renewable energy and building energy-related researches have mainly been studied as reflecting the global interests. In addition, various researches have been performed for reducing cooling load in a building using spot exhaust air, natural ventilation and energy efficiency systems.

Effect of Flywheel Weight on Engine Performance for the Small Diesel Engine (Flywheel의 중량(重量)이 소형(小型) 디젤기관(機關)의 성능(性能)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Jung, Hae Kook;Kim, Sung Rai;Myung, Byung Soo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.143-152
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    • 1988
  • This study was conducted to obtain basic data which affected engine performance of the power tiller being widely used in the rural area. Among the various factors affected engine performance, only flywheel weight was considered as the major factor in this study. Fuel consumption ratio, motoring loss, torque, vibration and mechanical efficiency of the engine tested were measured and analyzed on the four levels of flywheel weight (32.2, 29.7, 26.4, 24.2 kg). The results obtained were as follows: 1. The maximum output of 6 and 7.5 kW engine was 7.43 kW and 7.85 kW respectively. When flywheel weight was reduced from 32.2 kg to 24.2 kg, output power of the engine was increased 0.27 kW in 6 kW engine and increased 0.39 kW in 7.5 kW engine. 2. The fuel consumption ratio was decreased from 300.8 to 296.8 g/kW-hr in 6 kW engine and decreased from 313.6 to 312.8 g/kW-hr in 7.5 kW engine when the flywheel weight was reduced from 32.2 kg to 24.2 kg. 3. The mechanical efficiencies of the engine was increased from 76.1 to 76.8% in 6 kW engine and increased from 76.7 to 77.0% in 7.5 kW engine when the flywheel weight was reduced from 32.2 kg to 24.2 kg. 4. When the flywheel weight was reduced from 32.2 kg to 24.2 kg, a tendency of a little decrease of vibration at X- and Z-axis in 6 kW engine and of a little increase of vibration at Y-axis in 6 kW engine and all directions in 7.5 kW engine was observed. 5. Motoring losses was decreased from 2.33 to l.76 kW in 6 kW engine and decreased from 2.46 to 1.84 kW in 7.5 kW engine when the flywheel weight was reduced from 32.2 kg to 24.2 kg. From the above results and the flywheel weight calculated theoretically, it was recommendable that the flywheel weight should be reduced about 7 kg in 6 kW engine and about 10 kg in 7.5 kW engine, respectively.

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A Study on Establishment of Technical Guideline of the Installation and Operation for the Biogas Utilization of Power generation and Stream - Design and Operation Guideline (바이오가스 이용 기술지침 마련을 위한 연구(III) - 기술지침(안) 중심으로)

  • Moon, HeeSung;Bae, Jisu;Pack, Hoyeun;Jeon, Taewan;Lee, Younggi;Lee, Dongjin
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.95-103
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    • 2018
  • As a guideline for desulfurization and dehumidification pretreatment facility for optimizing utilization of biogas, the $H_2S$ concentration is set at 150 % which can be treated with iron salts, dehumidification is the optimum value for generator operation, and the relative humidity applied at the utilization of biogas in EU is set at 60 %. We have set up the generator facility guidelines to optimize utilization of biogas. The appropriate amount of biogas should be at least 90 % of the total gas generation, and the capacity of generator facility should be set at 20~30 %. In order to equalize the pressure of the incoming gas the generator, a gas equalization tank should be installed and the generator room average temperature should be kept at $45^{\circ}C$ or less. Since the gas is not produced at a certain methane concentration in the digester, the efficiency is lowered. Therefore, it is required to install an air fuel ratio control system according to the change in methane concentration. Therefore, it is necessary to compensate for the disadvantages of biogasification facilities of organic waste resources and optimize utilization of biogas and improve operation of facilities. This study was conducted to optimize biogas utilization of type of organic waste(containing sewage sludge and food waste, animal manure), investigate the facilities problem and propose design, operation guidelines such as pre-treatment facilities and generators.

Properties of Lead-free Solder Joints on Flexible Substrate for Automotive Electronics (자동차 전장을 위한 플렉시블 기판 무연 솔더 접합부 특성)

  • Ahn, Sungdo;Choi, Kyeonggon;Park, Dae Young;Jeong, Gyu-Won;Baek, Seungju;Ko, Yong-Ho
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 2018
  • Sn-Pb solder has been used in automotive electronics for decades. However, recently, due to the environmental and health concerns, some international environmental organizations such as the end-of-life vehicle (ELV) enacted legislation banning of the Pb usage in automotive electronics. For this reason, many studies to develop and promote Pb-free soldering have been significantly reported. Meanwhile, because of flexibility and lightweight, flexible printed circuit boards (FPCBs) have been increasingly used in automotive electronics for lightweight to improve fuel efficiency and space utilization. Although the properties of lead-free solders for automotive electronics have been widely studied, there is a lack of research on the reliability performance of the lead-free solder joint on FPCB under user conditions. This study reported the properties of solder joints between Pb-free solders such as Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu, Sn0.7Cu and Sn0.5Cu0.01Al (Si), and various FPCBs finished with organic solderability preservative (OSP) and electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG). To evaluate on joint properties and reliabilities with different solder compositions and surface-finishing materials, pull strength test, thermal shock test, and bending cycle test were performed and analyzed. After the bending cycle test of solder joint on OSP-finishing, the fractures were occurred in solder and the lifetime of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder joint was the longest.

Prediction of field failure rate using data mining in the Automotive semiconductor (데이터 마이닝 기법을 이용한 차량용 반도체의 불량률 예측 연구)

  • Yun, Gyungsik;Jung, Hee-Won;Park, Seungbum
    • Journal of Technology Innovation
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.37-68
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    • 2018
  • Since the 20th century, automobiles, which are the most common means of transportation, have been evolving as the use of electronic control devices and automotive semiconductors increases dramatically. Automotive semiconductors are a key component in automotive electronic control devices and are used to provide stability, efficiency of fuel use, and stability of operation to consumers. For example, automotive semiconductors include engines control, technologies for managing electric motors, transmission control units, hybrid vehicle control, start/stop systems, electronic motor control, automotive radar and LIDAR, smart head lamps, head-up displays, lane keeping systems. As such, semiconductors are being applied to almost all electronic control devices that make up an automobile, and they are creating more effects than simply combining mechanical devices. Since automotive semiconductors have a high data rate basically, a microprocessor unit is being used instead of a micro control unit. For example, semiconductors based on ARM processors are being used in telematics, audio/video multi-medias and navigation. Automotive semiconductors require characteristics such as high reliability, durability and long-term supply, considering the period of use of the automobile for more than 10 years. The reliability of automotive semiconductors is directly linked to the safety of automobiles. The semiconductor industry uses JEDEC and AEC standards to evaluate the reliability of automotive semiconductors. In addition, the life expectancy of the product is estimated at the early stage of development and at the early stage of mass production by using the reliability test method and results that are presented as standard in the automobile industry. However, there are limitations in predicting the failure rate caused by various parameters such as customer's various conditions of use and usage time. To overcome these limitations, much research has been done in academia and industry. Among them, researches using data mining techniques have been carried out in many semiconductor fields, but application and research on automotive semiconductors have not yet been studied. In this regard, this study investigates the relationship between data generated during semiconductor assembly and package test process by using data mining technique, and uses data mining technique suitable for predicting potential failure rate using customer bad data.

Degradation Kinetic and Mechanism of Methyl Tert-butyl Ether (MTBE) by the Modified Photo-Fenton Reaction (Modified Photo-Fenton Reaction을 이용한 Methyl Tert-butyl Ether (MTBE)의 분해 Kinetic 및 메커니즘 규명에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Min-Kyoung;Kong, Sung-Ho
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.69-75
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    • 2006
  • Improper disposal of petroleum and spills from underground storage tanks have created large areas with highly toxic contamination of the soil and groundwater. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is widely used as a fuel additive because of its advantageous properties of increasing the octane value and reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon exhausts. However, MTBE is categorized as a possible human carcinogen. This research investigated the Modified Photo-Fenton system which is based on the Modified Fenton reaction and UV light irradiation. The Modified Fenton reaction is effective for MTBE degradation near a neutral pH, using the ferric ion complex composed of a ferric ion and environmentally friendly organic chelating agents. This research was intended to treat high concentrations of MTBE; thus, 1,000 mg/L MTBE was chosen. The objectives of this research are to find the optimal reaction conditions and to elucidate the kinetic and mechanism of MTBE degradation by the Modified Photo-Fenton reaction. Based on the results of experiments, citrate was chosen among eight chelating agents as the candidate for the Modified Photo-Fenton reaction because it has a relatively higher final pH and MTBE removal efficiency than the others, and it has a relatively low toxicity and is rapidly biodegradable. MTBE degradation was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics. Under the optimum conditions, [$Fe^{3+}$] : [Citrate] = 1 mM: 4 mM, 3% $H_2O_2$, 17.4 kWh/L UV dose, and initial pH 6.0, the 1000 ppm MTBE was degraded by 86.75% within 6 hours and 99.99% within 16 hours. The final pH value was 6.02. The degradation mechanism of MTBE by the Modified Photo-Fenton Reaction included two diverse pathways and tert-butyl formate (TBF) was identified to be the major degradation intermediate. Attributed to the high solubility, stability, and reactivity of the ferric-citrate complexes in the near neutral condition, this Modified Photo-Fenton reaction is a promising treatment process for high concentrations of MTBE under or near a neutral pH.

Melting Characteristics for Radioactive Aluminum Wastes in Electric Arc Furnace (아크 용융로에서 방사성 알루미늄 폐기물의 용융특성)

  • Min, Byung-Youn;Song, Pyung-Seob;Ahn, Jun-Hyung;Choi, Wang-Kyu;Jung, Chong-Hun;Oh, Won-Zin;Kang, Yong
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.33-40
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    • 2006
  • The characteristics of the aluminum waste melting and the distribution of the radioactive nuclides have been investigated for the estimation on the volume reduction and the decontamination of the aluminum wastes from the decommissioning of the TRIGA MARK it and III research reactors at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). The aluminum wastes were melted with the use of the fluxes such as flux $A:NaCl-KCl-Na_3AlF_6$, flux B:NaCl-NaF-KF, flux $C:CaF_2$, and flux $D:LiF-KCl-BaCl_2$ in the DC graphite arc furnace. For the assessment of the distribution of the radioactive nuclides during the melting of the aluminum, the aluminum materials were contaminated by the surrogate nuclides such as cobalt(Co), cesium(Cs) and strontium(Sr). The fluidity of aluminum melt was increased with the addition of the fluxes, which has slight difference according to the type of fluxes. The formation of the slag during the aluminum melting added the flux type C and D was larger than that with the flux A and B. The rate of the slag formation linearly increased with increasing the flux concentration. The results of the XRD analysis showed that the surrogate nuclide was transferred to the slag, which can be easily separated from the melt and then they combined with aluminum oxide to form a more stable compound. The distribution ratio of cobalt in ingot to that in slag was more than 40% at all types of fluxes. Since vapor pressures of cesium and strontium were higher than those that of the host metals at the melting temperature, their removal efficiency from the ingot phase to the slag and the dust phase was by up to 98%.

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Cobalt and Nickel Ferrocyanide-Functionalized Magnetic Adsorbents for the Removal of Radioactive Cesium (방사성 세슘 제거를 위한 코발트 혹은 니켈 페로시아나이드가 도입된 자성흡착제)

  • Hwang, Kyu Sun;Park, Chan Woo;Lee, Kune-Woo;Park, So-Jin;Yang, Hee-Man
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.15-26
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    • 2017
  • Cobalt ferrocyanide (CoFC) or nickel ferrocyanide (NiFC) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were fabricated for efficient removal of radioactive cesium, followed by rapid magnetic separation of the absorbent from contaminated water. The $Fe_3O_4$ nanoparticles, synthesized using a co-precipitation method, were coated with succinic acid (SA) to immobilize the Co or Ni ions through metal coordination to carboxyl groups in the SA. CoFC or NiFC was subsequently formed on the surfaces of the MNPs as Co or Ni ions coordinated with the hexacyanoferrate ions. The CoFC-MNPs and NiFC-MNPs possess good saturation magnetization values ($43.2emu{\cdot}g^{-1}$ for the CoFC-MNPs, and $47.7emu{\cdot}g^{-1}$ for the NiFC-MNPs). The fabricated CoFC-MNPs and NiFC-MNPs were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM, and DLS. The adsorption capability of the CoFC-MNPs and NiFC-MNPs in removing cesium ions from water was also investigated. Batch experiments revealed that the maximum adsorption capacity values were $15.63mg{\cdot}g^{-1}$ (CoFC-MNPs) and $12.11mg{\cdot}g^{-1}$ (NiFC-MNPs). Langmuir/Freundlich adsorption isotherm equations were used to fit the experimental data and evaluate the adsorption process. The CoFC-MNPs and NiFC-MNPs exhibited a removal efficiency exceeding 99.09% for radioactive cesium from $^{137}Cs$ solution ($18-21Bq{\cdot}g^{-1}$). The adsorbent selectively adsorbed $^{137}Cs$, even in the presence of competing cations.

Application of Reduce Tillage with a Strip Tiller and its Effect on Soil Erosion Reduction in Chinese Cabbage Cultivation (배추 재배에 있어 경운방법에 따른 작업효율성 및 토양유실 특성 평가)

  • Lee, Jeong-Tae;Lee, Gye-Jun;Ryu, Jong-Soo;Hwang, Seon-Woong;Park, Suk-Hoo;Zhang, Yong-Seon;Jeong, Yeong-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.970-976
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    • 2011
  • Strip tiller equipment was developed to reduce soil erosion in the slope land for highland agricultural area. The equipment consisted of 4 rows strip tillage device and fertilizer applicator. The field was tilled in 10 cm width and in 10 cm depth by the equipment, of which tilled surface was 16.7% of full-width tillage. The working time and fuel consumption of the equipment were $3.8hours\;ha^{-1}$ and $24.4L\;ha^{-1}$ respectively, which were 59% and 74% less than those of the conventional tillage. Fertilizer efficiency of the equipment in cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.7, 1.6 and 1.5 times higher in nitrate, phosphorous and potassium respectively, than conventional tillage. When the equipment was used after covering of rye residue, the quantity of runoff was 49~67% lower than the conventional tillage. And the quantity of soil loss were 1.3 and $0.2Mg\;ha^{-1}$ at right after and 30 days after planting of Chinese cabbage respectively, while 11.5 and $4.1Mg\;ha^{-1}$ in conventional tillage. In conclusion, the strip tillage equipment developed in this study can be applicable to slope land, so that soil loss of 90% can be reduced.