• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fuel reformer

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An Experimental Study on Catalytic Reformer with Direct Spraying of Fuel and Water for SOFC (고체산화물 연료전지용 연료.물 직접 분무식 촉매 개질기에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Lee, Dae-Keun;Dong, Sang-Geun;Yang, Je-Bok;Kim, Hak-Joo;Jung, Heon
    • 한국연소학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.260-265
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    • 2006
  • An experimental study on the catalytic reformer adopted in the auxiliary power unit system of solid oxide fuel cell was conducted. A 3-fluid nozzle, by which liquid fuel such as diesel, water and air are sprayed and uniformed mixed, was designed and used in this study. An electrically heated monolith inserted in the reformer was used for the vaporization of fuel and water in the transient state of reformer. The reformer uses the partial oxidizing reaction at the catalyst and the supply of water prevents the flame combustion in the spraying zone and lessens the deactivation of catalyst. The result showed that the reforming of liquid fuel can be started by the electrically heated monolith and the 3-fluid nozzle can give the uniform mixing of fuel, water and air. It was also found that the reformer fueled by n-hexadecane can make the reformate, at best, containing $H_2$ at 15.5% and CO at 11.5% that are used as fuel in the solid oxide fuel cell.

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Optimization of Fuel Processing Unit of Fuel Cell System using Six-Sigma Technique (Six-sigma 기법을 이용한 연료전지시스템 연료저리장치 최적화)

  • Chung, Kyung-Yong;Kim, Sun-Hoe
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.225-229
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    • 2012
  • A reformer for a small fuel cell system is an apparatus which converts hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen-rich gas. Among many indices of a reformer, the most crucial index of a reformer is CO concentration in the off-gas out of reformer which must be controled under 5ppm for the efficiency and performance of a system. This paper suggests the criteria of a reformer operation for the stability of a reformer in a fuel cell system by deducing crucial indices and improving processes. The six-sigma technique was applied to verify the optimum control and operation of a reformer of a fuel cell combined heat and power system. The result of temperature control of each parts of a reformer system is the concentration of CO which is the most important factor for the operation of a fuel cell system. The temperature of the parts of a reformer, MTS, LTS and Prox, were controled so that the concentration of CO.

Operating Characteristics on Coupling of Fuel-Cell System with Natural Gas Reformer (천연가스 개질기와 연계한 연료전지시스템의 운전특성)

  • Park, Se-Joon;Choi, Young-Sung;Hwang, Jong-Sun;Lee, Kyung-Sup
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers P
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.639-643
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    • 2009
  • A reformer, which produces hydrogen from natural gas, plays a major role for producing quality hydrogen to fuel-cell system. In this paper, fuel processor is designed to deliver hydrogen(75%) from the reformer to 200W fuel-cell system, and the electrical output power of the fuel-cells is examined by being injected different hydrogen concentrations to the system. We verified that the output power characteristics of the fuel-cells with 75% reformed hydrogen was lower about 7% than the case of pure hydrogen supplied. The type of reformer in this experiment takes SMR(Steam methane reforming) process, and the temperature variation characteristics of reforming process by reactions are examined in operation.

Combustion Characteristic of Anode Off Gas for Fuel Cell Reformer (개질기용 Anode Off Gas의 연소특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Pil Hyong;Hwang, Sang Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Combustion
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.5-10
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    • 2012
  • The reformer system is a chemical device that drives the conversion of hydrocarbon to hydrogen rich gas under high temperature environment($600-1,000^{\circ}C$). Generally, NG(Natural Gas) or AOG(Anode Off Gas) is used as fuel of fuel cell reformer combustion system. The experimental study to analyze the combustion characteristics of a premixed ceramic burner used for 0.5-1.0 kW fuel cell reformer was performed. Ceramic burner experiments using NG and AOG were carried out to investigate the flame stability characteristics by heating capacity, equivalence ratio and different fuels respectively. The results show that surface flames can be classified into green, red, blue and lift-off flames as the equivalence ratio of methane-air mixture decreases. And the stable flames can be established using NG and AOG as reformer fuel in the perforated ceramic burner. In particular, the blue flame is found to be stable at a lean equivalence ratio under different mixture conditions of NG and AOG for the 0.5 to 1.0 kW fuel cell system power range. NOx emission is under 60 ppm between 0.70 to 0.78 of equivalence ratio and CO emission is under 50 ppm between 0.70 to 0.84 of equivalence ratio.

Combustion Characteristics of Premixed Burner for Fuel Reformer (개질기용 예혼합 연소장치의 연소특성 연구)

  • Lee, Pil-Hyong;Lee, Jae-Young;Han, Sang-Seok;Park, Chang-Soo;Hwang, Sang-Soon
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.2181-2185
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    • 2008
  • Fuel processing systems which convert HC fuel into $H_2$ rich gas (such as stream reforming, partial oxidation, auto-thermal reforming) need high temperature environment($600-1000^{\circ}C$). Generally, anode-off gas or mixture of anode-off gas and LNG is used as input gas of fuel reformer. In order to make efficient and low emission burner system for fuel reformer, it is necessary to elucidate the combustion and emission characteristic of fuel reformer burner. The purpose of this study is to develop a porous premixed flat ceramic burner that can be used for 1-5kW fuel cell reformer. Ceramic burner experiments using natural gas, hydrogen gas, anode off gas were carried out respectively to investigate the flame characteristics by heating capacity and equivalence ratio. Results show that the stable flat flames can be established for natural gas, hydrogen gas, anode off gas and mixture of natural & anode off gas as reformer fuel. For all of fuels, their burning velocities become smaller as the equivalence ratio goes to the lean mixture ratio, and a lift-off occurs at lean limit. Flame length in hydrogen and anode off gas became longer with increasing the heat capacity.

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Operation characteristics of partial oxidation reformer for transportation fuels (수송 연료용 부분산화 개질기의 운전특성)

  • Lee, Sangho;Bae, Joongmyeon
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.159.1-159.1
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    • 2011
  • Partial oxidation reformer was fabricated and operated using commercial transportation fuels. Fuel injector and heating coil were used for fuel atomization and startup, respectively. The reformer was designed to produce syngas for $150{\sim}200W_e$ class solid oxide fuel cell. The reformer was operated in the $O_2$/C range between 0.6 and 0.8 while the capacity was fixed at $150W_e$. The temperature range in catalyst bed was between $500^{\circ}C$ and $900^{\circ}C$. Only 83% fuel was converted to $H_2$, CO, $CO_2$ and $CH_4$ at the operating conditions. The lowest temperature increase to $700^{\circ}C$ when the reformer was operated at $200W_e$, Although the temperature profiles was improved, fuel conversion was 88%. On the other hand, fuel was completely converted when micro-reactor operated at the same condition. This difference maybe due to aromatic compounds formation at homogeneous region. In addition, a significant amount of coke deposition was observed at vent line. Homogeneous reaction depends on the degree of mixing. For this purpose, two fluid nozzle and Ultra sonic injector were compared to investigate the effect of atomization. Sauter mean diameter(SMD) of Ultra sonic injector was lower than two-fluid nozzle at test condition. However, conversion efficiency and fuel conversion were not improved by using two-fluid nozzle. these results imply that the temperature of homogeneous reaction region should be controlled to prevent coke formation.

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A Study on the Optimum Design for LTCC Micro-Reformer: Design and performance evalution of monolith fuel reformer/PROX (LTCC를 소재로 하는 마이크로 리포머의 최적 설계에 관한 연구 ; 일체형 Reformer/PROX 반응기의 설계 및 성능평가)

  • Chung, C.H.;Oh, J.H.;Jang, J.H.;Jeong, M.K.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.615-616
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    • 2006
  • A micro-fuel processor system integrating steam reformer and partial oxidation reactor was manufactured using low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC). A CuO/ZnO/$Al_2O_3$ catalyst and Pt-based catalyst prepared by wet impregnation were used for steam reforming and partial oxidation, respectively. The performance of the LTCC micro-fuel processor was measured at various operating conditions such as the effect of the feed flow rate, the ratio of $H_2O/CH_3OH$, and the operating temperature on the LTCC reformer and CO clean-up system. The catalyst layer was loaded with "Fill and Dry" coating for small volume. The product gas was composed of $70\sim75%$ hydrogen, $20\sim25%$ carbon dioxide, and $1\sim2%$ carbon monoxide at $250\sim300^{\circ}C$, respectively.

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Effect of Tip Size and Aspect Ratio on Reforming Performance in a Methane Reformer for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) (고분자 전해질 막 연료전지를 위한 메탄 개질기에서 형상 변화가 개질 성능에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구)

  • Seo, Dong-Kyun;Noh, In-Kyu;Hwang, Jung-Ho;Choi, Jong-Kyun;Shin, Dong-Hoon;Kim, Hyung-Sik
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.364-374
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    • 2010
  • Design of a reformer consisting of combustion chamber and reforming chamber was investigated for a 1 kW and a 5 kW polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), respectively, using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). First, the 1kW reformer was considered to obtain the reliability of the numerical study. It was modeled, calculated and compared with experimental data. Second, the 5kW reformer was considered for a geometric study. Three tip sizes (35, 40, and 45 mm) and five aspect ratios was selected. It was found that the optimum was at tip sizes of 40 and 45 mm, at aspect ratios of -10% and -20% of the standard length.

A Personal Reformer(PR) for your Fuel cell system (연료전지를 위한 개인용 개질기)

  • Kim Hyeon Yeong
    • 한국전기화학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2004
  • The present paper relates to an apparatus in which all carbonaceous material such as coal, oil, plastics and any substance having carbon atoms as part of its constituents are reformed(gasified) into syngas at temperature above $1,200^{\circ}C$(KR patent No.0391121, and PCT/KR2001/01717 and PCT/KR2004/001020). It comprises a single-stage reforming reactor without catalyst and a syngas burner as shown in Fig.2. syngas is combusted with $O_2$ gas in the syngas bunter to produce $M_2O$ and $CO_2$ gas with exothermic heat. Reaction products are introduced into the reforming reactor, reaction heat from syngas burner elevate the temperature of reactor above $1,200^{\circ}C$, and reaction products reduce carbonaceous material down to CO and $H_2$ gases. Reactants and heat necessary for the reaction are provided through the syngas burner only, Neither $O_2$ gas nor steam are injected into the reforming reactor. Reformer is made of ceramic inner lining and sst outer casing. Multiple syngas burners may be connected to the reforming reactor in order to increase the syngas output, and a portion of the product syngas is recycled into syngas burner. The present reformer as shown in Fig.2 is suitable to gasify carbonaceous wastes without secondary pollutants formed from oxidation. Further, it can be miniaturized to accompany a fuel cell system as shown in Fig.3 The output syngas may be used to drive a fuel cell and a portion of electrical power generated in a fuel cell is used to heat a compact reformer up to $1,200^{\circ}C$ so that gas/liquid fossil fuel can efficiently reformed into syngas. The fuel cell serves as syngas burner in Fig.2. The reformation reaction is sustained through recycling a portion of product syngas into a fuel cell and using a portion of electric power generated to heat the reformer for continuous operation. Such reforming reactor may be miniaturized into a size of PC, then you have a Personal Reformer(PR).

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Examination of 2-Fluid Nozzle and 3-Fluid Nozzle for Fuel Reformer of 5 kW SOFC System (5 kW급 SOFC 시스템의 연료 개질기를 위한 2-유체 노즐과 3-유체 노즐의 검토)

  • Kwon, Hwa-Kil;Lee, Chi-Young;Lee, Sang-Yong
    • Journal of ILASS-Korea
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.16-21
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    • 2008
  • In the present study, the 2-fluid nozzle and 3-fluid nozzle to atomize the diesel and water with air for the fuel reformer of SOFC system were experimentally examined. In the 2-fluid nozzle, the diesel and water were alternately atomized due to bislug flow pattern, and it implies that the mixing of both liquids strongly affects the atomization pattern. On the other hand, in the 3-fluid nozzle, the diesel and water were atomized simultaneously due to the separated injection channels without mixing problem. Therefore, compared to the 2-fluid nozzle, the 3-fluid nozzle is suitable for the stable operation of the fuel reformer. In case of the 3-fluid nozzle, Type A where the air was supplied through the central channel was the most efficient.

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