• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fuji apple

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Selection of Apple Ground Color for Maturity Index Using Color Machine Vision (컬러 컴퓨터 시각에 의한 사과 선별 기준색깔 선정)

  • 서상룡;성제훈
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.210-216
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    • 1997
  • A study to select ground colors of Fuji apple for maturity index which are needed to standardize grading of the apples is presented. Two extreme colors of immature and fully mature Fuji and Zonagold apples produced in Korea were determined. Various ground colors of Fuji apple between the two extreme colors were collected and classified by human vision and colors of Fuji apple for maturity index were selected from the classification. Coordinates of the selected colors in xy chromaticity diagram were determined by spectrophotometers to define them in a standard coordinate system. Coordinates of the colors in r-g chromaticity diagram using a color machine vision system were also determined to use the colors in apple grading by the machine vision system. Grading Fuji apples using the machine vision system was performed and result of the grading was compared with Ending results of human vision and colorimeter. The comparison was performed with the same Fuji apple samples and showed 65% md 75% of same grades, respectively, as the grades determined by the machine vision system. Differences of fading performance between the compared three grading methods were explained as mainly because of the differences of observation area of the grading methods.

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Chitosan Coating Effects on Respiration Rate and Internal Gas Composition of 'Fuji' Apple and 'Satsuma' Mandarin

  • Ko, Jung-A;Kim, Ki-Myong;Lee, Jin-Sil;Park, Hyun-Jin
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.865-869
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    • 2008
  • Effects of chitosan coating on respiration rate and internal gas composition of 'Fuji' apple and 'Satsuma' mandarin were investigated and compared to wax emulsions and two commercial coating materials. Chitosan coating reduced respiration rate significantly (p<0.05) in 'Fuji' apple and 'Satsuma' mandarin compared to uncoated and other coating materials. Chitosan coating on 'Fuji' apple showed the highest $CO_2$ and the lowest $O_2$ concentration in the internal gas composition at $5^{\circ}C$ but showed no differences compared to other coating materials at $20^{\circ}C$. 'Satsuma' mandarin showed significantly high $CO_2$ concentration in chitosan coating at $20^{\circ}C$ but there were not significant differences among coating materials in $CO_2$ and $O_2$ composition at $5^{\circ}C$.

Effects of Storage Gas Concentrations on the Transpiration Rate of Fuji Apple during CA Storage (CA저장 기체조성에 따른 사과 Fuji의 증산속도)

  • 강준수;정헌식;최종욱
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.261-266
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    • 2002
  • A transpiration model was selected and tested experimentally to predict transpiration into of Fuji apple stored in a normal air and controlled atmospheres (l∼3% O$_2$+ l∼3% CO$_2$) at 0$\^{C}$ and 98% RH for 6weeks. CA storage decreased the respiration rate of Fuji apple by 50% when compared with normal air storage. The transpiration rates of apple showed 50∼70% higher in normal air storage than those in CA storage and were decreased by increasing CO$_2$concentration under same concentration of O$_2$. The transpiration rates estimated by the selected model were in good agreement with experimental data for Fuji apples under controlled atmosphere conditions and normal air. When the respiratory heat generation rate u of Fuji apple increased with storage conditions, the evaporating surface temperature and transpiration rate also increased. But since some portion of respiratory heat was used as latent heat in the evaporating surface, the change of u value had a little effect on the determination of the evaporation temperature and the transpiration rate.

Identification of Apple Cultivars using Near-infrared Spectroscopy

  • Choi, Sun-Tay;Chung, Dae-Sung;Lim, Chai-Il;Chang, Kyu-Seob
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference
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    • pp.1624-1624
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    • 2001
  • Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to investigate the possibility for application in identification of apple cultivars. Three apple cultivars ‘Kamhong, Hwahong, and Fuji’ produced in Korea were scanned over the range of 1100-2500nm using NIRS (Infra Alzer 500). Two types of samples were used for scanning; one was apple with skin and the other was apple without skin. For cultivar identification, the NIR absorbance spectrums were analyzed by qualitative calibration in “Sesame” analysis program, and the various influence properties such as sugar contents, acidity, color, firmness, and micro-structure were compared in scanned samples. The ‘Kamhong’ cultivar could be identified from ‘Hwahong’ and ‘Fuji’ cultivars using the cluster model analysis. The test samples in calibration between ‘Kamhong’ and ‘Fuji’ cultivars could be completely identified. The test samples in calibration between ‘Kamhong’ and ‘Hwahong’ cultivars could be identified most of all. But, ‘Hwahong’ and ‘Fuji’ cultivars could not be quite classified each other. The apple skin influenced the identification process of apple cultivars. The samples without skin were more difficult to classify in calibration than the samples with skin. The physicochemical properties of apple cultivars showed like the result of identification in calibration using NIRS. Some physicochemical properties of ‘Kamhong’ cultivar were different from those of the other cultivars. Those of ‘Hwahong’ and ‘Fuji’ cultivars showed. similar to each other. The sucrose contents of ‘Kamhong’ cultivar were higher and the fructose contents and firmness of skin and flesh were lower than those of the others. The hypodermis layer of skin in ‘Kamhong’ cultivar was thinner than those of the others. In this studies, the identification of all apple cultivars by NIRS was not quite accurate because of the physicochemical properties which were different in the same cultivar, and inconsistent patterns by culivars in some properties. To solve these problems in NIRS application for apple cultivar identification, further study should be focused on the use of peculiar properties among the apple cultivars.

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Quality and Antioxidant Properties of Bread Added with 'Fuji' Apple Juice ('후지' 사과즙을 첨가한 반죽 및 식빵의 품질 특성)

  • Cha, Seung-Hyeon;Shin, Na-ri;An, Hye-mi;Yoo, Do-Il;Kim, Dae-Il;Hyun, Tae Kyung;Jang, Keum-Il
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.98-105
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    • 2019
  • In this study, bread was prepared using various amount of 'Fuji' apple juice, and quality and antioxidant properties investigated. Bread was prepared with water, butter, yeast, salt, sugar, wheat flour, skim milk powder and 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) 'Fuji' apple juice. Leavening ability and pH of dough were also investigated. Volume, pH, specific volume, baking-loss rate, chromaticity and texture were investigated as quality properties, whereas the total polyphenol content, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity as the antioxidant properties of bread containing various amount of apple juice. The pH and leavening ability of dough were observed to decrease with increasing amount of apple juice. In the quality properties of bread, pH, volume, specific volume, and baking-loss rate decreased. Regarding chromaticity and texture of bread prepared with increasing amount of 'Fuji' apple juice, L (bright) values at crust and crumb of bread decreased, while hardness, chewiness and gumminess increased. Total polyphenol content increased with increasing amount of apple juice, while DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities showed no significant differences. Consequently, these results support the possible use of apple juice for baking foods in food industry, as addition of apple juice enhances the quality and antioxidant properties of bread.

Transformation of Fuji Apple Plant Harboring the Coat Protein Gene of Cucumber mosaic virus

  • Lee, C.H.;Hyung, N.I.;Lee, G.P.;Choi, J.Y.;Kim, C.S.;Choi, S.H.;Jang, I.O.;Han, D.H.;Ryu, K.H.
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.162-165
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    • 2003
  • Transformation of Fuji apple (Malus domestica 'Fuji') was performed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a coat protein (CP) gene of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). A plasmid DNA containing the virus CP and NPT II genes was introduced into the loaves of apple by th e Agrobacterium - mediated transformation procedure. Regenerated transformants of the apple were obtained by kanamycin resistance conferred by the introduced NPT II gene. PCR analysis showed that 3 out of 20 putatively selected R0 plant lines contain the CMV-CP gene. Nine putative transgenic lines out of 20 lines were investigated with the PCR analysis; 5 regenerants produced a 450 bp DNA band and 3 regenerants showed a 671 bp DNA band for the NPT II and CMV-CP genes, respectively. Southern hybyidization results demonstrate the successful integration of the CMV-CP gene into the genome of the apple. This is the first report on the generation of useful vius resistance source of transgenic apple for molecular breeding program.

Respiration rate of the Fuji apple according to the ULO storage conditions (ULO 저장에서의 사과 Fuji의 호흡속도)

  • Gang, Jun-Su;Lee, Ho-Jae;Choe, Jong-Uk
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.87-92
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    • 1994
  • For the measurement of the change of respiration rate caused by the gas content of storage atmosphere which furnishes important data for the interpretation of ULO storage, GC was used. It has been shown that the respiration rate and respiratory heat generation rate of Fuji apple is more than doubled in normal low temperature storage when compared with ULO storage, and that in ULO storage the respiration rate and respiratory heat generation rate directly proportional to the concentration of O2 in storage atmosphere as well as inversely proportional to that of CO2. It was possible to establish a functional formula for the respiratory heat generation rate of Fuji apple in all the storage conditions in terms of u=-0.7638+0.0003 O2-0.0007 log(CO2)+0.1369 log(Tb) concerning temperature and the concentration of O2 and CO2

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Defect Detection of ‘Fuji’ Apple using NIR Imaging(I) -Optical characteristics of defects and selection of significant wavelelength- (근적외선 영상을 이용한 후지사과의 결점 검출에 관한 연구 (I) -결점의 광학적 특성 구명 및 유의파장 선정-)

  • 이수희;노상하
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.169-176
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    • 2001
  • Defect of apple was depreciated the product value and causes storage disease seriously. To detect the defect of ‘Fuji’apple with machine vision system, the optical characteristics of defect should be investigated. In this research, absorbance spectra of defect were acquired by spectrophotometer in the range of visible and NIR region(400∼1,100nm) and L*a*b* color values were also acquired by colorimeter. NIR machine vision system was constructed with B&W camera, frame grabber, 16 tungsten-halogen lamps, variable focal length lens and NIR bandpass filter which was mounted to lens outward. Average gray values of defect at 15 NIR wavelength were acquired and the significant NIR wavelength was selected by comparing Mahalanobis distance between sound and defective apple. As the result of Mahalanobis distance analysis, the significant wavelength to discriminate the defectives in ‘Fuji’apple were found to be 720nm for scab and 970nm for bruise and cuts and 920nm was also effective regardless of defective types.

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Multispectral Wavelength Selection to Detect 'Fuji' Apple Surface Defects with Pixel-sampling Analysis

  • Park, Soo Hyun;Lee, Hoyoung;Noh, Sang Ha
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.166-173
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: In this study, we focused on the image processing method to determine the external quality of Fuji apples by identifying surface defects such as scabs and bruises. Method: A CCD camera was used to capture filter images with 24 different wavelengths ranging between 530 nm and 1050 nm. Image subtraction and division operations were performed to distinguish the defect area from the normal areas including calyx, stem, and glaring on the apple surface image. All threshold values of the image were examined to reveal the defect area of pretreated filter images. Results: The developed operation methods were [image (720 nm) - image (900 nm)]/image (700 nm) for bruise detection and [image (740 nm) - image (900 nm)]/image (590 nm) for scab detection, which revealed 81% and 90% recognition ratios, respectively. Conclusions: Our results showed several optimal wavelengths and image processing methods to detect Fuji apple surface defects such as bruises and scabs.

Effect of CA Storage Conditions on the Internal Breakdown of Fuji Apple Fruits under CA Storage (Fuji 사과의 CA저장중 저장조건이 과육갈변에 미치는 영향)

  • 이주백;최종욱
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.227-235
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    • 1997
  • The internal breakdown of Fuji apple during CA storage classified as watercore breakdown, low temperature breakdown and CO2 injury. This study was undertaken to investigate the watercore breakdown injury factors of Korean Fuji apple during CA storage. The development of internal breakdown was more increased with the larger size, the later harvest time and the hither CO2 gas level. But in internal breakdown fruit of the titratable acidity and soluble solid decreased significantly, the pH of fruit juice and the production of carbon dioxide was greatly increased. The best gas levels of CA storage was 2% oxygen and 3% carbon dioxide. Thus, the predictable parameters of internal breakdown of fruit were increase in pH on decrease titratable acidity within 2 months of CA storage, increase carbon dioxide. So, it was found that the best CA sotrage for internal breakdown control of fruit during CA storage was delayed CA storage methods after low temperature storage immediate harvest of apple and than took a step. The delayed CA storage after low temperature storage for 2 months was more effective in the prevention of development of internal breakdown than immediate CA storage after harvest.

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