• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fumonisin B1

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Effect of Fumonisin B1 on the Bacterial Virus Multiplication (세균 바이러스 증식에 대한 Fumonisin B1의 영향)

  • 이길수
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.17-20
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    • 1996
  • The effect of Fumonisin B1, a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium moniliforme on bacterial viruses P1 and Lambda, was investigated by the virus plaque assay. Fumonisin B1 inhibited the P1 viral multiplication in the concentration range from $100{\mu}g$/ml to $400{\mu}g$/ml. The inhibition was Fumonisin B1 concentration-dependent. Another bacterial virus Lambda multiplication was also inhibited by lower concentration of Fumonisin B1 ($10{\mu}g$/ml~$50{\mu}g$/ml). This inhibition was dependent on Fumonisin B1 and on virus-Fumonisin B1 reaction time. Sensitivity of bacteriophage Lambda to Fumonisin B1 was higher than that of P1 virus. Lambda vital DNA was treated in vitro with Fumonisin B1 at various concentration. Significant DNA fragmentation by Fumonisin 191 was observed in the agarose gel electrophoresis. Lambda viral DNA was partially digested even in the Fumonisin B1 $10{\mu}g$ and the level of its fragmentation was dependent on Fumonisin B1 amount up to $30{\mu}g$ per assay.

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Fumonisin $B_1$-induced Alteration of Sphingolipid Metabolism in $LLC-PK_1$ Cells ($LLC-PK_1$ 세포에서의 퓨모너신 $B_1$에 의해 유도된 스핑고리피드 대사)

  • Yoo, Hwan-Soo;Yun, Yeo-Pyo
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.789-796
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sulfinpyrazone on fumonisin $B_1$-induced elevation of free sphingoid bases in LLC-$PK_1$ cells. Fumonis ins are a family of mycotoxins produced by the fungi Fusarium moniliforme which is common contaminant in corn. Fumonisins are also potent inhibiors of sphingosine and sphinganine N-acyltransferases (ceramide synthases), key enzymes in sphingolipid metabolism resulting in the elevation of free sphinganine. The cytosolic concentration of fumonisin B1 was known to be closely proportional to the elevation of free sphinganine in LLC-PK1 cells [Yoo, H.-S., Norred, W.P., Wang, E., Merrill, A.H., Jr., and Riley, R.T. (1992) Toxicol. Appl.Pharmacol. 114. 9-15]. Sulfinpyrazone, an anion transport inhibitor, reduced the elevated level of free sphinganine resulting from fumonisin B1 inhibition of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis. Fumonisin B1 at a concentration of 20${\mu}$M showed approximately 120pmol/$10^6$ cells relative to 3-10pmol/$10^6$ cells in control cultures, and sulfinpyrazone at a concentration of 200${\mu}$M partially reversed the increased level of free sphinganine induced by fumonisin $B_1$ down to normal level after exposure to fumonisin $B_1$ for 8 to 24hr. However, the reduced effect of sulfinpyrazone on the fumonisin $B_1$-induced elevation of intracellular sphinganine was not shown after 24hr. Fumonisin $B_1$ exposure to LLC-PK1 cells for 36 and 48hr showed approximately 74 and 80pmol per $10^6$ cells relative to 82 and 76pmol,respectively, in fumonisin $B_1$ plus sulfinpyrazone-treated cultures. Sulfinpyrazone-induced less elevation of free sphinganine in confluent cells after exposure to fumonisin $B_1$ suggested that either sulfinpyrazone may block the availability of fumonisin $B_1$ to cells or act on the fumonisin $B_1$ interaction with ceramide synthase.

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Differential Effects of Fumonisin $B_1$ on Cell Death in Cultured Cells: the Significance of the Elevated Sphinganine

  • Yu, Chang-Hun;Lee, Yong-Moon;Yun, Yeo-Pyo;Yoo, Hwan-Soo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.136-143
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    • 2001
  • Fumonisins are specific inhibitors of ceramide synthase in sphingolipid metabolism. An alteration in sphingolipid metabolism as a result of fumonisin exposure is related to cell death (Yoo et al., 1992). The objective of this study was to investigate whether elevated free sphinganine levels are related to the sensitivity of cultured cells to fumonisin exposure. Fumonisin $B_1$ elevated the intracellular free sphinganine concentraions in both LLC-$PK_1$ and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. However, CHO cells are resistant to fumonisin cytotoxicity at 50${u}m$, while LLC-$PK_1$ cells are sensitive at concentrations greater than 357M. The intracellular concentration of free sphinganine in LLC-$PK_1$ cells treated at 50${u}m$ fumonisin $B_1$ for 72 h was approximately 1450 pmol/mg protein relative to the 37 pmol observed in the control culture. Under the same conditions, the population of apoptotic cells in the 50${u}m$ fumonisin $B_1$-treated culture was approximately 37% of the total compared to 12% in the control. The caspase III-like activity after 72 h in the 50${\mu}$M fumonisin $B_1$-exposed culture Increased to approximately 50 $pmol/mg$ protein/hr compared to 6 $pmol/mg$ protein/hr in the control. L-cycloserine, a serine palmitoyltransferase inhibitory reduced the fumonisin $B_1$-stimulated caspase III-like activity down to the control level. Under the same culture conditions, the intracellular concentration of free sphinganine after-cycloserine plus fumonisin $B_1$ treatment was 140 pmol/mg protein compared to 1450 $pmol/mg$ protein in fumonisin $B_1$ alone. The intracellular concentration of free sphinganine in CHO cells treated with 50${u}m$ fumonisin $B_1$ for 72 h was al)proximately 460 pmol/mg protein, indicating that the mass amount of elevated free sphinganine in the CHO cells was about 32% of that in LLC-$PK_1$ cells. Adding exogenous sphinganine to the CHO cells along with 50${u}m$ fumonisin $B_1$ treatment for 72 h caused both necrosis and apoptosis. In conclusion, the elevated endogenous sphinganine acts as a contributing factor to the fumonisin-induced cell death.

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Free Radical Involvement in the DNA Damaging Activity of Fumonisin Bl

  • Lee, Wan-Hee;Lee, Kil-Soo
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.249-253
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    • 2001
  • Fumonisin B1, a mycotoxin, is thought to induce esophageal cancer in humans and apoptosis in animal cells by inhibiting ceramide synthase. Dumonisin Bl may also generate reactive oxygen species directly or indirectly, leading to DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. In this study, a DNA fragmentation assay, dichlorofluorescein (DCF) analysis, and single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) were used to investigate the involvement of cellular free radicals, specifically hydrogen peroxide, in the DNA damaging activity of fumonisin B1. From an in vitro DNA fragmentation assay, E. coli DNA, damage by fumonisin Bl was increased by the addition of superxide dismutase (SOD) and decreased by catalase. SCGE and DCF analysis in vivo showed that the nuclear DNA damage and intracellular free radicals in cultured rat hepatocytes treated with fumonisin B1 were increased with the concentration of fumonisin Bl . DNA damage and free radical generation were inhibited by the addition of catalase. Fumonisin Bl , in the presence of SOD, produces hydrogen peroxide causing oxidative DNA damage and protein malfunction, leading to genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the toxin.

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Contamination of Fumonisin $B_{1}$ in Corn-Based Feed Products in Korea (옥수수를 주재료로 한 한국산 사료에서의 Fumonisin $B_{1}$ 오염현황)

  • Lee, Taek-Soo;Chung, Soo-Hyun;Kim, Young-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.221-224
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    • 1995
  • One hundred and six corn-based feed products collected between 1992 and 1993 were analysed to investigate fumonisin $B_{1}$ contamination. Eighty-two samples 77.4% turned out to contain fumonisin $B_{1}$ ranging from 50 to 1,281 ng/g with average of 497 ng/g.

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Toxicity and Fumonisin B1 Production by Fusarium Isolates from Chines Corn Samples (중국산 옥수수로부터 분리한 Fusarium균주의 독성 및 Fumonisin B1의 생성)

  • 이인원;강효중
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.129-135
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    • 1994
  • Ninety-two isolates of Fusarium species were obtained from Chinese corn samples. The predominant Fusarium species isolated from corn seeds were F. moniliforme, F. proliferatum, F. oxysporum and F. subglutinans, and all 13 species were identified. Each isolate was grown on autoclaved wheat grains and wheat cultures were fed by twenty-one-day-old female rats for the toxicity test. Twenty-six out of 92 isolates caused the death accompanying feed refusal, severe weight loss, liver damage, and hemorrhages in the stomach and intestines. Of the toxigenic isolates, 17 isolates of F. moniliforme, 4 of F. oxysporum, 3 of F. proliferatum, and one of each F. sporotrichioides and unknown species were lethal to rats. The analyses of fumonisin B1 production of the 26 toxigenic Fusarium isolates were carried out by thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and fumonisin B1 was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Fumonisin B1 was produced in wheat culture at levels ranging from 280 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g to 3,952 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g by all of toxigenic F. moniliforme and F. proliferatum, but by none of the other toxigenic Fusarium species. The present results suggest the high possibility of natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 in corn samples imported from China.

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Disruption of Sphingolipid Metabolism as a Potential Mechanism of Fumonisin Inhibition of Cell Growth in $LLC-PK_1$ Cells

  • Yoo, Hwan-Soo;Yun, Yeo-Pyo
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1995
  • Fumonisins are a family of mycotoxins produced by the fungus Fusarium moniliforme which is a common contaminant in corn. Fumonisins are potent inhibitors of sphingosine and sphinganine N-acyltransferase (ceramide synthase), key enzymes in sphingolipid metabolism. The purpose of this study was to provide the evidence that the elevated levels of free sphingoid bases (primarily sphinganine) and depletion of complex sphingolipids were closely related to the inhibition of cell growth in LLC-$PK_1$ cells exposed to fumonisin $B_1$$(\leq 35 {\mu}M)$. Concentrations of fumonisin $B_1$ between 10 and $35 {\mu}M$ were known to inhibit cell growth without cytotoxicity in $LLC-PK_1$ cells (Yoo et al. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 114, 9-15, 1992). Cells exposed to 35$\mu M$ fumonisin B$_1$ for 48 and 72 hr developed a fibroblast-like (elongated and spindle-shaped) appearance and were less confluent than normal cells. At between 24 and 48 hr after exposure to fumonisin $B_1$ cells were beginning to show the inhibition of cell growth and at 72 hr the number of viable cells in fumonisin-treated cultures was about 50% of concurrent control cultures. During the 24 hr lag period preceding inhibition of cell growth, the free sphinganine levels in cells exposed to $35 {\mu}M$ fumonisin $B_1$ were highly elevated (approximately 230 fold higher than normal cells). The elevated levels of free sphinganine were $435\pm14$$pmoles/{10^6}$ cells at 48 hr and approximately TEX>$333\pm11$$pmoles/{10^6}$ cells in cells exposed to $35{\mu}M$ fumonisin$B_1$ at 72 hr, while the levels of free sphinganine in normal cells were less than 2$pmoles/{10^6}$ cells. Under the same condition, depletion of intracellular complex sphingolipids as a consequence of fumonisin inhibition of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis and turnover pathway was appeared. Content of free sphingold bases in dividing cells was more elevated than in confluent cells at 24-48 hr after cells were exposed to $20{\mu}M$ fumonisin $B_1$. The dividing cells were showing the inhibition of cell growth at 48-72 hr and $20{\mu}M$ fumonisin $B_1$. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the inhibition of cell growth is very well related to the disruption of sphingolipid metabolism in $LLC-PK_1$ cells.

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Detection of Fumonisin $B_1$ by a Batch Type Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

  • Cho, Yong-Jin;Chun, Hyang-Sook;Kim, Chul-Jin;Kim, Chong-Tai;Hong, Ji-Young
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.698-699
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    • 2005
  • Levels of fumonisins, mycotoxins produced by fungal species, must be accurately and rapidly monitored to ensure food safety. In this study, using surface plasmon resonance sensor, a batch-type biosensor was fabricated to detect fumonisin $B_1$. By applying this biosensor to fumonisin $B_1$ solutions of 0 to 6 ppm, a significant calibration model was developed for measurement. Coefficient of determination in regression analysis for the model was 0.920. Results indicate that detection of fumonisin $B_1$ by surface plasmon resonance biosensor was highly feasible.

Natural Occurrence of Fumonisin $B_{1}$ and $B_{2}$ in Corns Imported from U.S.A (미국산 옥수수의 Fumonisin $B_{1}$$B_{2}$ 오염현황)

  • Yu, Chun-Cheol;Oh, Deog-Hwan;Park, Boo-Kil
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.875-879
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    • 1999
  • Eighty corn samples, which imported from U.S.A between 1995 and 1996, were analyzed for fumonisin $B_{1}\;(FB_{1})$ and $B_{2}\;(FB_{2})$ contamination. The total fumonisin level and mean from 80 imported samples showed 0(limited detection level)-$65.9\;{\mu}g/g$ mgand $6.9\;{\mu}g/g$, respectively. $FB_{1}$ was detect in 57 (71.3%) from 80 samples at the concentrations ranging from 0 to $48.8\;{\mu}g/g$, while $FB_{2}$ was detected in 49(61.3%) at concentrations ranging from 0 to $17.1\;{\mu}g/g$. The total fumonisin incidence analyzed from 80 samples were 37.5%, 42.6 and 19.9% for concentrations ranging from below $1\;{\mu}g/g$, between 1.1 and $10\;{\mu}g/g$ and above $30\;{\mu}g/g$, respectively. The total fumonisin level containing below $1\;{\mu}g/g$ from samples imported in 1995 and 1996 was 47.7% (21/44) and 29.4 (10/34), while total fumonisin level containing above $10{\mu}g/g$ was 47.77% (21/44) and 29.4 (10/34), respectively. In the meanwhile, the fumonisin $B_{1}$ and $B_{2}$ containing below $1\;{\mu}g/g$ from 80 samples imported between 1995 and 1996 was 38.8% and 67.5%, while fumonisin $B_{1}$ and $B_{2}$ containing above $10{\mu}g/g$ was 12.5% and 5%, respectively.

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The altered $Na^+,\;K^+$-pump activity following the fumonisin exposure to LLC-PKl cells

  • Choi, Heon-Kyo;Yoo, Jae-Myung;Tudev, Munkhtsetseg;Lee, Yong-Moon;Yun, Yeo-Pyo;Yoo, Hwan-Soo
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.110.1-110
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    • 2003
  • Fumonisins are specific inhibitors of ceramide synthase in sphingolipid metabolism. Sphingolipids are biologically active lipid mediators in cellular physiology and involved in cell signaling, growth, transformation, angiogenesis and differentiation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fumonisin B1 on $Na^+, \;K^+$-pump activity when fumonisin B1 was exposed to LLC-PK1 cells. Fumonisin B1 elevated free sphingoid bases and their 1-phosphates, while total complex sphingolipids were depleted at 20$\mu$M fumonisin B1 during the 3 day exposure. (omitted)

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