• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fusarium

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Isolation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Orchid Rotting Fungus, Fusarium sp. KS-01 (난 썩음병균 Fusarium sp. KS-01의 분리 및 계통학적 분석)

  • Park, In-Jae;Shin, Kwang-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.92-94
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    • 2005
  • A orchid rotting fungus was isolated and identified. The isolate was consistent with the genus Fusarium in morphological and cultural characteristics. The partial 18S rRNA sequence of the isolate showed high similarity with anamorph or telemorph of Fusarium and other Fusarium species. In phylogenetic analysis, the isolates was poorly related to other Fusarium species. The isolate closely related to Fusarium sp. LP-A2/3.

Interactions of Virulent and Avirulent Fusarium species on Clonal Asparagus Plantlets and Mechanisms Involved in Protection of Asparagus with Avirulent Fusarium Species Against Stem and Crown Rots (아스파라거스에서 병원성 및 비병원성 Fusarium균의 상호작용과 비병원성 Fusarium을 이용한 아스파라거스 줄기 및 뿌리썩음병 방제 기작 연구)

  • 이윤수
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.47-57
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    • 1996
  • 병원성 Fusarium에 의한 아스파라거스 감염은 비병원성 Fusarium을 5일과 7일 전에 접종하였을 때 방제효과가 있었다. 비병원성 F. oxysporum은 F. moniliforme에 대하여 방제효과가 있었고, F. solani는 F. oxysproum에 대하여 방제효과가 있음이 밝혀졌다. 실험에 사용된 Fusarium 균들은 모두 주근과 측근의 말단 부위, 상처부위, 그리고 표피의 세포벽 사이를 통하여 감염하였다. 경우에 따라 감염하는 동안 appressorium과 유사한 구조를 형성하기도 하였고, 직접 감염하는 경우도 있었다. 병원성 그리고 비병원성 Fusarium 균 모두 공통적으로 생장점 부위를 통하여 감염하였다. 병원성이 강한 Fusarium 균의 경우 비병원성 균들보다 감염의 속도가 빨랐고 더욱 생장이 왕성하였다. F. solani는 생장속도나 기주 조직 침입속도가 매우 느렸다. 기주 감염의 결과 처음에는 cortical rot을 유발시켰고 나중에는 tracheary elements를 감염하고 결국은 조직의 괴사를 유발하는 것이 관찰되었다. 비병원성 F. oxysporum은 표피조직에 두터운 균사층을 형성하였고, 이는 병원성 Fusarium 균에 대한 방제효과를 나타내는 원인을 제공한 것으로 여겨진다. F. solani는 측근의 생성을 촉진시켜 표면적을 증대시킨 것으로 여겨진다. 결론적으로 AVFO와 F. solani를 이용하여 아스파라거스에 발생하는 병원성 Fusarium균의 침입을 저지할 수 있는 생물적 방제가 가능함이 밝혀졌다.

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Induced Resistance in Tomato Plants Against Fusarium Wilt Invoked by Nonpathogenic Fusarium, Chitosan and Bion

  • Amini, J.
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.256-262
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    • 2009
  • The potential of. nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain Avr5, either alone or in combination with chitosan and Bion, for inducing defense reaction in tomato plants inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp lycopersici, was studied in vitro and glasshouse conditions. Application Bion at concentration of 5, 50, 100 and $500{\mu}g$/ml, and the highest concentration of chitosan reduced in vitro growth of the pathogen. Nonpathogenic F. oxysporum Avr5 reduced the disease severity of Fusarium wilt of tomato in split plants, significantly. Bion and chitosan applied on tomato seedlings at concentration $100{\mu}g$ a.i./plant; 15, 10 and 5 days before inoculation of pathogen. All treatments significantly reduced disease severity of Fusarium wilt of tomato relative to the infected control. The biggest disease reduction and increasing tomato growth belong to combination of nonpathogenic Fusarium and Bion. Growth rate of shoot and root markedly inhibited in tomato plants in response to tomato Fusarium wilt as compared with healthy control. These results suggest that reduction in disease incidence and promotion in growth parameters in tomato plants inoculated with nonpathogenic Fusarium and sprayed with elicitors could be related to the synergistic and cooperative effect between them, which lead to the induction and regulation of disease resistance. Combination of elicitors and non-pathogenic Fusarium synergistically inhibit the growth of pathogen and provide the first experimental support to the hypothesis that such synergy can contribute to enhanced fungal resistance in tomato. This chemical could provide a new approach for suppression of tomato Fusarium wilt, but its practical use needs further investigation.

Fusarium Fruit Rot of Posthavest Oriental Melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa Mak.) Caused by Fusarium spp. (Fusarium spp.에 의한 수확 후 참외 열매썩음병)

  • Kim, Jin-Won;Kim, Hyun-Jin
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.260-267
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    • 2004
  • Fusarium spp. were isolated from the postharvest fruit rot of oriental melon fruits at commercial fruit markets in Korea during 2001 to 2003. The decayed fruits were covered with the fungal mycelia and eventually soft rotted. The disease started at the fruit stalk area, the calyx end of the fruit and skin of fruit. As the disease advanced, white to pinkish mycelia covered with the surface of decayed fruit. The cultural and morphological characteristic of Fusarium spp. were compared with descriptions of those reported previously, and identified as Fusarium equiseti, F. graminearum, F. moniliforme, F. proliferatum, F. sambucinum, and F. semitectum. Pathogenicity of the isolates was proved by artificial wound and unwound inoculation onto the healthy fruits. Two days after inoculation, aerial mycelia were noticed on the wound inocultion region of the fruit and developed soft rot symptoms. Although Fusarium spp. causing fruit rot disease in oriental melon have been reported in Korea, identification of the those species was not described. Therefore, this is the first report of Fusarium spp. causing postharvest fruit rot on oriental melon in Korea.

Unique Phylogenetic Lineage Found in the Fusarium-like Clade after Re-examining BCCM/IHEM Fungal Culture Collection Material

  • Triest, David;De Cremer, Koen;Pierard, Denis;Hendrickx, Marijke
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.121-130
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    • 2016
  • Recently, the Fusarium genus has been narrowed based upon phylogenetic analyses and a Fusarium-like clade was adopted. The few species of the Fusarium-like clade were moved to new, re-installed or existing genera or provisionally retained as "Fusarium." Only a limited number of reference strains and DNA marker sequences are available for this clade and not much is known about its actual species diversity. Here, we report six strains, preserved by the Belgian fungal culture collection BCCM/IHEM as a Fusarium species, that belong to the Fusarium-like clade. They showed a slow growth and produced pionnotes, typical morphological characteristics of many Fusarium-like species. Multilocus sequencing with comparative sequence analyses in GenBank and phylogenetic analyses, using reference sequences of type material, confirmed that they were indeed member of the Fusarium-like clade. One strain was identified as "Fusarium" ciliatum whereas another strain was identified as Fusicolla merismoides. The four remaining strains were shown to represent a unique phylogenetic lineage in the Fusarium-like clade and were also found morphologically distinct from other members of the Fusarium-like clade. Based upon phylogenetic considerations, a new genus, Pseudofusicolla gen. nov., and a new species, Pseudofusicolla belgica sp. nov., were installed for this lineage. A formal description is provided in this study. Additional sampling will be required to gather isolates other than the historical strains presented in the present study as well as to further reveal the actual species diversity in the Fusarium-like clade.

Toxigenic Mycobiota of Small Grain Cereals in Korea

  • Lee, Theresa
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.33-33
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    • 2016
  • Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi. They can be present in where agricultural-based commodities are contaminated with toxigenic fungi. These mycotoxins cause various toxicoses in human and livestock when consumed. Small grains including corn, barley, rice or wheat are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins due to infection mainly by toxigenic Fusarium species and/or under environment favorable to fungal growth. One of the most well-known Fusarium toxin groups in cereals is trichothecenes consisting of many toxic compounds. Deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin, and various derivatives belong to this group. Zearalenone and fumonisin (FB) are also frequently produced by many species of the same genus. In order to monitor Korean cereals for contamination with Fusarium and other mycotoxigenic fungal species as well, barley, corn, maize, rice grains, and soybean were collected from fields at harvest or during storage for several years. The fungal colonies outgrown from the grain samples were identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics. Trichothecene chemotypes of Fusarium species or presence of FB biosynthetic gene were determined using respective diagnostic PCR to predict possible toxin production. Heavy grain contamination with fungi was detected in barley, rice and wheat. Predominant fungal genus of barley and wheat was Alternaria (up to 90%) while that of rice was Fusarium (~40%). Epicoccum also appeared frequently in barley, rice and wheat. While frequency of Fusarium species in barley and wheat was less than 20%, the genus mainly consisted of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) which known to be head blight pathogen and mycotoxin producer. Fusarium composition of rice was more diverse as FGSC, Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), and Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) appeared all at considerable frequencies. Prevalent fungal species of corn was FFSC (~50%), followed by FGSC (<30%). Most of FFSC isolates of corn tested appeared to be FB producer. In corn, Fusarium graminearum and DON chemotype dominate within FGSC, which was different from other cereals. Soybeans were contaminated with fungi less than other crops and Cercospora, Cladosporium, Alternaria, Fusarium etc. were detected at low frequencies (up to 14%). Other toxigenic species such as Aspergillus and Penicillium were irregularly detected at very low frequencies. Multi-year survey of small grains revealed dominant fungal species of Korea (barley, rice and wheat) is Fusarium asiaticum having NIV chemotype.

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Interspecific Protoplast Fusion between Fusarium poae and Fusarium sporotrichioides (Fusarium poae와 Fusarium sporotrichioides간의 원형질체 융합)

  • 하경란;장성렬;민병례
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.123-129
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    • 1991
  • In order to develop the protoplast fusion method of the strains of Fusarium, the interspecific protoplast fusion was attempted between Fusarium poae and F. sporotrichioides. Various auxotrophic mutants were isolated by the treatment of N-Methyl-N'-Nitro-N-Nitrosoguanidine. The optimal conditions for the formation and regeneration of protoplasts were examined and the characteristics of a fusant were studied. As a results, protoplasts were readily obtained from 18 hours cultured mycelia by the treatment of driselase for 3 hours and 0.6 M KCl as a best osmotic stabilizer at pH 6.0 for the formation of protoplast. Sucrose was the most suitable for the regeneration. Polyetylene glycol (M.W. 8,000) in $CaCl_{2}$-glycine solution was used to induce the protoplast fusion. The interspecific fusion frequency between protoplasts among the auxotrophic mutants of the two strains ranged from $2.7*10^{-2}$ to $5.7*10^{-3}$ . DNA content and cellulase activity were rather increased in the interspecific fusant. The lag phase of growth curve was slightly elongated in the fusant.

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Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt of Carnation Plants by Antagonistic Microorganism in Greenhouse (카네이션의 시설재배에서 길항성 세균을 이용한 Fusarium Wilt 의 생물학적 방제)

  • Cho, Jung-Il;Cho, Ja-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.183-196
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to screen and select the effects of antifungal bacterial strains which inhibit the growth of plant pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum(fusarium wilt) occurred in carnation plants in greenhouse. We isolated an effective bacterial strains and investigated into the antifungal activity of the antagonistic microorganism and it's identification. Twenty bacterial strains which strongly inhibited Fusarium oxysporum were isolated from roots of carnation plants and the soil in greenhouse, and the best antifungal bacteria designated as C121, was finally selected. Antagonistic bacterial strain, C121 was identified to be the genus Bacillus sp. based on the morphological, biochemical and cultural characterizations. The Bacillus sp. C121 showed 58.1% of antifungal activity against the growth of Fusarium oxysporum. By the bacterialization of the cultural broth and the heat bacterialization culture filtrate of it, Bacillus sp. C121 was shown 92.1% and 21.0% of antifungal activity, respectively.

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Weather Effect and Response of Promoted Rice Varieties on Fusarium Infection in Paddy Field (벼 붉은곰팡이병 감염에 대한 기상조건의 영향과 장려품종의 반응)

  • Lee, Theresa;Jang, Ja Yeong;Kim, Jeomsoon;Ryu, Jae-Gee
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.313-320
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    • 2018
  • Fusarium infection rate of the paddy rice grain after harvest seemed to be influenced by the average temperature from late July (before heading) to the end of September (during ripening). In case of 2010 and 2013 in which average temperature of the same period was similar, Fusarium infection was related to cumulative precipitation, cumulative precipitation days, and precipitation durations over two days. The distribution ratio of Fusarium species complex isolated from paddy rice grains after harvest was 57% in 2010 and 45% in 2013 for Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC), 35% and 50% for Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex, and 8% and 5% for Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). The distribution ratios of FGSC and FFSC were higher in 2010 than 2013. Among the total 26 promoted rice varieties, the 'Mihyang' showed resistant response against the natural infection with Fusarium species belonging to FGSC and the varieties of 'Nampyeong', 'Hi-ami'and 'Younghojinmi' showed resistant response against the natural infection with overall Fusarium pathogens. Majority of the promoted rice varieties could not be classified for resistance or susceptibility. These results are valuable as basic data to determine the resistance and susceptibility of rice variety against Fusarium spp. infection in the field.

Root Rot of Moth Orchid Caused by Fusarium spp.

  • Kim, Wan-Gyu;Lee, Byung-Dae;Kim, Woo-Sik;Cho, Weon-Dae
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.225-227
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    • 2002
  • Moth orchid plants with yellowing blight and root rot symptoms were collected, and a total of 54 isolates of Fusarium spp. was obtained from roots and leaf bases of the diseased plants. The isolates were identified based on their morphological characteristics. Out of the 54 isolates of Fusarium spp., 42 isolates were identified as F. solani, 5 isolates as F. oxysporum, and 7 as F. proliferatum. Isolates of the three Fusarium spp. were tested for pathogenicity to moth orchid plants by artificial inoculation. All the Fusarium spp. induced root rot of the host plants. The symptoms progressed up to the basal part of the leaves, which later caused yellowing blight. The symptoms induced on the plants by artificial inoculation with the Fusarium spp. isolates were similar to those observed in greenhouses. The present study reveals that F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, and F. solani cause root rot of moth orchid, and that F. solani is the main pathogen of the disease.