• Title, Summary, Keyword: G protein signaling

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Arabidopsis nucleoside diphosphate kinase-2 as a plant GTPase activating protein

  • Shen, Yu;Han, Yun-Jeong;Kim, Jeong-Il;Song, Pill-Soon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.41 no.9
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    • pp.645-650
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    • 2008
  • Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) is involved in multiple signaling pathways in mammalian systems, including G-protein signaling. Arabidopsis NDPK2, like its mammalian counterparts, is multifunctional despite its initial discovery phytochrome-interacting protein. This similarity raises the possibility that NDPK2 may play a role in G-protein signaling in plants. In the present study, we explore the potential relationship between NDPK2 and the small G proteins, Pra2 and Pra3, as well as the heterotrimeric G protein, GPA1. We report a physical interaction between NDPK2 and these small G proteins, and demonstrate that NDPK2 can stimulate their GTPase activities. Our results suggest that NDPK2 acts as a GTPase-activating protein for small G proteins in plants. We propose that NDPK2 might be a missing link between the phytochrome-mediated light signaling and G protein-mediated signaling.

Heterotrimeric G protein signaling and RGSs in Aspergillus nidulans

  • Yu Jae-Hyuk
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.145-154
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    • 2006
  • Heterotrimeric G proteins (G proteins) are conserved in all eukaryotes and are crucial components sensing and relaying external cues into the cells to elicit appropriate physiological and biochemical responses. Basic units of the heterotrimeric G protein signaling system include a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), a G protein composed of ${\alpha},\;{\beta},\;and\;{\gamma}$ subunits, and variety of effectors. Sequential sensitization and activation of these G protein elements translates external signals into gene expression changes, resulting in appropriate cellular behaviors. Regulators of G protein signaling (RGSs) constitute a crucial element of appropriate control of the intensity and duration of G protein signaling. For the past decade, G protein signaling and its regulation have been intensively studied in a number of model and/or pathogenic fungi and outcomes of the studies provided better understanding on the upstream regulation of vegetative growth, mating, development, virulence/pathogenicity establishment, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in fungi. This review focuses on the characteristics of the basic upstream G protein components and RGS proteins, and their roles controlling various aspects of biological processes in the model filamentous ascomycete fungus Aspergillus nidulans. In particular, their functions in controlling hyphal proliferation, asexual spore formation, sexual fruiting, and the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin production are discussed.

Biased G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling: New Player in Modulating Physiology and Pathology

  • Bologna, Zuzana;Teoh, Jian-peng;Bayoumi, Ahmed S.;Tang, Yaoliang;Kim, Il-man
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.12-25
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    • 2017
  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a family of cell-surface proteins that play critical roles in regulating a variety of pathophysiological processes and thus are targeted by almost a third of currently available therapeutics. It was originally thought that GPCRs convert extracellular stimuli into intracellular signals through activating G proteins, whereas ${\beta}$-arrestins have important roles in internalization and desensitization of the receptor. Over the past decade, several novel functional aspects of ${\beta}$-arrestins in regulating GPCR signaling have been discovered. These previously unanticipated roles of ${\beta}$-arrestins to act as signal transducers and mediators of G protein-independent signaling have led to the concept of biased agonism. Biased GPCR ligands are able to engage with their target receptors in a manner that preferentially activates only G protein- or ${\beta}$-arrestin-mediated downstream signaling. This offers the potential for next generation drugs with high selectivity to therapeutically relevant GPCR signaling pathways. In this review, we provide a summary of the recent studies highlighting G protein- or ${\beta}$-arrestin-biased GPCR signaling and the effects of biased ligands on disease pathogenesis and regulation.

RGS Proteins and Opioid Signaling (Regulator of G-protein Signaling (RGS) 단백질과 아편 신호 전달)

  • Kim, Kyung Seon;Palmer, Pamela Pierce;Kim, Ki Jun
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.8-16
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    • 2006
  • The regulators of the G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are responsible for the rapid acceleration of the GTPase-activity intrinsic to the heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits. As GTPase-activating proteins (GAP), the RGS proteins negatively regulate the G-protein signals. Recently, the RGS proteins are known to be one of the important regulators of opioid signal transduction and the development of tolerance. The aim of this study was to review the recent discovery and understanding of the role of RGS proteins in opioid signaling and the development of tolerance. This information will be useful for medical personnel, particularly those involved in anesthesia and pain medicine, by helping them improve the effective use of opioids and develop new drugs that can prevent opioid tolerance.

Role of Regulators of G-Protein Signaling 4 in $Ca^{2+}$ Signaling in Mouse Pancreatic Acinar Cells

  • Park, Soon-Hong;Lee, Syng-Ill;Shin, Dong-Min
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.383-388
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    • 2011
  • Regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins are regulators of $Ca^{2+}$ signaling that accelerate the GTPase activity of the G-protein ${\alpha}$ -subunit. RGS1, RGS2, RGS4, and RGS16 are expressed in the pancreas, and RGS2 regulates G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-induced $Ca^{2+}$ oscillations. However, the role of RGS4 in $Ca^{2+}$ signaling in pancreatic acinar cells is unknown. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of GPCR-induced $Ca^{2+}$ signaling in pancreatic acinar cells derived from $RGS4^{-/-}$ mice. $RGS4^{-/-}$ acinar cells showed an enhanced stimulus intensity response to a muscarinic receptor agonist in pancreatic acinar cells. Moreover, deletion of RGS4 increased the frequency of $Ca^{2+}$ oscillations. $RGS4^{-/-}$ cells also showed increased expression of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum $Ca^{2+}$ ATPase type 2. However, there were no significant alterations, such as $Ca^{2+}$ signaling in treated high dose of agonist and its related amylase secretion activity, in acinar cells from $RGS4^{-/-}$ mice. These results indicate that RGS4 protein regulates $Ca^{2+}$ signaling in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

Gene Expression Analysis of Gα13-/- Knockout Mouse Embryos Reveals Perturbations in Gα13 Signaling Related to Angiogenesis and Hypoxia

  • Park, Ji-Hwan;Choi, Sang-Dun
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.161-172
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    • 2011
  • Angiogenesis is regulated by a large number of molecules and complex signaling mechanisms. The G protein $G{\alpha}_{13}$ is a part of this signaling mechanism as an endothelial cell movement regulator. Gene expression analysis of $G{\alpha}_{13}$ knockout mouse embryos was carried out to identify the role of $G{\alpha}_{13}$ in angiogenesis signaling during embryonic development. Hypoxia-inducible response factors including those acting as regulators of angiogenesis were over expressed, while genes related to the cell cycle, DNA replication, protein modification and cell-cell dissociation were under expressed. Functional annotation and network analysis indicate that $G{\alpha}_{13}{^{-/-}}$ embryonic mice were exposed to hypoxic conditions. The present analysis of the time course highlighted the significantly high levels of disorder in the development of the cardiovascular system. The data suggested that hypoxia-inducible factors including those associated with angiogenesis and abnormalities related to endothelial cell division contributed to the developmental failure of $G{\alpha}_{13}$ knockout mouse embryos.

Role of Helix 8 in Dopamine Receptor Signaling

  • Yang, Han-Sol;Sun, Ningning;Zhao, Xiaodi;Kim, Hee Ryung;Park, Hyun-Ju;Kim, Kyeong-Man;Chung, Ka Young
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.514-521
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    • 2019
  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane receptors whose agonist-induced dynamic conformational changes trigger heterotrimeric G protein activation, followed by GRK-mediated phosphorylation and arrestin-mediated desensitization. Cytosolic regions of GPCRs have been studied extensively because they are direct contact sites with G proteins, GRKs, and arrestins. Among various cytosolic regions, the role of helix 8 is least understood, although a few studies have suggested that it is involved in G protein activation, receptor localization, and/or internalization. In the present study, we investigated the role of helix 8 in dopamine receptor signaling focusing on dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). D1R couples exclusively to Gs, whereas D2R couples exclusively to Gi. Bioinformatic analysis implied that the sequences of helix 8 may affect GPCR-G protein coupling selectivity; therefore, we evaluated if swapping helix 8 between D1R and D2R changed G protein selectivity. Our results suggest that helix 8 is not involved in D1R-Gs or D2R-Gi coupling selectivity. Instead, we observed that D1R with D2R helix 8 or D1R with an increased number of hydrophobic residues in helix 8 relative to wild-type showed diminished ${\beta}$-arrestin-mediated desensitization, resulting in increased Gs signaling.

Curcumin Stimulates Proliferation of Spinal Cord Neural Progenitor Cells via a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway

  • Son, Sihoon;Kim, Kyoung-Tae;Cho, Dae-Chul;Kim, Hye-Jeong;Sung, Joo-Kyung;Bae, Jae-Sung
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.56 no.1
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    • pp.1-4
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    • 2014
  • Objective : The aims of our study are to evaluate the effect of curcumin on spinal cord neural progenitor cell (SC-NPC) proliferation and to clarify the mechanisms of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways in SC-NPCs. Methods : We established cultures of SC-NPCs, extracted from the spinal cord of Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250 g to 350 g. We measured proliferation rates of SC-NPCs after curcumin treatment at different dosage. The immuno-blotting method was used to evaluate the MAP kinase signaling protein that contains extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), p38, c-Jun $NH_2$-terminal kinases (JNKs) and ${\beta}$-actin as the control group. Results : Curcumin has a biphasic effect on SC-NPC proliferation. Lower dosage (0.1, 0.5, $1{\mu}M$) of curcumin increased SC-NPC proliferation. However, higher dosage decreased SC-NPC proliferation. Also, curcumin stimulates proliferation of SC-NPCs via the MAP kinase signaling pathway, especially involving the p-ERK and p-38 protein. The p-ERK protein and p38 protein levels varied depending on curcumin dosage (0.5 and $1{\mu}M$, p<0.05). Conclusion : Curcumin can stimulate proliferation of SC-NPCs via ERKs and the p38 signaling pathway in low concentrations.

Atypical Actions of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases

  • Kurose, Hitoshi
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.390-397
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    • 2011
  • G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and ${\beta}$-arrestins have been known as regulators of G protein-coupled receptors. However, it has been recently reported that GRKs and ${\beta}$-arrestins mediate receptor-mediated cellular responses in a G proteinin-dependent manner. In this scheme, GRKs work as a mediator or a scaffold protein. Among 7 members of the GRK family (GRK1-GRK7), GRK2 is the most extensively studied in vitro and in vivo. GRK2 is involved in cellular migration, insulin signaling, and cardiovascular disease. GRK6 in concert with ${\beta}$-arrestin 2 mediates chemoattractant-stimulated chemotaxis of T and B lymphocytes. GRK5 shuttles between the cytosol and nucleus, and regulates the activities of transcription factors. GRK3 and GRK4 do not seem to have striking effects on cellular responses other than receptor regulation. GRK1 and GRK7 play specific roles in regulation of rhodopsin function. In this review, these newly discovered functions of GRKs are briefly described.

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase functionally compartmentalizes the concurrent $G_s$ signaling during $\beta_2$-adrenergic stimulation

  • Jo, Su-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Biophysical Society Conference
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    • pp.29-29
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    • 2003
  • Compartmentation of intracellular signaling pathways serves as an important mechanism conferring the specificity of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. In the heart, stimulation of $\beta$$_2$-adrenoceptor ($\beta$$_2$-AR), a prototypical GPCR, activates a tightly localized protein kinase A (PKA) signaling, which regulates substrates at cell surface membranes, bypassing cytosolic target proteins (eg, phospholamban). Although a concurrent activation of $\beta$$_2$-AR-coupled $G_{i}$ proteins has been implicated in the functional compartmentation of PKA signaling, the exact mechanism underlying the restriction of the $\beta$$_2$-AR-PKA pathway remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) plays an essential role in confining the $\beta$$_2$-AR-PKA signaling. Inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 or wortmannin enables $\beta$$_2$-AR-PKA signaling to reach intracellular substrates, as manifested by a robust increase in phosphorylation of phospholamban, and markedly enhances the receptor-mediated positive contractile and relaxant responses in cardiac myocytes. These potentiating effects of PI3K inhibitors are not accompanied by an increase in $\beta$$_2$-AR-induced cAMP formation. Blocking $G_{i}$ or $G_{$\square$$\square$}$ signaling with pertussis toxin or $\beta$ARK-ct, a peptide inhibitor of $G_{$\square$$\square$}$, completely prevents the potentiating effects induced by PI3K inhibition, indicating that the pathway responsible for the functional compartmentation of $\beta$$_2$-AR-PKA siglaling sequentially involves $G_{i}$, $G_{$\square$$\square$}$, and PI3K. Thus, PI3K constitutes a key downstream event of $\beta$$_2$-AR- $G_{i}$ signaling, which confines and negates the concurrent $\beta$$_2$-AR/Gs-mediated PKA signaling.gnaling.

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