• Title, Summary, Keyword: GC/MS

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Effects of Glucose and Acrylic acid Addition on the Biosynthesis of Medium-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas chlororaphis HS21 from Plant Oils (Pseudomonas chlororaphis HS21에 의한 식물유로부터 Medium-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoates 생합성이 미치는 포도당 및 아크릴산의 첨가 효과)

  • Chung Moon-Gyu;Yun Hye Sun;Kim Hyung Woo;Nam Jin Sik;Chung Chung Wook;Rhee Young Ha
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.225-231
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    • 2005
  • The characteristics of cell growth and medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (MCL-PHA) biosynthesis of Pseudomonas chlororaphis HS21 were investigated using plant oils as the carbon substrate. The organism was efficiently capable of utilizing plant oils, such as palm oil, corn oil, and sunflower oil, as the sole carbon source for growth and MCL-PHA production. When palm oil (5 g/L) was used as the carbon source, the cell growth and MCL-PHA accumulation of this organism occurred simultaneously, and a high dry cell weight (2.4 g/L) and MCL-PHA ($40.2\;mol{\%}$ of dry cell weight) was achieved after 30 hr of batch-fermentation. The repeating unit in the MCL-PHA produced from palm oil composed of 3-hydroxyhexanoate ($7.0\;mol{\%}$), 3-hydroxyoctanoate ($45.3\;mol{\%}$), 3-hydroxydecanoate ($39.0\;mol{\%}$), 3-hydroxydodecanoate ($6.8\;mol{\%}$), and 3-hydroxytetradecanoate ($1.9\;mol{\%}$), as determined by GC/MS. Even though glucose was a carbon substrate that support cell growth but not PHA production, the conversion rate of palm oil to PHA was significantly increased when glucose was fed as a cosubstrate, suggesting that bioconversion of some functionalized carbon substrates to related polymers in P chlororaphis HS21 could be enhanced by the co-feed of good carbon substrates for cell growth. In addition, the change of compositions of repeating units in MCL-PHAs synthesized from the plant oils was markedly affected by the supplementation of acrylic acid, an inhibitor of fatty acid ${\beta}-oxidation$. The addition of acrylic acid resulted in the increase of longer chain-length repeating units, such as 3-hydroxydodecanoate and 3-hydroxytetradecanoate, in the MCL-PHAs produced. Particularly, MCI-PHAs containing high amounts of unsaturated repeating units could be produced when sunflower oil and corn oil were used as the carbon substrate. These results suggested that the alteration of PHA synthesis pathway by acrylic acid addition can offer the opportunity to design new functional MCL-PHAs and other unusual polyesters that have unique physico-chemical properties.

Exploration of optimum conditions for production of saccharogenic mixed grain beverages and assessment of anti-diabetic activity (잡곡당화음료 제조 최적 조건 탐색 및 항당뇨 활성 평가)

  • Lee, Jae Sung;Kang, Yun Hwan;Kim, Kyoung Kon;Yun, Yeong Kyeong;Lim, Jun Gu;Kim, Tae Woo;Kim, Dae Jung;Won, Sang Yeon;Bae, Moo Hoan;Choi, Han Seok;Choe, Myeon
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.12-22
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to establish the production conditions through optimization of the production process of beverages using Aspergillus oryzae CF1001, and to analyze volatile compounds and antidiabetic activity. Methods: The optimum condition was selected using the response surface methodology (RSM), through a regression analysis with the following independent variables gelatinization temperature (GT, $X_1$), saccharogenic time (ST, $X_2$), and dependent variable; ${\Delta}E$ value (y). The condition with the lowest ${\Delta}E$ value occurred with combined 45 min ST and $50^{\circ}C$ GT. The volatile compounds were analyzed quantitatively by GC-MS. Results: Assessment of antidiabetic activity of saccharogenic mixed grain beverage (SMGB) was determined by measurement of ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibition activity, and glucose uptake activity and glucose metabolic protein expression by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. Results of volatile compounds analysis, 62 kinds of volatile compounds were detected in SMGB. Palmitic acid (9.534% ratio), benzaldehyde (8.948% ratio), benzyl ethyl ether (8.792% ratio), ethyl alcohol (8.35% ratio), and 2-amyl furan (4.826% ratio) were abundant in SMGB. We confirmed that ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibition activity, glucose uptake activity, and glucose-metabolic proteins were upregulated by SMGB treatment with concentration dependent manner. Conclusion: Saccharogenic mixed grain beverage (SMGB) showed potential antidiabetic activity. Further studies will be needed in order to improve the taste and functionality of SMGB.

Antifungal activity of extracts from Chamaecyparis obtusa and Pseudotsuga menziesii against Trichoderma spp. (국내산 침엽수 추출물의 Trichoderma spp.에 대한 항균활성)

  • Jung, Ji-Young;Kim, Ji-Woon;Kim, Yeong-Suk;Park, Han-Min;Lee, Byung-Hyun;Choi, Myung-Suk;Yang, Jae-Kyung
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2011
  • The aim of this study was development of natural antifungal compounds from softwood. We investigated antifungal activities of extracts from Pseudotsuga menziesii and Chamaecyparis obtusa against Tricholderma genus which is virus causing green mold disease and analyzed antifungal compounds by Gas chromatography -Mass Spetrometer. Extracts from P. menziesii had inhibition activities against Tricholderma genus on 1,000 ppm and had high antifungal activities against T. viride by 70.1%, T. harzianum by 67.3% and T. aggressivum by 64.7% on 4,000 ppm. And extracts from C. obtusa had antifungal activities against Tricholderma genus on 1,000 ppm and had high antifungal activities against T. viride by 63.2%, T. harzianum by 59.3% and T. aggressivum by 59.1% on 4,000 ppm. But mixing compounds which are made from P. menziesii and C. obtusa extracts by variety ratio had lower antifungal activities than original extracts. Main antifungal active components of P. menziesii extracts against Tricholderma genus were 2-Isopropoxy-ethylamine 46.5%, epifluorohydrin 8.6%, trans-2,3-Di-methyloxirane 7.6%, (IR)-(-)-Myrtenal 6.0%, 2-Methoxy-4-Vinylphenol 3.9% and benzaldehyde 2.8%. In case of C. obtusa extracts, they were ${\alpha}$-Terpinenyl acetate 14.9%, Sabinene 10.9%, dl-Limonene 9.6%, ${\alpha}$-Terpinolene 7.5% and ${\alpha}$-Pinene 7.1%. As mentioned above, these results revealed extracts from P. menziesii and C. obtusa of softwood could be used as potential agents to inhibit Trichoderma genus.

Data Mining Approaches for DDoS Attack Detection (분산 서비스거부 공격 탐지를 위한 데이터 마이닝 기법)

  • Kim, Mi-Hui;Na, Hyun-Jung;Chae, Ki-Joon;Bang, Hyo-Chan;Na, Jung-Chan
    • Journal of KIISE:Information Networking
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.279-290
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    • 2005
  • Recently, as the serious damage caused by DDoS attacks increases, the rapid detection and the proper response mechanisms are urgent. However, existing security mechanisms do not effectively defend against these attacks, or the defense capability of some mechanisms is only limited to specific DDoS attacks. In this paper, we propose a detection architecture against DDoS attack using data mining technology that can classify the latest types of DDoS attack, and can detect the modification of existing attacks as well as the novel attacks. This architecture consists of a Misuse Detection Module modeling to classify the existing attacks, and an Anomaly Detection Module modeling to detect the novel attacks. And it utilizes the off-line generated models in order to detect the DDoS attack using the real-time traffic. We gathered the NetFlow data generated at an access router of our network in order to model the real network traffic and test it. The NetFlow provides the useful flow-based statistical information without tremendous preprocessing. Also, we mounted the well-known DDoS attack tools to gather the attack traffic. And then, our experimental results show that our approach can provide the outstanding performance against existing attacks, and provide the possibility of detection against the novel attack.

Characterization of SEI layer for Surface Modified Cathode of Lithium Secondary Battery Depending on Electrolyte Additives (전해질 첨가제에 따른 graphite 음극의 SEI분석 및 전기 화학적 특성 고찰)

  • Lee, Sung Jin;Cha, Eun Hee;Lim, Soo A
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.69-79
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    • 2016
  • Lithium ion battery with high energy density is expanding its application area to electric automobile and electricity storage field beyond existing portable electric devices. Such expansion of an application field is demanding higher characteristic and stable long life characteristic of an anode material, the natural graphite that became commercialized in lithium ion battery. This thesis produced cathode by using natural graphite anode material, analyzed creation of the cathode SEI film created due to initial reaction by using electrolyte additives, VC (vinylene carbonate), VEC (vinyl ethylene carbonate), and FEC (fluoroethylene carbonate), and considered correlation with the accompanying electrochemical transformation. This study compared and analyzed the SEI film variation of natural graphite cathode according to the electrolyte additive with SEI that is formed at the time of initial filling and cathode of $60^{\circ}C$ life characteristic. At the time of initial filling, the profile showed changes due to the SEI formation, and SEI was formed in No-Additive in approximately 0.9 V through EVS, but for VC, VEC, and FEC, the formation reaction was created above 1 V. In $60^{\circ}C$ lifespan characteristic evaluation, the initial efficiency was highest in No-Additive and showed high contents percentage, but when cycle was progressed, the capacity maintenance rate decreased more than VC and FEC as the capacity and efficiency at the time of filling decreased, and VEC showed lowest performance in efficiency and capacity maintenance rate. Changes of SEI could not be verified through SEM, but it was identified that as the cycle of SEI ingredients was progressed through FT-IR, ingredients of Alkyl carbonate ($RCO_2Li$) affiliation of the $2850-2900cm^{-1}$ was maintained more solidly and the resistance increased as cycle was progressed through EIS, and specially, it was identified that the resistance due to No-Additive and SEI of VEC became very significant. Continuous loss of additives was verified through GC-MS, and the loss of additives from partial decomposition and remodeling of SEI formed the non-uniform surface of SEI and is judged to be the increase of resistance.

Development of Odor-Reduced Korean Traditional Cheonggukjang Added with Job's Tears (냄새저감형 율무청국장 제조에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Ju-Hun;Han, Chan-Kyu;Choi, Sook-Hyun;Lee, Bog-Hieu;Lee, Hye-Jeong;Kim, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.259-266
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed to develop an odor-reduced Korean traditional Cheonggukjang (fermented soybean paste) by adding Job's tears to Cheonggukjang made with soybean (control) only. The study included the determination of best addition percentage of Job's tears versus soybean, sensory evaluation, and aroma patterns and its components as well as proximate composition analyses of Cheonggukjang. Job's tears Cheonggukjang (CAJT) was prepared by inoculating Bacillus subtilis and fermented at $40^{\circ}C$ for 48 hours. Ratios of soybean : Job's tears for Job's tears Cheonggukjang were 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1, respectively. In comparison of proximal composition, Job's tears Cheonggukjang was high in moisture and carbohydrates, but low in calorie, fat, protein, ash and amino nitrogen. The pH of CAJT was lower than those of control and conventional Cheonggukjang (CC) sold in the market, and the acidity was the lowest in CC. The color of Job's tears Cheonggukjang appeared the whiter and more yellowish, but less reddish in proportion to contents of Job's tears. The contents of viscous substances were higher in CAJT compared with those of control and CC. The contents of glutamic acid, the major components of viscous substances were lower in CAJT than in control and CC, and the contents of fructose higher in CAJT. The scores of sensory evaluation were the highest in Job's tears Cheonggukjang mixed with soybean : Job's tears=4:1. The aroma pattern of CC analyzed was conspicuously dissimilar to the control and CAJT and also discriminated by electronic nose examination. The pyrazines, volatile compounds peculiar to Cheonggukjang, were found to be lower in CAJT by SPME-GC/MS assay. Additionally, the acetic acid, butanoic acid, and naphthalene causing off-flavor were identified in CC, but not in Job's tears Cheonggukjang. The strength of odor through sensory evaluation was by far the lowest in CAJT among the groups. From the findings, it had shown that Job's tears Cheonggukjang would be produced successfully when the ratio of 4:1 (soybean : Job's tears) is employed. Also, it was proved that appropriate ratio of Job's tears addition makes Cheonggukjang odor-reduced and well accepted by people.

Description and Application of a Marine Microalga Auxenochlorella protothecoides Isolated from Ulleung-do (울릉도 거북바위 조수웅덩이에서 분리된 해양 미세조류 옥세노클로렐라 프로토테코이드 균주의 기술 및 응용)

  • Jang, Hyeong Seok;Kang, Nam Seon;Kim, Kyeong Mi;Jeon, Byung Hee;Park, Joon Sang;Hong, Ji Won
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1152-1160
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    • 2017
  • A unicellular green alga was axenically isolated from a tidal pool on Ulleung-do, Korea. Morphological, molecular, and biochemical analyses revealed that the isolate belonged to Auxenochlorella protothecoides. The current study is the first record of this species in Korea. The microalgal strain was named as A. protothecoides MM0011 and its growth, lipid and pigment compositions, and biomass properties were investigated. The strain is able to thrive in a wide range of temperatures ($5{\sim}35^{\circ}C$) and to withstand up to 1.5 M NaCl. The results of GC/MS analysis showed that the isolate was rich in nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Its major fatty acids were linoleic acid (27.6%) and ${\alpha}-linolenic$ acid (39.6%). Thus, this indigenous microalga has potential as an alternative source of ${\omega}3$ and ${\omega}6$ PUFAs, which currently come from fish and plant oils. Also, the HPLC analysis revealed that the value-added antioxidant, lutein, was biosynthesized as the accessory pigments by the microalga. A proximate analysis showed that the volatile matter content was 85.6% and an ultimate analysis indicated that the gross calorific value was $20.3MJ\;kg^{-1}$. Since 40.5% of total nitrogen and 27.9% of total phosphorus were removed from the medium, respectively, it also has potential as a feedstock for biofuel applications which could be coupled to wastewater treatment. In addition, the biomass may also serve as an excellent animal feed because of its high protein content (51.4%). Therefore, A. protothecoides MM0011 shows promise for application in production of microalgae-based biochemicals and as a biomass feedstock.

Application of the Extract of Zanthoxylum piperitum DC to Manufacturing Eco-friendly Antimicrobial Interior Fabric Blind Materials (초피 추출물을 이용한 친환경 항균 실내 직물 블라인드 소재 개발)

  • Xie, Li Rui;Jun, Do Youn;Park, Ju Eun;Kwon, Gi Hyun;Cho, Bonggeun;Park, Hyun Woo;Lee, Chang Woo;Kim, Chang Young;Jung, Hyo-Il;Kim, Young Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.936-942
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    • 2016
  • As the incidence of environmental diseases is increasing due to harmful environmental factors, there is a rising interest in developing eco-friendly materials for housing. In this study, we sought to develop antimicrobial interior fabric blind materials by employing ethanol extract of a medicinal plant Zanthoxylum piperitum DC. As determined by the disc diffusion method, the zones of inhibition of the pericarp ethanol extract at a concentration of 5 mg/disc against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus mutans were 13.5±1.5 mm, 14.0±0.5 mm and 15.0±0.1 mm, respectively, whereas the leaf ethanol extract (5 mg/disc) against K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, and S. mutans were 12.8± 0.3 mm, 13.5±1.0 mm, and 12.0±0.1 mm, respectively. The IC50 of the leaf ethanol extract against K. pneumoniae, S. aureus and S. mutans were about 0.5 mg/ml, 0.1 mg/ml and 1.0 mg/ml respectively. To examine whether the leaf ethanol extract possessing antibacterial activity of Z. piperitum DC can be applicable to production of antimicrobial fabric blind materials, the fabrics treated with either 1.0% or 2.0% of the leaf ethanol extract were tested for antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae and S. aureus using International Standard Fabrics Test Method. The results indicate that the fabric treated with the ethanol extract of Z. piperitum DC possesses an excellent antimicrobial activity against both pathogenic bacteria. These results suggest that Z. piperitum DC may be applicable to producing functional fabrics which are effective in reducing the harmful bacterial factors in indoor environments.

Long-term Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Arable Soils in Korea (전국 농경지 토양 중 농약 잔류량 모니터링 및 연차별 변화)

  • Park, Byung-Jun;Lee, Byeong-Moo;Kim, Chan-Sub;Park, Kyung-Hun;Park, Sang-Won;Kwon, Hyeyoung;Kim, Jin-Hyo;Choi, Geun-Hyoung;Lim, Sung-Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.283-292
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    • 2013
  • A series of monitoring studies were carried out to evaluate the residue level of pesticides in different native soils from 1999 to 2006. The nation-wide collection of soil samples from paddy, greenhouse, upland and orchard, were analyzed by GLC (ECD or NPD) and GC/MS. The results obtained are summarized as follows; out of 14 pesticides detected from paddy soils in 1999, the highest residue level was 0.25 mg $kg^{-1}$, and the frequency was 21.7% as butachlor, 20.0% as isoprothiolane, and 16.7% as iprobenfos. In 2003, 7 pesticides were detected and their frequencies were 0~36.0%; the frequency was 36.0% as isoprothiolane and 33.3% as oxadiazon. In the year 2000, 57 pesticides in the greenhouse soil samples were detected with the highest frequency of 65.3%. Of the pesticides detected, endosulfan and procymidone showed the frequency of 65.3 and 50.0%, respectively. In 2004, 19 pesticides were detected from greenhouse soils, and their frequencies and residue levels were decreased. Endosulfan and procymidone showed high detection frequencies and concentrations of 21.3 and 9.3% and 0.76 and 0.31 mg $kg^{-1}$, respectively. In 2001, a total of 25 pesticides were detected through monitoring in 170 upland soils and the highest residue level was 2.24 mg $kg^{-1}$. The detection frequencies showed the range of 0~53.5%. Especially, endosulfan showed the highest frequency of 53.5%. Residue levels and frequencies of pesticide in the year 2005 were almost the same compared with that of the year 2001. As a result of monitoring in 150 orchard soils in 2002, 26 pesticides were detected and the highest residue level was 1.43 mg $kg^{-1}$. Of them, the frequency of endosulfan showed the highest as 45.3%. In 2006, 20 pesticides were detected in orchard soils. The frequency of total endosulfan was the highest as 5.3% but was lower than that of the year 2002.

The Study on the Methylmercury Analysis and the Monitoring of Total Mercury and Methylmercury in Fish (어류 중 메틸수은 분석법 확립 및 모니터링)

  • Kim, Hee-Yun;Chung, So-Young;Sho, You-Sub;Oh, Geum-Soon;Park, Seong-Soo;Suh, Jung-Hyuk;Lee, Eun-Ju;Lee, Yoon-Dong;Choi, Woo-Jeong;Eom, Ji-Yoon;Song, Min-Soo;Lee, Jong-Ok;Woo, Gun-Jo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.882-888
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    • 2005
  • Procedure for analysis of methylmercury in fish was developed, involving addition of HCl, extraction with toluene, and clean-up using L-cystein solution. Obtained extract is analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector using Ulbon HR-Thermon-Hg column. Detection limit and recovery of the method were 0.005mg/kg (expressed as Hg), 98-107 (103%), respectively. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in 175 commercial fish samples ranged from [mean-max (mean), unit: mg/kg]: 0.014-1.200 (0.270) and 0.006-0.901 (0.168) in tuna-fish, 0.020-0.934 (0.323) and 0.012-0.553 (0.149) in martin-fish, 0.082-0.782 (0.391) and 0.040-0.436(0.201) in shark, 0,023-0.031 (0.026) and 0,013-0.018 (0.015) in salmon, 0.098-0.193 (0.133) and 0.031-0.015(0.090) in tilefish, and 0,031-0.214 (0.089) and 0.016-0.093 (0.042) in canned tuna respectively. No sample of analyzed fish exceeded 1.0mg/kg wet wt., limit for methylmercury established by Codex. In all species examined, estimated weekly intake was lower than Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake recommended by the JECFA (the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives).