• Title, Summary, Keyword: GFAP

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GFAP IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN TRIGEMINAL GANGLION SATELLITE CELLS AFTER PULP EXPOSURE IN RAT (흰쥐에서 치수노출 후 삼차신경절의 신경절아교세포에서 GFAP-IR의 변화)

  • Kim, Heung-Jung;Moon, Joo-Hoon
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.782-791
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    • 1997
  • Glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP) are a group of intermediate filaments that are distributed in the cytoplasm of many type of glial cells. The purpose of this study was to determine change of GFAP immunoreactivity(GFAP-IR) in rat trigeminal ganglion satellite cells in response to pulp exposure. The immunohistochemistry was carried out using the avidinbiotin-peroxidase complex(ABC) method and subsequently stained with AEC(3-aminoethyl-9-carbasol). 1. Contol group; Central root astrocytes had strong GFAP-IR, but ganglion satellite cells occasionlly had GFAP-IR. This reaction patterns of ganglion satellite cells was not concenturated in any specific region of trigeminal ganglion. 2. Three day pulp exposure group; There was a highly GFAP-IR in satellite cells of trigeminal ganglion in maxillary region. GFAP-IR in neighboring mandibular and ophthalmic regions was less intense compared to maxillary region. 3. Seven day pulp exposure group; In this group, GFAP-IR that was increased compared to control group was seen in the maxillary region. But GFAP-IR was less intense compared to three day pulp exposure group. These results suggest that GFAP in satellite cell increase in specific region of trigeminal ganglion after pulp exposure and offer useful tool in trigeminal pain research.

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GFAP IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN SATELLITE CEllS OF TRIGEMINAL GANGLION FOllOWING AXOTOMY OF INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE IN RAT (흰쥐에서 하치조신경 절단에 따른 삼차신경절 위성페포에서 GFAP-IR의 변화)

  • Lee, Chang-Seop;Lee, Sang-Ho;Kim, Heung-Jung
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.249-256
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    • 1998
  • Glial fibrillary acidic proteins (GFAP) are a group of intermediate filaments that are distributed in the cytoplasm of glial cells. GFAP immunoreactivity (GFAP-IR) increase after central and peripheral nerve injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine change of GFAP-IR in rat trigeminal ganglion satellite cells following the axotomy of inferior alveolar nerve(IAN). The immunohistochemistry was carried out using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex(ABC) method. 1. Control group : Astrocytes in central root of trigeminal ganglion had strong GFAP-IR, but satellite cells of trigeminal ganglion occasionally had GFAP-IR. The patterns of reactivity in satellite cells of trigeminal ganglion were not concenturated in any specific region of trigeminal ganglion. 2. Three day group after IAN axotomy : There were highly GFAP-IR in satellite cells of trigeminal ganglion in mandibular region. GFAP-IR in maxillary and ophthalmic regions were less intense compared to mandibular region. 3. Seven day group after IAN axotomy : GFAP-IR that were increased compared to control group were seen in the mandibular region. But GFAP-IR were less intense compared to three day group. These results suggest that GFAP-IR increase in specific region of trigeminal ganglion following peripheral axotomy. therefore we suppose that GFAP study offer research tool in trigeminal neuralgia.

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Different expression of human GFAP promoter-derived GFP in different subsets of astrocytes in the mouse brain

  • Moon, Young-Hye;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Joo-Yeon;Kim, Hyun;Kim, Woon-Ryoung;Sun, Woong
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.268-273
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    • 2011
  • Transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of human glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter (hGFAP) have been utilized for in vivo labeling of astrocytes. Although it has been considered that virtually all astrocytes express GFP in this transgenic mouse, we found that different subsets of GFAP-expressing astrocytes express considerably different levels of GFP in the adult brain. Astrocytes in the spinal cord, the molecular layer of thecerebellum, meninges, white matter, corpus callosum and blood vessels exhibited strong GFP, whereas subsets of astrocytes associated with granule cells in the cerebellum and dentate gyrus did not or only marginally exhibited GFP. We also found that a small subset of GFP-expressing cells in the periglomeruli of the olfactory bulb did not express GFAP immunoreactivity. Collectively, these results suggest that human GFAP promoter-derived GFP expression does not faithfully recapitulate the endogenous GFAP expression in mice, suggesting that upstream regulatory mechanisms controlling GFAP transcription are different in different populations of astrocytes, and may reflect the functional diversity of astrocytes.

The Effect of the Radix Ginseng on Expression of CDSI and GFAP Following Hypoxic Injury on Central Nervous System (인삼(人蔘)이 허혈성 중추신경 손상으로 발현 증가된 CD81 및 GFAP에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo, Jong-Hoon;Song, Bong-Gun;Lyu, Yeoung-Su;Kang, Hyung-Won;Kim, Tae-Heon
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.177-197
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : Gliosis disturbs recovery of damaged astrocytes following central nervous system(CNS) injury. Gliosis relates to up-regulation of CD81 and GFAP. In glial cells at injured CNS, the expression of CD81 and GFAP is increased. It is possible that when the gliosis formation is suppressed, regeneration of oxons can occur. According to the recent study, the treatment with anti CD81 antibodies enhanced functional recovery in rats with spinal injury. So, the author studies the effect of water extract of Radix Ginseng on regulation of CD81 and GFAP with CNS injury. Methods : In the cell study, hypoxic damage was induced by CoC12. And according to Longa et al, cerebral ischemia was made by middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. Cross sections of rat brain were examined under microscope. MTT analysis was performed to examine cell viability, cell based ELISA, Western Blot and PCR were used to detect the expression of CD81 and GFAP. Results : The following results were obtained. 1. We found that CD81 and GFAP were decreased in hypoxic injured cells following Radix Ginseng administration. 2. We injected the extract of Radix Ginseng to the middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats, and the immunohistochemistry analysis showed that CDS1 and GFAP were decreased. Conclusions : These results show that the extract of Radix Ginseng could suppress the gliosis formation and prevent cell death, by controlling the expression of CDS1 and GFAP. Therefore, Radix Ginseng could be a useful to regenerate CNS injury.

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Effect of Glial-neuronal Cell Co-culture on GFAP Expression of Astrocytes (신경세포가 별아교세포의 아교섬유성 산단백질 표현에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae Hyung-Mi;Park Jung-Sun;Yeon Dong-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.285-296
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    • 1997
  • Injury to brain transforms resting astrocytes to their reactive form, the hallmark of which is an increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the major intermediate filament protein of their cell type. The overall glial response after brain injury is referred to as reactive gliosis. Glial-neuronal interaction is important for neuronal migration, neurite outgrowth and axonal guidance during ontogenic development. Although much attention has been given to glial regulation of neuronal development and regeneration, evidences also suggest a neuronal influence on glial cell differentiation, maturation and function. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of glial-hippocampal neuronal co-culture on GFAP expression in the co-cultured astrocytes. The following antibodies were used for double immunostaining chemistry; mouse monoclonal antibodies for confirm neuronal cells, rabbit anti GFAP antibodies for confirm astrocytes. Primary cultured astrocytes showed the typical flat polygonal morphology in culture and expressed strong GFAP and vimentin. Co-cultured hippocampal neurons on astrocytes had phase bright cell body and well branched neurites. About half of co-cultured astrocytes expressed negative or weak GFAP and vimentin. After 2 hour glutamate (0.5 mM) exposure of glial-neuronal co-culture, neuronal cells lost their neurites and most of astrocytes expressed strong CFAE and vimentin. In Western blot analysis, total GFAP and vimentin contents in co-cultured astrocytes were lower than those of primary cultured astrocytes. After glutamate exposure of glial-neuronal co-culture, GFAP and vimentin contents in astrocytes were increased to the level of primary cultured astrocytes. These results suggest that neuronal cell decrease GFAP expression in co-cultured astrocytes and hippocampal neuronal-glial co-culture can be used as a reactive gliosis model in vitro for studying GFAP expression of astrocytes.

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Morphological study of GFAP-immunoreactive cells of fetal and neonatal spinal cords of Korean native goat (한국재래산양 태아 및 신생아 척수에서 GFAP 면역반응세포에 관한 형태학적 연구)

  • Song, Chi-Won;Chung, Soo-Youn;Lee, Keun-Jwa;Lee, Kang-Iee;Lee, Kyoung-Youl;Park, Il-Kwon;Park, Mi-Sun;Chung, Seung-Hyuk;Cho, Gyu-Woan;Kim, Moo-Kang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.455-465
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    • 2001
  • Glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP) is one of the intermediate filaments, and used as an astrocyte detection marker. GFAP distribution has been studied on the fetal, neonatal and aged brains. In this study, the GFAP immunoreactive cell localization and distribution in the fetal (30, 45, 60, 90, 105 and 120 days of gestation) and neonate spinal cords of Korean native goat were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Nonpolar radial glial cells initiated to appear at 45 days of gestation. GFAP-immunoreactive processes were extended from central canal to pia matter. Bipolar immumoreactive cells were transformed to monopolar and multipolar immunoreactive cells at 45 days of gestation. Multipolar astrocytes of 60 days of gestation were found within white and gray matters of spinal cord. The number of GFAP-immunoreactive cells were gradually decreased from 90 days of gestation until newborn neonate. The intensity of GFAP immunoreactivity was gradually decreased from 95 days of gestation until newborn neonate. These results suggest that the radial glial cells within the gray and white matters of spinal cord are very fast developed.

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Effects of Fenvalerate on Apoptosis Level and GFAP Expression in the Brain Tissue of the Pale Chub (Pisces: Zacco platypus) (Fenvalerate가 피라미(Zacco platypus) 뇌 조직에서 apoptosis 정도와 GFAP 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sung-Woo;Park, No-Kwan;Lee, Sang-Rae;Reu, Dong-Suck
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.53-59
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    • 2012
  • We evaluated the level of toxicity by LC50 and investigated the mechanism of brain impairment and GFAP expression by light and fluorescence microscopes in the pale chub, Zacco platypus, treated with fenvalerate. Survival rate was decreased according to the rise of fenvalerate concentration, and LC50 concentration was $27.79{\mu}g/L$. Apoptosis was increased according to the rise of fenvalerate concentration by TUNEL assay which determine apoptotic cell death population. Also, GFAP expression was increased in the periventricular zone. These results suggest that apoptosis might be a major mechanism to brain impairment of the pale chub by fenvalrerate. Increased GFAP expression in the periventricular zone would be an index of brain impairment. Taken together, this study might contribute to reveal the pathological mechanism of fish brain impairment by insecticide of pyrethroid, and to be an useful basic data for preservation of aquatic ecosystem.

The Effect of the Moutan Radicis Cortex on Expression of CD81 and GFAP in Injured Astrocyte (목단피(牧丹皮)가 손상된 성상신경세포의 CD81 및 GFAP의 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon, Sung-Jin;Seon, Ki-Moon;Lim, Jin-Young;Song, Bong-Keun
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.24-35
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    • 2009
  • Object : In conditions of brain infarction, irreversible axon damage occurs in the central nerve system (CNS), because gliosis makes physical and mechanical barriers. If gliosis formation could be suppressed, irreversible axon damage would be reduced. This could mean that an injured CNS could be regenerated. CD81 and GFAP have close relationships to gliosis. The increase in glial cells at CNS injury gives rise to the expression of CD81 and GFAP. CD81 was postulated to play a central role in the process of CNS scar formation. Method : In this study, the author investigated the effect of the water extract of the Moutan Radicis Cortex on regulation of CD81 and GFAP expression in injured CNS cells. MTT assay was used to examine cell viability, while RT-PCR and ELISA methods were carried out to measure the expression of CD81 and GFAP in the astrocyte. Results : We observed that water extract of the Moutan Radicis Cortex increased cell viability under hypoxia induced by $CoCl_2$ and suppressed the expression of CD81 and GFAP up-regulated by hypoxia. Conclusion : These results suggest that the Moutan Redicis Cortex could promote neural regeneration as a consequence of protecting CNS cells from hypoxia and suppressing the reactive gliosis following CNS injury.

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The Effect of the Salvia miltiorrhiza on Axon Regeneration Following Central Nervous System Injury (단삼(丹蔘)이 손상된 뇌신경세포에 미치는 영향)

  • Shim, Ha-Na;Seong, Kee-Moon;Moon, Seong-Jin;Lee, Seung-Hee;Yang, Jae-Hoon;Song, Bong-Keun
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.47-59
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    • 2008
  • Object: Reactive gliosis that is induced by central nervous system (CNS) injury is involved with up-regulation of CD81 and GFAP. The present study was to examine the effect of the Salvia miltiorrhiza on CD81 and GFAP regulation following brain injury. Methods: Immunoblot and ELISA methods were used to define the level of CD81 and GFAP in the astrocyte cultured from rat brain. Then immunohistochemistry was used to detect CD81 and GFAP in the injured rat brain. Results: The following results were obtained. 1. We did western blot and ELISA to detect the protein isolated from the whole cell and they showed that CD81 and GFAP decreased. 2. We injected Salvia miltiorrhiza extract intravenously to brain-injured rats for 7 days and 30 days, and the immunohistochemistry analyses showed that CD81 and GFAP decreased significantly. Conclusion: These results indicate that Salvia miltiorrhiza could suppress the reactive gliosis, which disturbs the neural regeneration following CNS injury, by controlling the expression of CD81 and GFAP.

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Effect of the Water Extract of Persicae Semen on Promotion of Axon Regeneration (도인(桃仁)이 중추신경 재생 촉진에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Jin-Bong;Moon, Goo;Lee, Jong-Deuk;Won, Jin-Hee;Lee, Jae-Won
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.145-152
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    • 2007
  • Following CNS injury, inhibitory influences at the site of axonal damage occur. Glial cells become reactive and form a glial scar, gliosis. Astrocyte-rich gliosis relates with up-regulation of GFAP and CD81, and eventually becomes physical and mechanical barrier to axonal regeneration. It is postulated that the astrocytic reaction is absent, regeneration of axons can occur. And it was reported that treatment with anti CD81 antibodies enhanced functional recovery in the rat with spinal cord injury. So in this current study, the author investigated the effect of the water extract of Persicae Semen on the regulation of GFAP and CD81 that increase when gliosis occurs. Persicae Semen decreased the expression of GFAP and CD81 in astrocyte cell by ELISA method. Persicae Semen decreased the RNA expression of CD81 and GFAP. The proteins that separate in whole cell were analaysed by western blot, and the expression of GFAP and CD81 was decreased. In vivo, rats brains were peformed cortical stab wound, the water extracts of Persicae Semen were injected for 7 days, 30 days. As a result, GFAP and CD81 expression were decreased in immunohistochemistry. These findings demonstrate that Persicae Semen decreases GFAP and CD81 expression. Accordingly, Persicae Semen could be a candidate for promotion of axon regeneration after CNS injury.