• Title, Summary, Keyword: Gallic acid

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Optimization of Extraction Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Gallic Acid from Cornus officinallis (산수유로부터 gallic acid 추출 및 HPLC에 의한 정량분석)

  • Jang, Mi;Kim, Yeon-Ju;Min, Jin-Woo;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.498-502
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    • 2009
  • Cornus fructus has been used as a tonic, astringent, and haemostatic agent in Korea, China, and Japan. In this study, the fruit of Cornus officinalis was treated with different osmotic pressures, pH values, heat, and ethanol percentages in order to establish optimum extraction conditions for gallic acid, an example of a hydrolyzable tannin. The extract was analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS/MS to identify the gallic acid. As a result, the highest extraction rate of gallic acid (1.57 mg/g) occurred when the Cornus fructus was extracted with 100% ethanol for 1 hr at $80^{\circ}C$. Also, when it was treated with 70% ethanol for 24 and 48 hr, contents of gallic acid were 1.35 and 1.50 mg/g, respectively.

Antioxidative and Macrophage Phagocytic Activities and Functional Component Analyses of Selected Korean Chestnut (Castanea crenata S. et Z.) Cultivars (국내산 밤 일부 품종의 기능성 성분분석과 항산화 및 대식세포 활성)

  • Lee, Hyeon-Ju;Chung, Mi-Ja;Cho, Jae-Youl;Ham, Seung-Shi;Choe, Myeon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.9
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    • pp.1095-1100
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    • 2008
  • Antioxidative and macrophage phagocytic activities and contents of functional component in selected Korean chestnuts (Dantaek, Daebo, Okkwang, Seokchu, Byunggo) were evaluated. Coumarin, gallic acid and catechin in inner skin and whole kernel of selected Korean chestnuts were detected by HPLC. The predominant functional components in inner skin of chestnut were catechin, followed by gallic acid and coumarin. However, the whole kernel had only gallic acid. Thus, the antioxidant properties of gallic acid and catechin were evaluated through DPPH radical-scavenging activity and SOD like activity. Gallic acid and catechin at 6.0 mg/100 g exhibited 69.4% and 38.3% of scavenging activities on DPPH radical, respectively. DPPH radical-scavenging activity of gallic acid increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Gallic acid was found to possess higher DPPH radical-scavenging activity than equivalent amount of catechin at all concentrations, whereas catechin was found to have higher SOD like activity than gallic acid. In addition, pre-incubation of macrophage with white kernel extract from Byunggo resulted in a significant increase of phagocytic activity and yellow kernel extracts from Byunggo, Dantaek, Daebo and Okkwang, leading to an increase in phagocytic activity compared with untreated cells. Yellow kernel extracts was found to have higher phagocytic activity than white kernel extracts. Byunggo had the highest phagocytic activity. The results suggest that the Korean chestnut may provide a natural source of antioxidants and active immunity.

Role of Gallic Acid in Inflammatory Allergic Process

  • Choi, Cheol-Hee;Kim, Sang-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.101-108
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    • 2006
  • The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether gallic acid could modulate the inflammatory allergic reaction and to study its mechanism of action Gallic acid inhibited compound 48/80- or immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced histamine release from mast cells. The inhibitory effect of gallic acid on the histamine release was mediated by modulation of cAMP and intracellular calcium. Gallic acid decreased the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and production such as TNF- ${\alpha}$ and IL-6 in human mast cells, and the inhibitory effect of gallic acid was on dependent nuclear factor- ${\kappa}$B and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Our findings provide evidence that gallic acid inhibits mast cell-derived inflammatory allergic reaction by blocking histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression.

Production of Pyrogallol from Gallic Acid by Erwinia sp. (Erwinia sp.에 의한 Gallic Acid로부터 Pyrogallol의 생산)

  • 박병화;황인균;방원기
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.665-671
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    • 1994
  • For the production of pyrogallot from gallic acid, about 100 strains of bacteria capable of assimilating gallic acid as a sole carbon and energy source were isolated from the soil. JH- 004 strain showing the highest activity of gallate decarboxy#lase was selected from them and identi- fied as Erwinia sp. The optimal conditions for the production of pyrogallol from gallic acid were examined. The resting cells of JH-004 cultured in a complex medium containing 0.2%(w/v) gallic acid were prepared after the treatment of the pellet with a freezing and thawing, and used as a enzyme source. The reaction mixtures for the maximal production of pyrogallol were shown to be 6 g/l of resting cells and 15 g/l of gallic acid in 25 mM potassium phosphate buffer. The optimal pH for the reaction was 5.0 and the optimal temperature was 35$\circ$C . Additionally, Triton X-100(0.01%, w/v) was found to be most effective for the production of pyrogallol. Under the above conditions, 10.27 g/l of pyrogallol was produced from 15 g/l of gallic acid after incubation of 35 hrs. This amount of pyrogallol corresponds to a 92.37% yields, based on gallic acid.

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The influence of Procyanidins, Gallic acid and Theaflavins extracted level when fermented sun-dried salt and green tea (천일염을 이용한 녹차의 발효가 Procyanidins와 Gallic acid 및 Theaflavins 추출량에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Hyun;Choi, Cheol-Won
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.3774-3780
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    • 2014
  • This study examined green tea fermented by the addition of sun-dried salt to increase the extraction of Procyanidins and Gallic acid and Theaflavins. An experiment on the change in the amount of the extract according to the saturation degree of sun-dried salt was performed. The sample of fermented only green tea extracted only Gallic acid (0.004 mg/g). No Procyanidins and Theaflavins were extracted. When the green tea was fermented by sun-dried salt, large amounts of the three compounds were extracted: Procyanidins, 75%(0.244 mg/g) and 100%(0.949 mg/g); Gallic acid, 75%(0.386 mg/g) and 100%(0.691 mg/g), and Theaflavins, 75%(0.083 mg/g). According to the date of fermentation, the largest amount of Procyanidins, Gallic acid and Theaflavins extracted were on the 2nd day(0.295 mg/g) and 7th day(2,256 mg/g) and 4th day(0.168 mg/g), respectively.

Chemical Constituents of Domestic Quercus spp. Leaves (국내산 참나무속 수종 잎의 추출성분)

  • Kim, Jin-Kyu;Bae, Young-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.61-71
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to investigate chemotaxonomical correlation an d the chemical constituents of domestic Quercus sp. leaves. The leaves of Q. mongolica, Q. aliena, Q. serrata, Q. acutissima, Q. dentata and Q. variabilis were collected in the experimental forest of Kangwon National University. The combined extracts were successively fractionated with n -hexane, methylene chloride and ethyl acetate using a separation funnel. A portion of the ethyl acetate and $H_2O$ soluble materials of each species were chromatographed on a Sephadex LH-20 column using various aqueous MeOH and EtOH-hexane as washing solvents. Spectrometric analysis such as NMR and MS, including TLC, were performed to characterize the structures of the isolated compounds. Gallic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-gallocatechin, kaempferol, astragalin, astragalin-6"-O-gallate, isoquercitrin, isoquercitrin-6"-O-gallate and myricetin were isolated from Q. mongolic a leaves. Gallic acid, kaempferol and quercetin were characterized from Q. acutissima leaves. Gallic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, kaempferol, quercetin, guajaverin and tamarixin were identified from Q. dentata leaves. Gallic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, kaempferol, quercitrin, isoquercitrin and myricetin were purified from Q. serrata leaves. Gallic acid, (+)-catechin, astragalin, astragalin-6"-O-gallate and isoquercitrin were isolated from Q. variabilis leaves. Gallic acid was isolated from all the leaves and could be a taxonomic index on Quercus spp..

Evaluation of Radical Scavenging and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Effects of Gallic Acid Reactants Using Polyphenol Oxidase (폴리페놀산화효소를 활용한 Gallic Acid 반응물의 라디칼 소거 및 α-Glucosidase 저해 활성 평가)

  • Jeong, Yun Hee;Kim, Tae Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.9
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    • pp.1385-1390
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    • 2016
  • Gallic acid is a representative hydroxybenzoic acid and is found in free form in several plants and in various esterified forms as a part of hydolyzable tannins. Convenient enzymatic transformation of trihydroxylated gallic acid with polyphenol oxidase originating from pear was evaluated to investigate whether polyphenol oxidase can be used as a valuable compound to improve the biological activity of gallic acid. Enzymatic oxidation processing of gallic acid using polyphenol oxidase was carried out for five different reaction times. The antioxidant effects of transformed gallic acid for different reaction times were evaluated via radical scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. In addition, the anti-diabetic property of the transformed gallic acid was measured based on ${\alpha}$-glucosidase. Gallic acid reacted for 5 h showed significantly higher antioxidant and ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activities compared to the tested positive control substances. Biotransformation of simple gallic acid induced by polyphenol oxidase might be responsible for enhancing the biological activity of gallic acid.

Unique Phenolic Sulphate Conjugates from the Flowers of Tamarix amplexicaulis

  • Souleman, Ahmed A.M.;Barakat, Heba H.;Hussein, Sahar A.M.;El-Mousallamy, Amani M.D.;Nawwar, Mahmoud A.M.
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.245-252
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    • 1998
  • The unique sulphated phenolics, gallic acid 3-methyl ether 5-potassium sulphate, isoferulic acid 3-potassium sulphate, and ellagic acid 4,4'-dimethyl ether 3-potassium sulphate have been isolated from the flowers of Tamarix amplexicaulis Ehrenb. (Tamaricaceae). The hitherto unknown natural phenolic acid, gallic acid 3-methyl ether, together with the known phenolic, gallic acid, gallic acid 4-methyl ether, isoferulic acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, and ellagic acid 4,4'-dimethyl ether have been also separated and characterized. The structures were established by conventional methods, including electrophoretic analysis and confirmed by ESI-MS, $^1H-\;and\;^{13}C-NMR$.

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Synthesis of a Novel Compound from Gallic Acid and Linoleic Acid and its Biological Functions

  • Jo, Cheo-Run;Jeong, Ill-Yun;Lee, Na-Young;Kim, Kwan-Soo;Byun, Myung-Woo
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.317-320
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    • 2006
  • Octadeca-9,12-dienyl-3,4,5-hydroxybenzoate (GA-LA) was chemically synthesized from gallic acid and linoleic acid ester, and its biological functions were tested. Radical-scavenging activity of GA-LA was comparable to those of gallic and ascorbic acids at 0.24 mM, and tyrosinase inhibition effect was higher than that of ascorbic acid. Gallic and linoleic acids did not show any tyrosinase activity. Results of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition effect indicate GA-LA has higher selectivity in COX-1 inhibition. GA-LA from gallic and linoleic acids could be used as functional reagent for antioxidative, skin-whitening, and anti-inflammatory effects in food, pharmaceutrical, and cosmetic industries.

Effect of Water Extract from Artemisiae Argi Folium on Hydrogen Peroxide Production within Mouse Macrophage Raw 264.7 Cells Treated with Gallic acid, EtOH, LPS, and Acetaminophen (Gallic acid, EtOH, LPS, Acetaminophen으로 유발된 마우스 대식세포 내 hydrogen peroxide 생성억제에 대한 애엽 물추출물의 영향 연구)

  • Park, Wan-Su
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.1495-1499
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of water extract from Artemisiae Argi Folium (WAAF) on hydrogen peroxide production within mouse macrophage Raw 264.7 Cells treated with gallic acid, EtOH, LPS, and acetaminophen. WAAF (0${\sim}$400 ug/mL) was treated with gallic acid, EtOH, LPS, acetaminophen. And the intracellular productions of hydrogen peroxide were measured by dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) assay. WAAF showed the restoration of the intracellular productions of hydrogen peroxide which were reduced by gallic acid, EtOH, LPS, and acetaminophen in Raw 264.7 Cells. WAAF could be supposed to have the immunological activity related with macrophage's oxidative burst.