• Title, Summary, Keyword: Gallic acid

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Selective Cytotoxicities of Phenolic Acids in Cancer Cells (페놀산의 구조가 암세포에 대한 세포독성에 미치는 영향)

  • 한두석;오상걸;오은상
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.45-50
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the role of substituted groups in phenolic compounds to develop an anticancer agent having strong cytotoxicity against cancer cells but weak against normal cells. The phenolic compounds used in this study were gallic acid and ferulic acid with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, syringic acid with hydroxyl, carboxyl and methoxy groups, and pyre-gallol with hydroxyl groups. Cytotoxicities of these compounds were evaluated by MTT assay for cell viability and XTT assay for cell adhesion activity in normal human skin fibroblast (Detroit 551) and human skin melanoma (SK-MEL-3) cells. Syringic acid, gallic acid and ferulic acid decreased the cell viability and cell adhesion activity in SK-MEL-3 cells but not in Detroit 551 cells while pyrogallol decreased in both cells. The susceptibility of cell viability based on the $IC_{50}$ values of MTT assay in Detroit 551 cells was in the following order: pyrogallol > gallic acid > ferulic acid > syringic acid, while it was in SK-MEL-3 cells: Syringic acid > progallol > ferulic acid > gallic acid. These results suggest that carboxyl and methoxy groups of these compounds play an important role in selectivity of cytotoxicity in normal and cancer cells.

Quantitative Analysis of the Three Marker Compounds in Sanguisorbae Radix by Processing Method (포제에 따른 지유의 지표성분 함량분석)

  • Seo, Chang-Seob;Kim, Jung-Hoon;Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo;Kim, Byoung-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.342-351
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    • 2015
  • In this study, we performed quantitative determination of the three marker compounds such as gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin in the 70% ethanol extracts of non-processed Sanguisorbae Radix and processed Sanguisorbae Radix using a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector. The analytical column for separation of the three compounds was used a Gemini $C_{18}$ column ($5{\mu}m$, $4.6{\times}250mm$) by the gradient elution with distilled water and acetonitrile containing 1.0% (v/v) acetic acid as mobile phase. The flow rate and injection volume were $1.0{\mu}L/min$ and $10{\mu}L$. The concentrations of gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin in non-processed Sanguisorbae Radix were 0.25, 0.26, and 0.007%, respectively, while the concentrations of gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin in non-processed Sanguisorbae Radix 0.14-0.55, 0.27-2.03, and 0.001-0.007%, respectively. Among the three components, the amount of the ellagic acid was increased after processing in Sanguisorbae Radix.

Antioxidative Constituents from Paeonia lactiflora

  • Lee, Seung-Chul;Kwon, Yong-Soo;Son, Kyung-Hun;Kim, Hyun-Pyo;Heo, Moon-Young
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.775-783
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    • 2005
  • The ethanol extract of the peony root (Paeonia Lactiflora Pall, Paeoniaceae) as well as its major active components including gallic acid and methyl gallate were evaluated for their protective effects against free radical generation and lipid peroxidation. In addition, the protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative DNA damage in a mammalian cell line were examined. The ethanol extracts of the peony root (PREs) and its active constituents, gallic acid and methyl gallate, exhibited a significant free radical scavenging effect against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine (DPPH) radical generation and had an inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation, as measured by the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. The PREs did not have any pro-oxidant effect. They strongly inhibited the hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage from NIH/3T3 fibroblasts, as assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, the oral administration of 50% PRE (50% ethanol extract of peony root), gallic acid and methyl gallate potently inhibited the formation of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRET) in the mouse peripheral blood induced by a $KBrO_3$ treatment in vivo. Therefore, PREs containing gallic acid and methyl gallate may be a useful antigenotoxic antioxidant by scavenging free radicals, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and protecting against oxidative DNA damage without exhibiting any pro-oxidant effect.

Inhibitory Activity of IL-6 Production by Flavonoids and Phenolic Compounds from Geranium thunbergii

  • Liu, Qing-He;Woo, Eun-Rhan
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.16-20
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    • 2008
  • Three flavonoids (1 - 3) and three phenolic compounds (4 - 6) were isolated from the whole plant of Geranium thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc (Geraniaceae). Their structures were determined by chemical and spectral analysis. These compounds were examined for the inhibitory activity of IL-6 production in $TNF-{\alpha}$ stimulated MG-63 cell. Among the isolated compounds, gallic acid (4) and gallic acid methyl ester (6) showed potent inhibitory activity.

Antioxidative Activity of Solvent Fraction and Isolation of ANtioxidative Compound from Chestnut Husk (밤 귀피의 용매분획별 항산화 활성과 항산화 물질의 분리)

  • 권은정;김영찬;권미선;김창섭;강우원
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.726-731
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    • 2001
  • To enhance the utilization of chestnut husk discarded in the processing company antioxidative activities and compounds were investigated. Antioxidative activities of solvent fractions from chestnut husk were examined by benzoic acid hydroxylation method ferric thiocyanate method and DPPH test. Ethyl acetate fraction showed strong antioxidative activities comparable to BHA. Active compounds were isolated and purified from ethyl acetate fraction by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and preparative HPLC. A major active compound gallic acid was identified by $^{1}$H and $^{13}$ C-NMR. The phenolic acid contents was analyzed by GC and ellagic acid (172.22 mg%) and gallic acid (107.39 mg%) were major phenolic acid of chestnut husk.

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Antioxidative activity of peony root

  • Lee, Seung-Chul;Kwon, Yong-Soo;Kim, Hyun-Pyo;Heo, Moon-Young
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.61-61
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    • 2003
  • The ethanol extract of peony root (Paeonia Lactiflora Pall, Paeoniaceae) and its major active components including gallic acid and methyl gallate were evaluated for their protective effects against free radical generation and lipid peroxidation. And protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative DNA damage in a mammalian cell line were performed. The ethanol extract of peony root (PRE), gallic acid and methyl gallate were shown to possess the significant free radical scavenging effect against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine (DPPH) radical generation and were revealed the inhibitory effect of lipid peroxidation as expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. They were also found to strongly inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage from NIH/3T3 fibroblasts, assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, oral administration of 50% PRE (50% ethanol extract), gallic acid and methyl gallate potently inhibited micronucleated reticulocyte (MNRET) formation of mouse peripheral blood induced by KBrO3 treatment in vivo. Therefore, PRE containing gallic acid and methyl gallate may be a useful natural antioxidant by scavenging free radicals, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and protecting oxidative DNA damage.

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Effect of Artemisiae Argi Folium Fermented with Lactobacillus Pentosus on Viability of Human Hepatocyte Treated with Toxicants (EtOH 등의 독성물질에 대한 유산균발효애엽 추출물의 간세포보호효과)

  • Park, Wan-Su
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.457-462
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of water extract from Artemisiae Argi Folium Fermented with Lactobacillus pentosus (AFL) on viability of human hepatocyte HepG2 cells treated with hepatotoxicants such as EtOH, gallic acid, nicotine, acetaminophen, acetaldehyde, and lipopolysaccharide. AFL (0~400 ug/mL) was treated with EtOH, gallic acid, nicotine, acetaminophen, acetaldehyde, and lipopolysaccharide. And the viability of HepG2 cells was measured by MTT assay. AFL at the high concentration such as 400 ug/mL showed to increase significantly viabilities of HepG2 cells compared with hepatotoxicants (EtOH, gallic acid, nicotine, acetaminophen, and lipopolysaccharide) only (p<0.05). AFL could be supposed to have the hepatoprotective effect against hepatotoxicants such as gallic acid, EtOH, nicotine, acetaminophen, and lipopolysaccharide at the high concentration.

Effect of Artemisiae Argi Folium Fermented with Sacchromyces Cerevisiae on Viability of Human Hepatocyte Treated with Toxicants (EtOH 등의 독성물질에 대한 효모균발효애엽 추출물의 간세포보호효과)

  • Park, Wan-Su
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.284-289
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of water extract from Artemisiae Argi Folium Fermented with Sacchromyces cerevisiae (AFS) on viability of human hepatocyte HepG2 cells treated with hepatotoxicants such as EtOH, gallic acid, nicotine, acetaminophen, acetaldehyde, and lipopolysaccharide. AFS (0~400 ug/mL) was treated with EtOH, gallic acid, nicotine, acetaminophen, acetaldehyde, and lipopolysaccharide. And the viability of HepG2 cells was measured by MTT assay. AFS showed to increase significantly viabilities of HepG2 cells compared with hepatotoxicants (EtOH, gallic acid, nicotine, acetaminophen, and lipopolysaccharide) only (p<0.05). AFS could be supposed to have the hepatoprotective effect against hepatotoxicants such as gallic acid, EtOH, nicotine, acetaminophen, and lipopolysaccharide.

Effect of Artemisiae Argi Folium Fermented with Sacchromyces Cerevisiae on Hydrogen Peroxide Production of Human Hepatocyte Treated with Toxicants (Nicotine 등으로 유발된 인간 간조직세포 내 hydrogen peroxide 생성억제에 대한 효모균발효애엽 추출물의 영향)

  • Park, Wan-Su
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.96-101
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of water extract from Artemisiae Argi Folium Fermented with Sacchromyces cerevisiae (AFS) on hydrogen peroxide production within human hepatocyte HepG2 cells treated with gallic acid, EtOH, nicotine, acetaminophen, and acetaldehyde. AFS (0~400 ug/mL) was treated with gallic acid, EtOH, nicotine, acetaminophen, and acetaldehyde. And the intracellular productions of hydrogen peroxide were measured by dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) assay. AFS showed the restoration of the intracellular productions of hydrogen peroxide which were reduced by gallic acid, EtOH, nicotine, acetaminophen, and acetaldehyde in HepG2 Cells. AFS could be supposed to have the hepatoprotective effect related with hepatocytologic signaling activity against gallic acid, EtOH, nicotine, acetaminophen, and acetaldehyde.