• Title, Summary, Keyword: Gallic acid

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Effect of Phenolic Extract of Dry Leaves of Lespedeza cuneata G. Don on Antioxidant Capacity and Tyrosinase Inhibition (야관문 잎 페놀 추출물의 항산화능 및 미백 효과)

  • Cho, Eun-Jung;Ju, Hyun-Mi;Jeong, Chang-Ho;Eom, Seok-Hyun;Heo, Ho-Jin;Kim, Dae-Ok
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.358-365
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    • 2011
  • Lespedeza cuneata G. Don is a plant commonly grown in Asian countries, which has been widely used as an oriental medicinal herb to treat diabetes, diarrhea and various other inflammatory diseases. The phenolics of dry leaves of L. cuneata G. Don were extracted by using 80% (v/v) aqueous methanol in assistance with homogenization and sonification. The phenolic extract and its five different fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water) were used to evaluate the levels of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity as well as the inhibitory effect of tyrosinase activity. Ethyl acetate fraction (1 g) had the highest levels of total phenolics at 240.8 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE), total flavonoids as 90.4 mg catechin equivalents (CE) as well as antioxidant capacity at 523.4 mg vitamin C equivalents (VCE) on ABTS assay and 329.5 mg VCE on DPPH assay among fractions. One g of water fraction contained total phenolics at 133.1 mg GAE, total flavonoids at 34.5 mg CE, and antioxidant capacity at 333.4 mg VCE for ABTS assay and 313.2 mg VCE for DPPH assay. Inhibition of tyrosinase activity of water fraction at 300 ${\mu}g{\cdot}mL^{-1}$ was at 47.2% and 21.1% for L-tyrosine and L-DOPA as its substrate, respectively. On the other hand, ethyl acetate fraction at 300 ${\mu}g{\cdot}mL^{-1}$ showed tyrosinase inhibition of 10.2% for L-tyrosine and 11.9% for L-DOPA. These results suggested that the phenolics from dry leaves of L. cuneata G. Don may be utilized as a potent source of antioxidants and skin whitening agents.

Comparative Analysis of Catechins and Antioxidant Capacity in Various Grades of Organic Green Teas Grown in Boseong, Korea (보성산 유기농 녹차의 품질에 따른 카테킨 함량과 항산화능 비교 분석)

  • Park, Kyung-Ryun;Lee, Sang-Gil;Nam, Tae-Gyu;Kim, Young-Jun;Kim, Young-Rok;Kim, Dae-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.82-86
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    • 2009
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various solvents on extraction of bioactive phenolics and to analyze the antioxidant capacity and contents of individual catechins in various grades of green teas organically grown in Boseong, Korea. The organic green teas, based on their harvest seasons, were categorized into five grades such as Woo-Jeon, Se-Jak, Jung-Jak, Dae-Jak, and coarse tea. Solvents used to extract phenolics from these teas included water at $23^{\circ}C$ and $70^{\circ}C$ as well as 80% (v/v) aqueous methanol and ethanol. In general, aqueous organic solvents of methanol and ethanol led to higher extraction yields of phenolics than water at $23^{\circ}C$ and $70^{\circ}C$. Total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of the teas extracted with the aqueous organic solvents were approximately 1.5 to 3.2 and 1.8 to 3.8 times higher than those with water at $23^{\circ}C$ and $70^{\circ}C$, respectively. Coarse tea, the lowest grade of green tea, showed approximately 30-60% lower total phenolics and antioxidant capacity compared with the higher grade ones. Reversed-phase HPLC analysis was performed quantitatively to identify individual catechins, gallic acid, and caffeine in teas extracted with 80% (v/v) aqueous methanol. Based on their dry weights, the organic green teas contained about 1.7 to 2.9% of caffeine. Content (mg/g dry weight) of tea catechins decreased in the following order: Woo-Jeon (155.4) > Se-Jak (147.7) > Jung-Jak (143.2) > coarse tea (135.1) > Dae-Jak (130.5). (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate was the most abundant among the catechins analyzed. The highest grade of green tea, Woo-Jeon, had the highest amount of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate at 77.4 mg/g dry weight. Overall, the higher grade of organic green teas tended to have the higher level of antioxidant capacity and catechins.

Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Color Changes and Antioxidative Activities of Caesalpinia sappan L. (감마선 조사에 의한 소목추출물의 색상변화 및 항산화 활성 평가)

  • Kwon, Hyung-Jun;Jung, U-Hee;Park, Hae-Ran;Shin, Dong-Hwa;Jo, Sung-Kee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.8
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    • pp.1055-1061
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    • 2007
  • Caesalpinia sappan L. is an indeciduous tree distributed in China, India, Miyanmar and Vietnam. Its heartwood has long been used in oriental folk medicines to treat diseases. In this study, antioxidative activities of Caesalpinia sappan L. and the effect of gamma irradiation on its chemical and biological properties were investigated. The ethyl acetate fraction (EtOAc fr.) of Caesalpinia sappan L. was irradiated with 100 kGy of gamma ray. The dark red color of EtOAc fr. was significantly (p<0.05) removed by irradiation (Hunter L and b values increased and a value decreased). The total phenolic content of EtOAc fr. was 865 mg/g and it was increased to 1195 mg/g by gamma irradiation. DPPH radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity of EtOAc fr. were very high and its activities were also increased by gamma irradiation. EtOAc fr. also inhibited the irradiation-induced DNA damage of lymphocyte as determined by comet assay. In conclusion, EtOAc fr. of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract showed high antioxidative activities in vitro. Furthermore, gamma irradiation on EtOAc fr. ameliorated the color and antioxidative properties. Therefore, it can be suggested that Caesalpinia sappan L. may be a good material for antioxidant function and gamma irradiation may be applied for the improvement of chemical and biological properties of Caesalpinia sappan L.

The Impact of Cooking on the Antioxidative and Antigenotoxic Effects of Rice (호화과정이 백미, 현미, 발아현미의 항산화 및 항유전 독성 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, So-Yun;Seo, Bo-Young;Park, Eunju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.9
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    • pp.1370-1377
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    • 2013
  • Rice is widely grown in Asia and is one of the major dietary staples in the world. Also, rice contains antioxidants which can prevent from oxidative stress related diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Because the rice is consumed cooked, the effect of the cooking process on the antioxidative and antigenotoxic properties of rice is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of cooking on the antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of white rice (WR), brown rice (BR), and germinated brown rice (GBR). The antioxidant activities were measured for total phenolic content (TPC), DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH RSA), total antioxidant capacity (TRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The highest TPC was found in uncooked BR (18.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g). After cooking, the TPC of WR significantly increased, while the TPC of BR and GBR were reduced by 47.7% and 36.7%, respectively. The $IC_{50}$ for DPPH RSA was not significantly different in uncooked rice, while the DPPH RSA of WR and GBR decreased after cooking and the DPPH RSA of BR significantly increased. TRAP values in BR and GBR increased after cooking, while the value of WR decreased. The ORAC values of uncooked WR, BR, and GBR were 5.3, 4.3, and $3.9{\mu}M$ trolox equivalent at the concentration of $50{\mu}g/mL$. After cooking, the ORAC value of BR remained unchanged, while the value of GBR increased and the value of WR decreased. The antigenotoxic activities of WR, BR, and GBR were determined by measuring the inhibitory effects of $H_2O_2$-induced DNA damage on human leukocytes using the comet assay. The results showed that all rice tested showed a significant antigenotoxic effect against oxidative stress, except for the cooked white rice. Overall, our results indicate the addition of brown rice and/or germinated brown rice to cooked white rice is a good option for improving the benefits of rice.

Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Prickly Pear Cactus Cladodes (손바닥 선인장 엽상경의 품질 특성과 항산화 효과)

  • Hwang, Joon-Ho;Yi, Mi-Ran;Kim, Jae-Won;Bu, Hee-Jung;Kang, Chang-Hee;Lim, Sang-Bin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.356-362
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    • 2015
  • Prickly pear cactus cladodes were extracted with hot water and 70% ethanol, followed by fractionation with n-hexane (HF), ethyl acetate (EF), n-butanol (BF), and distilled water. Total phenolics and total flavonoid contents as well as antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities were then measured. Total phenolic contents were 784, 452, and 220 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, whereas total flavonoid contents were 214, 76, and 113 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g in EF, BF, and HF, respectively. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities ($IC_{50}$) were 103 and $105{\mu}g/mL$ in EF, 359 and $379{\mu}g/mL$ in BF, and 469 and $605{\mu}g/mL$ in HF, respectively. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was highest at $391{\mu}M$ TE in EF (in decreasing order of $117{\mu}M$ TE in BF and $64{\mu}M$ TE in HF), whereas superoxide anion radical scavenging activity ($IC_{50}$) was highest at $40{\mu}g/mL$ in EF (in decreasing order of $69{\mu}g/mL$ in BF and $98{\mu}g/mL$ in 70% ethanol extract). Inhibitory activity ($IC_{50}$) of nitric oxide (NO) production induced by LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells was highest at $62{\mu}g/mL$ in HF (in decreasing order of $104{\mu}g/mL$ in EF and $465{\mu}g/mL$ in BF). The selectivity index (ratio of inhibitory activity of NO production to cell cytotoxicity) was highest at 4.63 in EF (in decreasing order of 3.37 in HF and 2.14 in BF). In conclusion, EF showed potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects with high phenolic and flavonoid contents.

Antioxidant Properties and Ubiquinone Contents in Different Parts of Several Commercial Mushrooms (시판버섯의 부위별 항산화능과 유비퀴논 함량)

  • Hong, Myung-Hee;Jin, Yoo-Jeong;Pyo, Young-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.9
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    • pp.1235-1241
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    • 2012
  • Antioxidant properties and antioxidant compound contents in different parts of 14 commercial mushrooms were evaluated. Methanolic extracts from the entire mushroom, the pileus and the stipe, separately, were screened for their DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activities. Total ubiquinones (Coenzyme Qs; CoQs), total phenolic, and flavonoid contents were determined, in order to assess the extract's antioxidant activity. The portion of the mushroom selected had an effect on the results, with pileus methanolic extract exhibiting the greatest antioxidant effect (p<0.05). The analyzed mushrooms contained powerful antioxidants such as phenols (144.5~536.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents, mg GAE/100 g of dried weight, dw), flavonoids (3.7~31.2 mg of quercetin equivalents, mg QE/100 g dw) and ubiquinones (65.6~485.1 ${\mu}g$/100 g dw). Content of CoQ9 and CoQ10 in the 14 commercial mushrooms varied from 23.1 to 256.2 ${\mu}g$/100 g and from 16.1 to 238.3 ${\mu}g$/100 g, respectively. Phellinus linteus showed the highest antioxidant activity among all species due to the contribution of antioxidants such as phenols (530.5 mg GAE/100 g dw) and ubiquinones (308.8 ug/100 g dw). A positive linear correlation was demonstrated between free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic ($R^2=0.79$) and ubiquinone ($R^2=0.59$) contents in the pileus of mushrooms (p<0.05). Our data indicate that commercial mushrooms have potential as dietary sources of CoQs and phenolic antioxidants.

Comparison of Antioxidative Activities of Fuji Apples Parts according to Production Region (후지 사과의 산지에 따른 부위별 항산화 활성 비교)

  • Bang, Hye-Yeol;Cho, Sun-Duk;Kim, Dongman;Kim, Gun-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.557-563
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    • 2015
  • To observe the functionality of Fuji apples, this study compared and analyzed the general and anti-oxidative components of apples based on production region. This study found that DPPH radical scavenging activities among parts of apple from the Chungju region were 82.84% in peels, 26.98% in peel-flesh, and 18.89% in apple flesh, and these values were lower than those from other regions (P<0.01). Antioxidative was 48.64% in the apple core, which was higher than those in peel-flesh and apple flesh. ABTS radical scavenging activity was highest (79.80%) in peels of apples from the Andong region, whereas values in peel-flesh and apple flesh were highest in apples from the Yesan region (P<0.01). For antioxidative activities in the apple core, apples from the Chungju region showed more than twice the value (52.34%) of other regions. Phenol contents in peels were significantly high [12.03 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g] in apples from the Muju region, whereas phenol contents in peel-flesh were high (6.01 mg GAE/g) in those from the Andong region. Antioxidative activity in apple flesh was significantly high (5.57 mg GAE/g) in apples from the Yesan region. For antioxidative activities in the apple core, apples from Chungju region showed a relatively high value (6.53 mg GAE/g) (P<0.01), although values were low in apple peel, peel-flesh, and apple flesh. For the combined amount of flavonoids, values in apples from the Yesan region were high in apple peel, peel-flesh, and apple core [56.23 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g (P<0.01), 4.05 mg QE/g (P<0.05), and 4.00 mg QE/g (P<0.01), respectively], whereas flavonoid content in apples from the Andong region was high in apple flesh [4.35 mg QE/g (P<0.01)]. The results show that anti-oxidative activities were relatively higher in apple peel than flesh.

Quality Characteristics of Coffee Brewed from Green Beans Soaked in Mulberry (Morus bombycis) Extract (오디(Morus bombycis) 추출물 침지 커피의 품질 특성)

  • Lim, Hyun Hwa;Ji, Seokgeun;Kwak, Han Sub;Eom, Taekil;Kim, Misook;Lee, Youngseung;Do, Jae Wook;Yu, Sungryul;Choi, Geun Pyo;Jeong, Jin Il;Jeong, Yoonhwa
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.579-585
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of coffee soaked in Morus bombycis extract. Green coffee beans were soaked in M. bombycis extract for 2, 4, and 6 hours (sample codes: 2H, 4H, and 6H) at $4^{\circ}C$. Soaked green beans were dried and roasted for coffee extraction. Two controls, roasted with the same amount of heat (C1) and showed the same weight after roasting (C2), were used. Physicochemical characteristics (pH, total acidity, color, browning index, and total soluble solids), DPPH free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total polyphenol content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) were investigated. Lower pH and higher total acidity were observed in 2H, 4H, and 6H (P<0.05), supporting evidence of sour taste. There were significant differences in DPPH between the controls (45.51~47.02%) and samples (50.67~55.25%, P<0.05), although 2H and 6H did not show significantly higher DPPH than the controls. 2H, 4H, and 6H showed significantly higher FRAP values ($0.320{\sim}0.331\;FeSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O\;mM\;FeSO_4/g$) than controls ($0.265{\sim}0.271\;mM\;FeSO_4/g$). ORAC values of samples [1,062.86~1,153.68 mM trolox equivalent (TE)/g] were significantly higher than those of controls (689.40~942.12 mM TE/g). 2H, 4H, and 6H showed significantly higher TPC [24.27~26.07 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g] and TFC [3.75~4.28 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g] than controls (19.79~22.77 mg GAE/g and 1.07~1.95 mg QE/g, respectively) (P<0.05). M. bombycis extracts soaked into green coffee beans showed polyphenol compounds from green coffee beans. Consumer acceptance of 4H (5.12) was the highest, followed by C2 (4.92). C1 (4.14) showed the lowest consumer acceptance. Consumers were segmented into two groups, those who preferred M. bombycis extract-soaked coffee (approximately 61%) and controls (approximately 39%).

Differential Cytotoxicity of Penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose in Human Cancer and Normal Cell Lines of Various Origins (사람의 다양한 조직에서 기원하는 암세포 및 정상세포에 대한 penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose의 세포독성 효과)

  • Lee, Hyeon-Jeong;Kim, Min-Gyeong;Lee, Song-Yeong;Song, Min-Hyock;Kim, Yoon-Dong;Ha, Jeong-Sook;Jeong, Gie-Joon;Rho, Gyu-Jin;Jeon, Byeong-Gyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.11
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    • pp.1320-1329
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    • 2016
  • The present study examined the cytotoxic effects of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6-penta-O-galloyl-${\beta}$-D-glucose (PGG), known as the pentahydroxy gallic acid ester of glucose, in the various human cancer cell lines (A-549, MDA-MB-231, U87-MG, MCF-7 and PANC-1), normal MRC-5 fetal fibroblasts, and dental papilla tissue- derived mesenchymal stem cells (DPSCs). Significantly (p<0.05) lower half maximal inhibitory concentration ($IC_{50}$) values were observed in the A-549 and MDA-MB-231 cells showing a high proliferation capacity, compared with other cancer and normal cell lines with a relatively low proliferation capacity. The population doubling time (PDT) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the $10{\mu}M$ PGG-treated cell lines than those of untreated control cell lines. The present study demonstrated that the $IC_{50}$ value increases proportionally to the extending PDT. A high cell number with senescence-associated ${\beta}-galactosidase$ activity was also observed in the $10{\mu}M$ PGG-treated cells compared with those of untreated control cells. Moreover, the level of telomerase activity was significantly (p<0.05) decreased with $10{\mu}M$ PGG treatment, especially in A-549 and MDA-MB-231 cells showing a high proliferation capacity. Based on these observations, PGG could serve as a potent agent for cancer chemotherapy, as its treatment was more effective in cells with a high proliferation capacity.

Changes in Lignan Content and Antioxidant Activity of Fermented Sesame (Sesame indicum L.) by Cultivars (생물전환에 의한 품종별 참깨 발효물의 Lignan 함량과 항산화 활성 변화)

  • Jung, Tae-Dong;Shin, Gi-Hae;Kim, Jae-Min;Oh, Ji-Won;Choi, Sun-Il;Lee, Jin-Ha;Cho, Myoung-Lae;Lee, Sang Jong;Heo, In Young;Park, Seon Ju;Kim, Sung-Up;Jung, Chan-Sik;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.143-148
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated the lignan content, total phenol content, and antioxidant activities [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)] of fermented sesame by cultivars. The results showed that the lignan contents of fermented and non-fermented sesame ranged from 2.35~6.58 mg/g and 2.17 to 6.58 mg/g, respectively. The highest total phenol contents of fermented and non-fermented sesame were 51.90 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 25.94 mg GAE/g, respectively. DPPH radical scavenging and ORAC value ranged from 37.95 to 82.57% and from 172.34 to $1,067.80{\mu}M$ TE/g in non-fermented sesame and fermented sesame, respectively. Fermented sesame had higher lignan content, total phenol content and antioxidant activities. than those of non-fermented sesame. Fermented sesame subjected to bioconversion showed increased lignan content and high antioxidant activity.