• Title, Summary, Keyword: Gallic acid

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Inhibitory Effects of Apple Peel Extract on Inflammatory Enzymes (사과 과피 추출물의 염증 관련 효소 억제 효과)

  • Kim, Ilrang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.534-538
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological benefits of apple peel. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of a 70% ethanol extract of apple peel were examined. The total phenolic compound and flavonoid contents of apple peel were $6.8{\pm}0.5mg$ gallic acid equivalent/g of fresh weight and $3.3{\pm}0.3mg$ catechin equivalent/g of fresh weight, respectively. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of apple peel was $18.9{\pm}1.6$, $46.3{\pm}2.3$ and $58.1{\pm}3.9%$ at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL, respectively (p<0.05). The anti-inflammatory effect was investigated by measuring the inhibition of inflammatory enzymes. Apple peel significantly inhibited secretory phospholipase, cyclooxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and lipoxygenase activity by up to $53.5{\pm}2.3$, $13.4{\pm}1.8$, $64.8{\pm}5.4$ and $44.4{\pm}4.5%$, respectively (p<0.05). Taken together, these findings suggest that apple peel may act as an antioxidant by radical scavenging and may possess potential anti-inflammatory properties for suppressing the activity of inflammatory enzymes. These results also suggest that apple peel can be utilized as a health functional food ingredient possessing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Effect of aeration process on changes of prosapogenin content and antioxidant activity of red ginseng powder extract (Aeration 공정 처리가 홍삼분말 추출물의 프로사포게닌의 함량 변화와 항산화 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryu, Hee-Jeong;Jung, Chul-Jong;Seo, Jeong-Gyun;Li, Xian;Yu, Yeong-Eun;Beik, Gyung-Yun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.576-583
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    • 2019
  • The effect of aeration process in causing changes in the prosapogenin content and the antioxidant activity of red ginseng powder extracts was investigated. With respect to the color change of the extracts, the L-value and b-value decreased significantly with the lapse of extraction time both with and without the aeration process. The a-value increased with the lapse of the extraction time in the non-aeration process but decreased in the aeration process. This result suggests that when the aeration process was performed, the lightness, yellowness, and redness decreased with the lapse of the extraction time, resulting in a darker color. The total polyphenolic and total flavonoid contents were the highest at 0.84 and 0.96 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/mL, 21.77 and 21.93 mg GAE/mL at 24 h and 36 h, respectively for the aerated red ginseng powder extracts. The DPPH, ABTS, H2O2 scavenging activity, and reducing power were measured to confirm the antioxidant effects of red ginseng powder extracts after the aeration process. Thus, the antioxidant activity was increased in the aerated red ginseng powder extracts. In addition, when comparing the contents of Rb1, Rg1, and Rg3, the content of Rg3 was significantly different, and it was confirmed that a large amount was produced in the aerated red ginseng extracts. These results indicate that the red ginseng extracts subjected to the aeration process are superior than the ones processed by the non-aeration process.

Studies for Antibiotic Free Chicken Production Using Water Extracts from Artemisia capillaris and Camellia sinensis (인진쑥 및 녹차 추출물을 이용한 무항생제 닭고기 생산 연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Wook;Kim, Ji-Hyuk;Kang, Geun-Ho;Kang, Hwan-Ku;Park, Sung-Bok;Park, Jae-Hong;Bang, Han-Tae;Kim, Min-Ji;Na, Jae-Cheon;Chae, Hyun-Suk;Choi, Hee-Chul;Suh, Ok-Suk;Kim, Sang-Ho;Kang, Chang-Won
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.975-988
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    • 2010
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine whether water extracts from Artemisia capillaries (A. capillaries) and Camellia sinensis (C. sinensis) could be used as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in broiler feed. The experiment 1 was verified their chemical composition, extracts yields, total phenolic compounds concentration, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, and chicken splenocytes proliferation through in vitro test. The extract yields of A. capillaries and C. sinensis were 26.5 and 16.8%, respectively. Total phenolic compounds concentrations of them expressed as gallic acid equivalent were 15.28 and 26.74 mg/mL, respectively. Electron donating abilities of them expressed as $SC_{50}$ showing 50% DPPH radical scavenging were 0.30 and 0.06 mg, respectively. Bacterial inhibitory rates of them against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella Typhimurium were ranged from 42.1 to 52.3% and from 21.6 to 33.7%, respectively. And, these extracts increased proliferation of chicken splenocytes. Especially, A. capillaris was more excellent than Echinacea and Concanavalin A known as T-cell stimulator. The experiment 2 was investigated their effects on growth performance, relative organ weight, cecal microflora, blood biochemical parameters, and splenic cytokines mRNA expression in broiler chicks. Four hundred eighty 1-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were divided in to 4 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 30 birds in each group: NC (control, no antibiotics), PC (avilamycin, 10 ppm; salinomycin, 60 ppm), AC (A. capillaries, 100 ppm), and CS (C. sinensis, 100 ppm); treatments were administered through water supplementation. Final body weight was significantly higher in all treated groups than in NC (p<0.05). Cecal Salmonella numbers were significantly or somewhat decreased in all treated groups than in NC (p<0.05). The relative weights and lengths of the small intestine were more significantly decreased in the PC and AC groups than in the other groups. Cecal Salmonella numbers were significantly or somewhat decreased in all treated groups than in the NC group (p<0.05). The contents of total cholesterol, aspatate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in blood serum were more significantly decreased in all treated groups than in NC (p<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggested the possibility that these extracts could serve as alternatives for antibiotic growth promoters.