• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ganoderma lucidum

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Enhancement of Water-solubilities of Protein-bound Polysaccharides Contained in the Basidiocarps of Ganoderma lucidum by Hydrolyzing with Chymotrypsin

  • Park, Won-Bong;Cheong, Jae-Yeon;Jung, Won-Tae
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.423-428
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    • 1996
  • Optimum conditions for hydrolysis were investigated to enhance water-solubilities of protein-bound polysaccharides in the basidiocarps of Ganoderma lucidum by treating chymotrypsin. We also attempted with Ganoderma lucidum residue remaining after extracting hot water-soluble compoents in Ganoderma lucidum. After hydrolyzing under optimum conditions (20 ppm chymotrypsin, 2% Gampderma lucidum or 6% Ganoderma lucidum residue, at pH 10 and at $ 40^{\circ}C$), the amounts of total protein and carbohydrate of hydrolysate were measured. Michaelis constant, $K_{m}$, and maximum rate, $V_{max}$, calculated by Lineweaver-Buck plot for the hydrolysis of Ganoderma lucidum were 1.73% and 0.073%/min respectively and those for hydrolysis of Ganoderma lucidum residue were 2.40% and 0.033%/min respectively. The amount of polysaccharide isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (100 g) treated with chymotrypsin was only 3.07 g, but significantly increased amount (14.34 g) of polysaccharides was isolated from Ganoderma lucidum residue (100 g) treated with chymotrypsin. The protein-bound polysaccharide was isolated from the non-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed sample and molecular weights of the polysaccharide were measured by Sepharose CL-48 gel filtration.

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Conversion of water-insoluble components of the basidiocarps of ganoderma lucidum to water-soluble components by hydrolyzing with chitinase

  • Cheong, Jae-Yeon;Park, Won-Bong
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.326-334
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    • 1996
  • We investigated the optimum conditions for conversion of water-insoluble components of basidiocarps of Ganoderma lucidum to water-soluble components by hydrolyzing with chitinase. We also tried it with Ganoderma luciclum residue remaining after extracting hot water-soluble components of Ganoderma lucidum. After hydrolyzing under optimum conditions (20 ppm chitinase, 2% Ganoderma lucidum or 6% Ganoderma lucidum residue, at pH 3 and at $ 35^{\circ}C$), the contents of total water-soluble components (polysaccharide or protein) were measured, and it was found that the contents of water-soluble components increased to 1.5-2.7 fold. Michaelis constant, $K_m$ and maximum rate, $V_max$ calculated by Lineweaver-Burk plot for hydrolysis of Ganoderma lucidum were 1.75% and 0.02%/min respectively and those for hydrolysis of Ganoderma lucidum residue were 53.15% and 0.53%/min respectively The protein-bound polysaccharide was isolated after hydrolysis and molecular weights were measured by Sepharose CL-4B gel filtration and compared with the molecular weights of polysaccharide before hydrolysis.

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Free Amino Acids and Their Derivatives of Ganoderma lucidum (영지 버섯의 유리 아미노산 및 유도체에 관한 연구)

  • 이현아;김병각;현진원
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.67-72
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    • 2004
  • To find active components in Ganoderma lucidum, their free amino acid and free amino acid derivatives were analyzed. After extracting with hot water, the extracts were filtrated by three steps. So, supernatants below 10,000 dalton were obtained. Filtrates were derivativated with PITC (phenylthiocarbamyl) derivative reagent and PITC amino acid was obtained. Then, they were analyzed by RP-HPLC. 13 amino acids were analyzed in cultured Korean Nok-kak ji (one of Ganoderma lucidum), 15 amino acids in cultured Korean Ganoderma lucidum, 12 amino acids wild Ganoderma lucidum, 16 amino acids in cultured Taiwan Ganoderma lucidum.

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Anti-inflammatory activity of Ganoderma lucidum by inhibition of NF-κB p65 phosphorylation

  • Kim, Hyung Don;Park, Jeong-Yong;Noh, Hyung-Jun;Lee, Seung Eun;Lee, Jeong Hoon;Seo, Kyung Hye
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.653-660
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    • 2019
  • Ganoderma lucidum, an oriental polypore fungus and medicinal mushroom, has a long history of use for promoting health and longevity in Korea, China, and other Asian countries. This study was aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activity and mechanism of action of Ganoderma lucidum in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Ganoderma lucidum was extracted with ethanol and freeze-dried. The anti-inflammatory effect (nitrite production) of Ganoderma lucidum extracts was tested using a nitric oxide (NO) colorimetric assay. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to quantify the mRNA expression of cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ ($TNF-{\alpha}$), interleukin $(IL)-1{\beta}$, and IL-6. Western blotting was performed to measure the expression levels of inflammation-related proteins, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa B ($NF-{\kappa}B$) p65, and phosphorylated $NF-{\kappa}B$ p65. The NO colorimetric assay showed that NO production increased with the treatment of lipopolysaccharide in (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages and decreased with the cotreatment of Ganoderma lucidum extracts and LPS. Ganoderma lucidum extracts repressed the mRNA expressions of cytokines, which were increased after the LPS treatment. In addition, Ganoderma lucidum extracts inhibited the LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 and the LPS-induced phosphorylation of $NF-{\kappa}B$ p65. These results suggest that the Ganoderma lucidum extracts exert an anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting $NF-{\kappa}B$ related proteins and cytokines.

Effects of Ganoderma lucidum on the IL-1, TNF and IL-12 Gene Expression of Macrophages (영지버섯이 탐식세포의 IL-1, TNF 및 IL-12 유전자 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • 배지현
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.978-982
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    • 1997
  • In order to investigate the immunomodulatory mechanism of Ganoderma lucidum, the effects of protein-bound polysacchride of Ganoderma lucidum on the proliferation and cytokine gene expression of mouse peritoneal macrophages was studied. In the macrophage proliferation assay using the BrdU labeling reagent, the GLA component extracted from Ganoderma lucidum or GLB from the bud of Ganoderma lucidum were added to the medium at the concentration of 0 to 256ug/ml. DNA synthesis of the macrophage was increased at 16ug/ml of GLA and 64ug/ml of GLB, respectively. In the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR), the cytokine(TNF, IL-1, and IL-12) gene and $\beta$-actin expression were also analyzed. 20$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml of either GLA or GLB increased TNF and IL-1 expression of the macrophages.

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Comparison of Characteristics of Ganoderma lucidum According to Geographical Origins : Consideration of Growth Characteristics(I)

  • Kim, Hong-Kyu;Lee, Hee-Duck;Kim, Yong-Kyun;Han, Gyu-Hueng;Kim, Hong-Gi
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2001
  • Nine species of genus Ganoderma collected in Korea and abroad including Ganoderma lucidum complex and G. lucidum were compared by investigating growth characteristics. In the bottle culture, the mycelial growth periods of G. lucidum from Taiwan and North America was 26 to 30 days compared to that of Korean G. lucidum, which was 30 to 32 days. Cultivation period of Taiwan and North American isolates was 30 to 32 days which were 11 to 17 days shorter than those of Korean isolates. Biological efficiency of Taiwan and North American isolates were ranged from 3.3 to 5.5%, which were apparently lower than that of Korean isolates which ranged from 6.2 to 9.4%. Korean isolates had longer stipes($15{\sim}40$ mm) and more number of pileus($4{\sim}6$/bottle) than those of Taiwan and North American isolates. The G. lucidum isolates collected from Korea will be regarded as the independent species from the G. lucidum collected from Taiwan and North America since, the G. lucidum from Korea showed much different growth characteristics in various aspects compared to the G. lucidum from Taiwan and North America.

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Effect of Cell-Wall Broken Spores of Ganoderma lucidum(Leyss. ex.Fr.) Karst on the Lipid Accumulation and Body Weight Reduction in C57BL/6J Mice fed High-Fat Diet (파벽(破壁) 영지포자가 고지방식이 섭취 마우스의 지방축적 및 체중감량에 미치는 영향)

  • Pak, Kum-Ju;Kang, Jung Il;Kim, Tae-Seok;Lee, Sang-Yun;Yeo, Ik-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.346-353
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    • 2014
  • This study was performed to investigate the effects of cell-wall broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum on the lipid accumulation and body weight reduction in C57BL/6J mice. Six-week-old C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 5 groups and assigned to one of these groups; normal chew diet(Nor) group, high-fat diet(HFD) group, HFD plus spores of Ganoderma lucidum 800 mg/kg/day (HFD + GS/B) group, HFD plus cell-wall broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum 400 mg/kg/day (HFD + BGS/A) group and finally HFD plus cell-wall broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum 800mg/kg/day (HFD + BGS/B). The experimental groups which were treated oral co-administration with cell-wall broken(or original) spores of Ganoderma lucidum and HFD significantly attenuated accumulative body weight gain, compared with HFD group. Administration of these experimental materials also resulted in significant reduction not only the serum levels of total cholesterol, homocysteine but also the lipid accumulation in liver tissue. But in the almost of results the cell-wall broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum were evaluated superior than the original one. These results indicate that cell-wall broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum may inhibit the lipid accumulation in blood as well as liver tissue. Therefore it may be a valuable candidate for the therapy preventing obese induced hyperlipidemic symptoms.

Focus on anti-oxidative and free radical scavenging activity of Ganoderma lucidum

  • Lin, Zhi-Bin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.61-77
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    • 2004
  • Present review is built on base of research work on Ganoderma lucidum in our laboratory. A great deal of experimental evidence has suggested that the pharmacological activities of Ganoderma lucidum(Lingzhi) are related to anti-oxidative and free radical scavenging activity. The anti-oxidative and free radical scavenging effects of polysaccharides and triterpenoids isolated from Ganoderma lucidum in different oxidative injury models including tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBOOH)- damaged mice peritoneal macrophages, alloxan-induced diabetes, experimental liver injury models induced by carbon tetrachloride (CC14), D-galactosamine (DGal) and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin(BCG) plus lipopolysaccharides(LPS) were investigated. It is also demonstrated that Lugu lingzhi, one of Ganoderma product, significantly inhibited LDL oxidation mediated by endothelial cells and decreased monocyte adhesion to endothelial cell (EC) induced by Oxidative low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and advanced glycation endproducts(AGE). Lugulingzhi-treated serum could markedly inhibit the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-l (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-l (VCAM-1) induced by ox-LDL and AGE.

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Focus on Anti-Oxidative and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Ganoderma lucidum

  • Lin, Zhi-Bin
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.133-137
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    • 2004
  • Present review is built on base of research work on Ganoderma lucidum in our laboratory. A great deal of experimental evidence has suggested that the pharmacological activities of Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi) are related to anti-oxidative and free radical scavenging activity. The anti-oxidative and free radical scavenging effects of polysaccharides and triterpenoids isolated from Ganoderma lucidum in different oxidative injury models including tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBOOH)- damaged mice peritoneal macrophages, alloxan-induced diabetes, experimental liver injury models induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), D-galactosamine (DGal) and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) plus lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were investigated. It is also demonstrated that Lugu lingzhi, one of Ganoderma product, significantly inhibited LDL oxidation mediated by endothelial cells and decreased monocyte adhesion to endothelial cell (EC) induced by Oxidative low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and advanced glycation endproducts (AGE). Lugulingzhi-treated serum could markedly inhibit the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-l) induced by ox-LDL and AGE.

Purification and enzyme characteristics of laccase from Ganoderma lucidum (Ganoderma lucidum 균주에 의한 Laccase의 정제 및 효소적 특성)

  • 이재성;박경숙;박영도
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.139-143
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    • 1986
  • The production media and enzymatic characteristics of laccase from Ganoderma lucidum was investigated. Potato dextrose yeast extract media was proved to be the best for laccase production. The enzyme has optimum pH of 6.45km value of 6.71 mM and appeared to be stable at wide pH range. The enzyme was inactivated partially by methanol and ethanol and totally by sodium azide but not at all by acetone. Also the enzyme purification was performed and the data is given.

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