• Title, Summary, Keyword: Gardenia jasminoides yellow pigment

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Characteristics of the Conversion Pigment from Gardenia jasminoides Yellow Pigment (치자황색소로부터 변환된 색소의 특성)

  • Jeong, Hyung-Seok;Park, Keun-Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.319-323
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    • 1998
  • Conversion of Gardenia jasminoides yellow pigment into blue-green pigment by 8 bacterial species was examed. Bioconversion pattern can be categorized into three types according to absorption spectra characteristics. The same pattern of the value of ${\Delta}E$ estimated by color differencemeter was also observed. Conversion rate by S. epidermidis was faster than other bacterial species. It took 16 hour for S. epidermidis to convert pigment at $37^{\circ}C$. Gardenia jasminoides yellow pigment and conversion pigment were completely separated by Amberlite XAD column chromatography with $H_2O-MeOH$ solvent system. Storage stability of the conversion pigment was better than Gardenia jasminoides yellow pigment.

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Storage Stability of the Conversion Pigment from Gardenia jasminoides Yellow Pigment (치자황색소로부터 변환된 색소의 저장안정성)

  • Jeong, Hyung-Seok;Park, Keun-Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.106-109
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    • 1999
  • Storage stability of the blue-green pigment, which was converted from Gardenia jasminoides yellow pigment by Staphylococcus epidermides and Gardenia jasminoides yellow pigment, were investigated at various conditions of light, temperature, inorganic ion and pH, The factors that cause the discoloration were light and temperature $(above\;40^{\circ}C)$. The effects of light and temperature on storage stability of blue-green pigment were less than those of Gardenia jasminoides yellow pigment. Also, the effect of light was decreased by using green filter. There were no significant effects of pH and inorganic ion on both pigments.

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Conversion Patterns of Yellow Pigment from Gardenia jasminoides by Staphylococcus epidermidas and Lactobacillus plantarum (Staphylococcus epidermidas와 Lactobacillus plantarum에 의한 치자황색소의 변환양상)

  • Jeong, Hyung-Seok;Park, Keun-Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.1184-1187
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    • 1999
  • The Gardenia jasminoides yellow pigment and converted pigments were completely separated by Amberlite XAD-4 column chromatography. These Pigments were gel filtrated on Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The characteristics of absorption spectra of eluate and fractionated pigments were investigated. The pigment converted by Lactobacillus plantarum showed a single blue color with an absorption peak at 588 nm and its molecular size was bigger than that of crocetin. The pigment, converted by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Showed blue-green color, which was composed of yellow color with an absorption peak at 418 nm and blue color at 588 nm. Molecular size of the yellow pigment was smaller than crocetin and that of blue color.

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Characterization and Stability of Gardenia Jasminoides Biotransformed Pigment Produced in Jar Fermentor (Jar Fermentor에서 생산된 치자 생물변환 색소의 특성 및 안정성)

  • Kim, Seon-Jae;Jang, Hong-Gi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.880-884
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    • 2005
  • Yellow pigment of Gardenia jasminoides was converted into new pigment by whole-cell biotransformation of thirteen different microbial species. The color value of the biotransformed pigment, which was produced by Streptococcus mutans MK-34, was higher than those of other biotransformed pigments. The biotransformed pigment produced by S. mutans MK-34 dispalyed an characteristic absorption peak at 588 nm and the absorption value increased during the incubation in a jar fermentor. The effects of light and temperature $(60^{\circ}C)$ on storage stability of the biotransformed pigment were investigated. As a result, the biotransformed pigments produced by Streptococcus mutans and Bacillus subtilis were more stable than Gardenia jasminoides yellow pigment during storage.

Suspension Culture of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis Cell for Production of Yellow Pigment

  • Kim, Sang-Hwa;Park, Young-Goo;Lee, Yong-Hyun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.142-149
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    • 1991
  • Gardenia callus was induced in MS medium containing $10{\;}{\mu}M$ of 2,4 diphenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), $1{\;}{\mu}M$ kinetin, and 3% sucrose in the dark. $B_5$ medium was identified to be the most adequate medium for cell growth. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was better growth regulator than 2,4-D not only for cell growth but slso for carotenoid production. Ligt also played a critical role on synthesis of carotenoid. Gardenia cells grown in $B_5$ medium could utilize a polysaccharide, soluble starch, as a carbon source. The cell growth was stimulated in $B_5$ medium fortified with 0.2% yeast extract. The optimum pH for cell growth was 5.7. High density cultures can be maintained by increasing inoculum size and medium concentration accordingly. Specific growth rate and mass doubling time were 0.095 $day^{-1}$ and 7.3 days, respectively. The cell immobilized in alginate tends to formulate more enlarged vacuoles containing yellow pigment compared with those of suspended cell. Carotenoid content of immobilized cell was about $264.4{\;}{\mu}g/g$ fresh weight (F.W.) corresponding twice of the content of suspended cell ($112.08{\;}{\mu}g/g$ F.W.). The color of gardenia cell was shifted from yellow to red when carbohydrase-secreting fungus, Trichoderma reesei, was co-cultivated with gardenia cells.

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Mutagenic Test of Gardenia Yellow Pigment (치자 황색색소에 대한 변이원성 시험)

  • 김희구
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.72-76
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    • 1998
  • Gardenia yellow pigment produced by Gardenia jasminoides Ellis was tested for reverse mutagenic test in Salmonella typhimurium stains TA1535, TA1537, TA98 and TA100 at concentrations raging form 6.25 to 200$\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ per plate. No significant reverse mutagenic activity was observed in any of the S. typhimurium strains, in either presence or absence of S9 mix. There was no toxicity to the bacteria. These result indicate that yellow pigment doesn't have mutagenicity.

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A Trend in Research and Development of Natural Gardenia Pigments (천연 치자 색소의 연구개발 동향)

  • Shin, Hyun-Jae
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.271-277
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    • 2007
  • Natural pigments have many applications like colouring agent, pigments, food additives, and antiseptics. At present, instead of synthetic pigments that have contributed to the development of industry, many kinds of natural pigments have been developed. The constituents of gardenia fruits, Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS, are traditionally known as herb medicine and natural dyes/pigments due to the customer is needs. The fruits produce yellow carotenoid pigments and iridoid compounds. The two main components in the yellow pigments are called crocin and crocetin. The extraction mode of yellow pigment from Gardenia is depended upon the extraction time, temperature, and volume of solvent. Red pigments or blue pigments formed from geniposide and amino acids have been reported a lot. Geniposide, the principal iridoid glucoside contained in gardenia fruit, was hydrolyzed to genipinic acid or genipin as a precursor for the pigment by enzymatic or chemical reaction. These red or blue pigments prepared with materials hydrolyzed of geniposide and amino acid and had properties governed by the electrostatic character of the amino acid. The pigments showed good stability to heat and pH but were gradually bleached by light while the other natural pigments are unstable in light, heat, acid, and base solution. The safety of the pigments was considered to be of little virulences in comparison to synthetic pigments.

Antibacterial Activity of Soluble Extracts of Gardenia jasminoides against Mycobacteria Other Than Tubercle Bacilli (치자(梔子) 수용성 추출액의 결핵균 외의 기타 Mycobacteria에 대한 항균작용)

  • Choi, Chul-Soon;Shin, Seung-Shik;Chung, Sang-In;Yang, Yong-Tae
    • The Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 1986
  • An attempt was made to verify the antibacterial activities of the soluble extracts of Gardenia jasminoides(SEGJ) against mycobacteria other than tubercle bacilli (MOTT); M. kansasii, M. scrofulaceum, M. simiae, M. szulgai, M.xenopi, M. avium-intracellulare complex, M. gordonae and M. flarescens. In addition, the effect of the SEGJ on the yellow pigmentation and violet pigmentation (crocin reaction) of the colonies of the MOTT grown on7H10-crocin agar plates was observed. The SEGJ gave a growth stimulatory activity against most species of mycobacteria except for M. szulgai at low concentration of the SEGJ in terms of crocin pigment OD=0.02 or less, but exerted an inhibitory activity at high concentration of OD=0.04 or more. The growth-inhibitory activity of the SEGJ was dose-dependent but the yellow pigmentation of the scotochromogens was not affected by the dose of the SEGJ that was growth-inhibitory. Crocin positive reaction was observed only with M. kansasii.

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Studies on the Natural Pigments (Part I) -Contents and Properties of Gardenia Jasminoides Ellis Pigment- (천연색소(天然色素)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)제1보(第一報) -치자색소(梔子色索)의 함량(含量) 및 성질(性質)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)-)

  • Kim, Dong-Yun;Kim, Kwan
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.98-101
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    • 1975
  • The components of Gardenia pigment in rind, flesh, fresh fruit and stored fruit, its heat resistance and stability in pH, its dilution and colour-degree were studied. The results are summarized as follows; 1. The components of CROCIN in fresh fruit and stored fruit were 0.0157% and 0.0136% respectively. One year storage of stored fruit resulted in the decrease of 15% of CROCIN. 2. The components of Gardenia pigment in flesh were contained nearly twice as much as in rind. 3. There were traces of ${\beta}-carotene$ and some unknown carotenoid pigments. 4. Gardenia pigment was stable at $100^{\circ}C$ for 60 minutes, but, at $150^{\circ}C$ for 30 minutes, nearly half of them was destructed. 5. Gardenia pigment turned to colurless but was stable in neutral or alkali condition after 10 days. 6. Supercially, dark Gardenia pigment looked yellowish red and thin Gardenia pigment looked yellow: however, each ${\lambda}_{max}$. was all the same.

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