• Title, Summary, Keyword: Gastrocnemius

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Relationship of Ankle Dorsiflexion and Gastrocnemius Tightness and Posterior Talar Glide

  • Kang, Min Hyeok
    • Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.1517-1520
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    • 2018
  • It has been reported that gastrocnemius tightness and posterior talar glide are crucial factors influencing ankle dorsiflexion. However, the relationship of ankle dorsiflexion and these factors is not identified in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship of ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion and gastrocnemius tightness and posterior talar glide. Twenty-five male subjects participated in this study. Bilateral weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion and amount posterior talar glide of participants were measured using an inclinometer. Change in myotendinous junction of medial gastrocnemius was measured using ultrasonography to identify gastrocnemius tightness. Pearson product moment correlations were performed to examine correlations between ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion and gastrocnemius tightness and posterior talar glide. Present findings revealed significant correlation between ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion and gastrocnemius tightness (p=0.017, r=0.336). Also, ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion was correlated with posterior talar glide (p=0.001, r=0.470). The present findings provide experimental evidence for factors influencing weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion.

Effects of Intermittent Sciatic Nerve Stimulation on the Soleus and Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle Atrophy in Hindlimb Suspended Rats

  • Park, Byung-Rim;Cho, Jung-Shick;Kim, Min-Sun;Chun, Sang-Woo
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.159-166
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    • 1992
  • The present study was designed to evaluate effects of intermittent electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve on the atrophic response of antigravity muscles, such as the soleus (slow m.) and medial gastrocnemius (fast m.) muscles. Rats (Sprague-Dawley, 245-255g) were subjected to a hindlimb suspension and divided into three groups : one was with hindlimb suspension (MS) and another with hindlimb suspension plus intermittent electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (HS ES). Control group (CONT) was kept free without strain of the hindlimb. After 7 days of hindlimb suspension, the soleus and medial gastrocnemius muscles were cut at their insertion sites, and were then connected to the force transducer to observe their mechanical properties. Optimal pulse width and frequency of electrical stimulation were 0.2ms, 20Hz for the soleus muscle and 0.3ms, 40Hz for the medial gastrocnemius muscle under supramaximal stimulation. Body weight and circumference of the hindlimb were significantly decreased in HS and HS-ES groups compared with the control group. In HS-ES group, however, the weight of the soleus muscle was not different from that in the control group while the weight of the medial gastrocnemius muscle was lower than that in the control group. In HS group, mechanical properties of muscle contraction including contraction time, half relaxation time, twitch tension, tetanic tension, and fatigue index of both muscles were significantly decreased compared with the control group except for twitch tension and tetanic tension of medial gastrocnemius muscle. The degree of atrophy of the soleus muscle in HS group was more prominent than that of the medial gastrocnemius muscle. Twitch tension and fatigue index of the soleus muscle and fatigue index of the medial gastrocnemius muscle in HS-ES group were not different from those of the control group. While mechanical properties of the soleus muscle examined were all significantly increased in HS-ES group compared with HS group, only contraction time and fatigue index of the medial gastrocnemius muscle were significantly increased in HS-ES group. These data indicate that intermittent electrical stimulation may be useful in prevention of muscle atrophy.

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The Protective Effects of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim Pharmacopuncture on Disuse Muscle Atrophy in Rat Gastrocnemius Muscle

  • Chung, Yeon Joong;Lee, Yun Kyu;Lee, Bong Hyo;Kim, Jae Soo;Lee, Hyun-Jong
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.238-244
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    • 2019
  • Background: This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim pharmacopuncture on disuse muscle atrophy in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Methods: Thirty male 250 g Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed randomly into 3 groups. The left hindlimb immobilization was performed with casting tape for 2 weeks, and no treatment was given to the right hindlimb. Rats received pharmacopuncture and were injected daily on the BL57 with either 2 mL of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim aqueous extract (ZM-W group), 1 mL pharmacopuncture of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim ethanol extract (ZM-E group), or 2 mL normal saline (control group). After 2 weeks of immobilization, the weight of the whole gastrocnemius muscle was measured, and the morphology of both the left and the right gastrocnemius muscles were assessed by Hematoxylin and Eosin staining. To investigate the immobilization-induced muscular apoptosis, the immunohistochemical analysis of BAX and Bcl-2 was carried out. Results: ZM-W and ZM-E significantly inhibited the reduction in weight of the left gastrocnemius muscle, the reduction in the left myofibrils, and the cross-sectional area of gastrocnemius, as compared with the control. Moreover, the ZM-W and ZM-E groups showed significantly reduced immunoreactivity for BAX, and increased immunoreactivity of Bcl-2 in left gastrocnemius muscle compared with the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim pharmacopuncture has protective effects against immobilization-induced muscle atrophy by regulating the activity of apoptosis-associated BAX / Bcl-2 proteins in the gastrocnemius muscle.

Soft Tissue Coverage Using a Combined Gastrocnemius-medial Sural Artery Perforator Flap (비복근 - 내측 비복 동맥 천공지 복합 피판을 이용한 연부조직 재건)

  • Lee, Jae-Hoon;Son, Eun-Suck
    • Archives of Reconstructive Microsurgery
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2008
  • Medial gastrocnemius flap has been known as a useful option for soft tissue reconstruction of the knee and upper 1/3 of lower extremity, but it has a limitation to cover the lateral defect of the knee joint. We performed the combined gastrocnemius-medial sural artery perforator flap for coverage of the anterolateral defects of the knee joint, which is compound flap using a medial gastrocnemius flap and a medial sural artery perforator flap. This flap is a useful method for reconstruction of anterolateral knee defects, providing a easy dissection without the microsurgery and intramuscular dissection of the perforators.

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Effect of Adjuvant Administration on Gastrocnemius Atrophy Induced by Ankle Joint Fixation in Rats (흰쥐 발목고정으로 유발된 비복근 위축에서 보조약물 투여가 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Bumhoi;Lee, Taesik
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Integrative Medicine
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.49-55
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    • 2017
  • Purpose : In this study we tested the hypothesis that eucommia ulmoides (EU) extract would improve disuse-induced muscle atrophy following hindlimb immobilization. Method : The hindlimb immobilization was performed with casting tape to keep the left ankle joint in a fully extended position. The rats in EU treated group were orally administrated with eucommia ulmoides water extract. After 2 weeks of immobilization, all animals were sacrificed, and the whole gastrocnemius muscles were dissected from both legs. The morphology of right and left gastrocnemius muscles in both EU and control groups were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results : Eucommia ulmoides extract represented the significant protective effects against the reductions of the gastrocnemius muscles weight and average cross section area to compared with Control group. Conclusion : Eucommia ulmoides has protective effects against immobilization induced muscle atrophy.

The Effects of Stimulation of Acupuncture Point ST36 on Disuse Muscle Atrophy in Rats (흰쥐 발목관절고정으로 유발된 장딴지근 위축에 경혈점 자극이 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Bumhoi;Lee, Taesik
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Integrative Medicine
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.75-82
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    • 2018
  • Purpose : The present study tested the hypothesis that acupressure at Zusanli(ST36) would attenuate immobilization-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. Methods : The left hind limb was immobilized using casting tape (ST36 group, n=10), and the animals were then treated daily with a pressure needle at ST36. Ten untreated animals with hind limb immobilization and no treatment served as a control group (n=10). After 2 weeks of immobilization, The body weight changes of rats were evaluated and the morphologies of the right and left gastrocnemius muscles in both the ST36 and control groups were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) of gastrocnemius muscles were observed. Results : The acupressure at the accupoint of Zusanli conferred significant protection against reductions in left gastrocnemius muscle weights and average cross-sectional muscle areas in the ST36 group as compared with those in the control group. Moreover, the acupressure at the ST36 point significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in the gastrocnemius muscles as compared with that in the control group. Conclusion : These results suggest that acupressure at the accupoint of Zusanli provides protection against immobilization-induced muscle atrophy by decreasing MDA activity in gastrocnemius muscles.

Immediate Effect of Sustained Stretching Exercises with Far Infrared on the Ankle Range of Motion and Muscle Tone in Patients with Stroke

  • Youn, Pong Sub;Park, Shin Jun
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.56-61
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: The spasticity of stroke patients decreases the ankle range of motion and increases the gastrocnemius muscle tone. This study examined the effects of stretching exercise and far infrared irradiation on the ankle function in stroke patients with spasticity. Methods: This study was conducted on 20 stroke patients admitted to Jesaeng General Hospital, who were divided into a study group (stretching exercise with far infrared) and control group (stretching exercise only). The dorsiflexion range of motion was measured using a smartphone and the medial gastrocnemius muscle tone and stiffness were measured using a Myoton pro. Results: With the exception of the non-paretic gastrocnemius muscle tone in the control group, the medial gastrocnemius muscle tone and stiffness decreased significantly in both groups. In both groups, the dorsiflexion range of motion increased significantly. In addition, the experimental group had a significantly higher dorsiflexion range of motion than the control group. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the medial gastrocnemius muscle tone and stiffness. Conclusion: For stroke patients with spasticity, stretching exercises increased the ankle's range of motion and decreased the gastrocnemius muscle tone. The addition of heat therapy further increased the ankle's range of motion. On the other hand, as the sample size was small, future studies should include more subjects.

The Effects of Virtual Reality Based Treadmill Training on the Muscle Architecture of Gastrocnemius in Chronic Stroke Patients : Randomized Controlled Trial

  • Cho, KiHun
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of virtual reality based treadmill training on muscle architecture of gastrocnemius in chronic stroke patients. Methods: Thirty chronic stroke patients were randomly assigned to either the virtual reality based treadmill training (VRTT) group (n=15) or treadmill training (TT) group (n=15). Both groups participated in a standard rehabilitation program; in addition, the VRTT group participated in virtual reality based treadmill training for 30 minutes per day, three times per week, for 6 weeks, and TT group participated in treadmill walking training for 30 minutes per day, three times per week, for 6 weeks. Ultrasound image was used for measurement of pennation angle and muscle thickness of the medial gastrocnemius muscle at rest and during maximum voluntary contraction. Results: In the paretic side medial gastrocnemius muscle, greater improvement on the pennation angle and muscle thickness while resting and maximal voluntary contraction were observed in the VRTT group compared with the TT group. Conclusion: Findings of this study demonstrated that the virtual reality based treadmill training has an effect on muscle architecture of medial gastrocnemius in chronic stroke patients.

Repetitive Dorsi-Plantar Flexion Exercises in Ankle Joint have Effects on the Muscle Tones of Triceps, Vastus Medialis and Gastrocnemius

  • Moon, Sang-Eun;Kim, Mi-Hwa;Ko, Young-In
    • Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.274-280
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    • 2011
  • This study was designed to analyze repetitive dorsiflexion and plantarflexion exercises in ankles have effects on the muscle tones of triceps, vastus medialis and gastrocnemius. 25 healthy woman volunteers(ankle dorsiflexion exercise group: 13, ankle plantarflexion exercise group: 12) participated in the two ankle exercise models, which have performed 3 times a week for 3 weeks. Myotonometer was used to measure the muscle tones of the triceps, vastus medialis, gastrocnemius muscles, and measurements were performed before and after the application of the each exercise model. Repeated measured paired t-test and independent t-test was used to determine a statistical significance. The group of repetitive dorsiflexion exercise of the ankle have effects on the muscle tones of triceps, vastus medialis and gastrocnemius (p>.05). The group of repetitive plantarflexion exercise of the ankle have effects on the muscle tones of triceps, vastus medialis and gastrocnemius(p>.05). The groups of repetitive dorsiflexion and plantarflexion exercise of the ankle have effects on the muscle tones of triceps, vastus medialis and gastrocnemius(p>.05).

Green Tea Maintains Antioxidative Defense Enzyme Activities and Protects Against Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Gastrocnemius Muscles After Aerobic Exercise

  • Chai, Young-Mi;Rhee, Soon-Jae
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.377-382
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    • 2003
  • This study investigated the effects of green tea on the muscle antioxidative defense system in the white & red gastrocnemius muscles of rats after aerobic exercise. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150 10 g were randomly assigned to a control group, non-exercise with green tea group (G group), and exercise training group. The exercise training group was then further classified as the training (T) group and training with green tea (TG) group, the latter of which was supplemented with green tea in the drinking water during the experimental period. The rats in the exercise training groups (T and TG) were subjected to aerobic exercise on a treadmill 30 min/day at a speed of 28 m/min (7% incline) 5 days/week, while the other groups (control and G group) were cage confined for 4 weeks. Thereafter, the rats were sacrificed with an injected overdose of pentobarbital just after running. In the white muscle, the xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities were 71 % higher in the T group compared to control group, whereas the TG group had the same activity as the control group. The XOD activities in the red gastrocnemius muscle exhibited the same tendency as in the white muscle. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the white muscle was lower in the T group compared with the control group, yet significantly higher in the TG group compared with the T group. The SOD activities in the red gastrocnemius muscle exhibited the same tendency as in the white gastrocnemius muscle. The glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) activities in the white & red gastrocnemius muscles were 43 % lower in the T group compared with the control group, yet the activities in the TG group remained at control levels. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in the white muscle was not significantly different among any of the three groups, but in the red gastrocnemius muscle, the TG group had the same activity as in the control group. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) contents in the white & red gastrocnemius muscles were higher in the T group than in the control but the control and TG groups had the same concentrations of TBARS. In conclusion, the supplementation of green tea in rats subjected to aerobic exercise was found to reduce the peroxidation of muscle lipids by enhancing the antioxidative defense mechanism.